Wednesday, June 26, 2019

News about Life.

A lot of news are here. Robert Mueller will testify before Congress on July 17, 2019. It took long negotiations and a subpoena to make this event to happen. The Mueller report is not an ordinary report. It deals with corruption and future of our democracy. It purely documents how Russian intelligence figures harmed election processes in America, and it factually exposed multiple incidents of Trump obstructing justice. Today is the big day of the first Democratic primary debate among 10 candidates today and 10 other candidates tomorrow. The major theme of the debates deal with not only about Trump, but the future of Democratic party. The Democratic Party could reverse course and be like the 1990's corporate Wall Street and centrist nonsense that doesn't adequately address poverty, health care, education, etc. The Democratic Party can go to the other path which leads to progressive solutions like universal pre-K, universal health care, affordable education, eliminating college debt, and using investments to rebuild urban plus rural communities. The debates takes place in Miami. The most popular candidates want to solidify their leads while the more unknown candidates want their presence more thoroughly represented. The Third Way moderates are not only retrograde ideologically, but their solutions won't work. Moderation is wrong, since we live in a time of emergency. Massive problems require revolutionary solutions not middle of the road rhetoric. Social Security, the Civil Rights Act, and the Voting Rights Act transpired to promote progressive (not centrist) change in our world.

Trump lacks character. When a woman named E. Jean Carroll accused Trump of rape recently, Trump said that she is not her "type." That is disrespectful to any victim of rape. Rape is about assault and the brutal victimization of an innocent human being. The GOP mostly are silent since many of them care more for political power than the victims of rape. Trump admitted that he assaults women from that Access Hollywood tape. Therefore, no one should vote for Trump. A voter for Trump is someone who has no respect for honesty and truth. Recently, the Brennan report and other sources have documented the DHS monitoring progressive activists who are anti-Trump. This has been discovered by an FOIA (Freedom of Information Act) request. People found that the DHS monitor social media data from political protests to other demonstrators against corrupt policies. DHS has worked with private firms to find social media information. The Nation reported on these facts too. My message is that we won't be silenced in our views against Trump's agenda, and we will advance our constitutional rights of the freedom of speech & the freedom of assembly.

The recent events in South Bend, Indiana certainly represents the need of conversation and action. Action comes about as a result of talking, planning, and an execution of comprehensive change. Mayor Buttegieg has been criticized by many in the South Bend community because of his response. African Americans have every right to express great frustrations about the status quo. Many cops have complete privilege in support, given the benefit of the doubt, and other things that an ordinary citizen doesn't have. Biden still justifies his remarks. Biden's words have been criticized by Booker and De Blasio. Other candidates have outlined their proposals. The Democrats are in a crossroads. The progressives and the moderates are debating each other for the future of the Democrats. The debates are coming up in Wednesday and Thursday among 20 candidates.

About 100 migrant kids are moved back to a Texas border facility that has horrendous conducts. The world is watching. The image of a drowned father and his daughter described the migrants' desperate struggle to escape poverty and oppression. Trump has cut aid to Central American nations. There is a bill in Congress that deals with the issue. Trump is known for his hatred of immigrants and his racism. Trump promotes inhumane policies. There is no excuse for children (I don't care what color they are) to experience lack of sanitation, lack of soap, lack of toothpaste, and areas filled with disease. There are stories of children taking care of children, and African immigrants at the border too. Infants have found to have died as well. The immigrants are fleeing war zones in Central America. It is immoral for anyone to advocate to indefinitely detain migrant people. The situation in Central America existed as a product of decades of U.S. imperialist policies and authoritarian rulers harming the lives of people in Central America. Certainly, legal attorneys, doctors, and humanitarian aid should be sent to the region in America now. Trump trying to intentionally bring back the children into such a disgusting facility shows his callous agenda.

Yesterday was the Birthday of a person who is an ambassador of basketball. He is a well known humanitarian. His name is Brother Dikembe Mutombo, and he is 53 years old. He was born at Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. He is one of 12 children. He can speak fluent English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and the five Central African languages. He came into college at America by the age of 21. He excelled at Georgetown University with the coach John Thompson. Mutombo has degrees in linguistics and diplomacy. During his early career, he played for the Denver Nuggets. He used his finger after he blocked shots to represent his own style. He was the Defensive Player of the Year during one year. He played for the Atlanta Hawks and the Philadelphia 76ers. Mutumbo constantly helps Africa, the Special Olympics, and other health care causes. He has invested money to create a hospital in Africa. He has done so much for so many human beings. He is one of the greatest basketball players in history, and we appreciate his altruism. He loves his wife and children. I wish Brother Dikembe Mutombo more blessings.

By Timothy

Monday, June 24, 2019

On Sports.

The world's most popular sport is soccer or football. It involves teams playing with a spherical ball. The two teams have 11 players. Worldwide, soccer is played in over 200 countries and dependencies. The number of players include 250 million human beings globally. The teams play in a rectangular field called a pitch. A goal are at each end of a field. The game of soccer desires both teams to score as many goals as possible. Soccer has existed during ancient times. The modern game came about in 1863 with the Laws of the Game which was codified in England by the Football Association. In soccer, players can't touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play. The only exception is when the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Players other than the goalkeepers, can use mainly their feet to strike or pass the ball. They may use other parts of their bodies to do so except for the hands and arms. The team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football (FIFA; French: Fédération Internationale de Football Association), which organized World Cups for both men and women every four years. In the 21st century, there has been a further increase of the popularity of soccer. Soccer is a cousin to American football and rugby football. America also saw a resurgence of soccer popularity too. Soccer is not only an international game filled with skill, strategy, and talent. It has unified people for generations succinctly.

The ball used in soccer is spherical. It has a circumference of between 68 and 70 cm. (27 and 28 inches). It has a weight in the range of 210 to 450 grams (14 to 16 oz), and it has a pressure between 0.6 and 1.1 bars (or 8.5 and 15.6 pounds per square inch at sea level). The length of the pitch, or field, for international adult matches is in the range of 100–110 m (110–120 yd) and the width is in the range of 64–75 m (70–80 yd). Fields for non-international matches may be 90–120 m (100–130 yd) in length and 45–90 m (50–100 yd) in width, provided that the pitch does not become square. In 2008, the IFAB initially approved a fixed size of 105 m (115 yd) long and 68 m (74 yd) wide as a standard pitch dimension for international matches; however, this decision was later put on hold and was never actually implemented. The longer boundary lines are touchlines, while the shorter boundaries (on which the goals are placed) are goal lines. A rectangular goal is positioned at the middle of each goal line.The inner edges of the vertical goal posts must be 24 feet (7.3 m) apart, and the lower edge of the horizontal crossbar supported by the goal posts must be 8 feet (2.4 m) above the ground. Nets are usually placed behind the goal, but are not required by the Laws. The penalty area is in front of the goal. The penalty area has a goal line. The 2 lines start on the goal line 18 yards from the goalposts and extends 18 yards into the pitch perpendicular to the goal line (and a line joining them). Clothing in soccer are loose and shoes are designed to handle movement and hitting the ball as well.

The rules of the game are specific. The team with the most goals win. There are 2 teams of 11 players. If both team scored an equal number of goals, then the game is a a draw. Each team is led by a captain who has only one official responsibility as mandated by the Laws of the Game to represent their team in the coin toss before to kick off or penalty kicks. The primary law is that players other than goalkeepers may not deliberately handle the ball with their hands or arms during play, though they must use both their hands during a throw-in restart. Although players usually use their feet to move the ball around they may use any part of their body (notably, "heading" with the forehead) other than their hands or arms. Within normal play, all players are free to play the ball in any direction and move throughout the pitch, though players may not pass to teammates who are in an offside position. Players dribble the ball in order to try to make a goal. Physical contact in soccer is restricted as compared to American football. Games can be stopped by the referee or when the ball left the field of play. Broadly, these include three main categories: strikers, or forwards, whose main task is to score goals; defenders, who specialize in preventing their opponents from scoring; and midfielders, who dispossess the opposition and keep possession of the ball to pass it to the forwards on their team. Players in these positions are referred to as outfield players, to distinguish them from the goalkeeper. These positions are further subdivided according to the area of the field in which the player spends most time. For example, there are central defenders, and left and right midfielders. The ten outfield players may be arranged in any combination. The number of players in each position determines the style of the team's play; more forwards and fewer defenders creates a more aggressive and offensive-minded game, while the reverse creates a slower, more defensive style of play. While players typically spend most of the game in a specific position, there are few restrictions on player movement, and players can switch positions at any time.

The layout of a team's players is known as a formation. Defining the team's formation and tactics is usually the prerogative of the team's manager. There are 17 laws in the official Laws of the Game, each containing a collection of stipulation and guidelines. The same laws are designed to apply to all levels of football, although certain modifications for groups such as juniors, seniors, women and people with physical disabilities are permitted. The laws are often framed in broad terms, which allow flexibility in their application depending on the nature of the game. The Laws of the Game are published by FIFA, but are maintained by the International Football Association Board (IFAB). In addition to the seventeen laws, numerous IFAB decisions and other directives contribute to the regulation of football. A number of players may be replaced by substitutes during the course of the game. The maximum number of substitutions permitted in most competitive international and domestic league games is three in ninety minutes with each team being allowed one more if the game should go into extra-time, though the permitted number may vary in other competitions or in friendly matches. Common reasons for a substitution include injury, tiredness, ineffectiveness, a tactical switch, or timewasting at the end of a finely poised game. In standard adult matches, a player who has been substituted may not take further part in a match. Video replay can investigate plays. Referees officiate the game.

A match usually have two halves of 45 minutes each.  The halves run continuously without stopping. There is a 15 minute break between halves. The end of the match is called full time. The referee is the timekeeper for the match. Some matches have a penalty shootout to decide the winner if a mach ends in a draw. When a ball is out of play, it is restarted by eight restart methods called: kick off, throw in, goal kick, corner kick, indirect free kick, direct free kick, penalty kick, and dropped ball. A yellow card is a caution for players who violate the rules. A red card is when a play is kicked out of the game for misconduct. In our time, the game of soccer is still very strong and influential.

By Timothy

Friday, June 21, 2019


BAR Book Forum: Nemata Blyden’s “African Americans and Africa”

Debt Forgiveness and Free Tuition.

Friday Updates in Late June of 2019.

A U.S. drone was shot down by Iranian forces. Trump said that it was found in international waters while Iran said that it was in Iranian airspace. Trump is less hawkish than Bolton. Even back in 2003, when I was in college, Bolton promoted war against Iraq and Iran. Bolton is a true believer in neo-conservative foreign policy views. Therefore, there are meetings to figure out the future. Hopefully, no war exists. Likewise, we have to prepare for anything. Foreign policy is complicated, and it requires the embrace of nuisance and sober reasoning. Lawmakers are being briefed on the Iranians situation too. Donald Trump almost send airstrikes to attack Iran, but at the last minute, he called the proposed bombing campaign off. There is controversy with Joe Biden. The reason is that Biden said that he was willing to even work with a segregationist like Eastland in order to get civil rights policy passed. Cory Booker called for Biden to apologize. To his credit, Booker is one of the first Presidential candidates (along with Kamala Harris and Beto O'Rourke) to do so. It is one thing to work across the aisle to get laws passed, but Biden used a bad example of him citing terrible racists in citing his points. Therefore, he should apologize in my opinion in making sure that people have to show respect to our community. America isn't just made up of white American moderate voters. Black voters exist in the millions. Our voices matter, and our concerns ought to be respected.

On this Juneteenth in 2019, we see the point of how far we have come and how far we have to go in the present. The reality is that the Confederacy being defeated was a great day. Also, today, the House panel had hearings on reparations. This is the first time such a discussion ever existed in Congress in over a decade. Senator Mitch McConnell is wrong in denying the right of black Americans to have reparations. He said the racist nonsense since we have civil rights legislation, he didn't own a slave, and Obama was President; therefore black people aren't entitled to reparations. The truth is that many taxpayers have paid for the reparations of Jewish and Japanese Americans even though many of these same taxpayers had nothing to do with the Shoah (which is the Holocaust) or Japanese internment camps. Some Native Americans were given reparations too many years ago. We pay our taxpayer dollars to help storm victims, 911 victims, etc. We do so not because we are responsible for these situations, but it's the right thing to do. African Americans definitely are deserving of reparations.

The bill in the House just wants a study on reparations, and still Republicans and even some Democrats refuse to support HR 40. I do believe in reparations 100 percent. Our black ancestors helped to built America for centuries without pay. We have never received just compensation after we were oppressed back then or for our oppression now. After Reconstruction, Jim Crow, redlining, and discrimination harmed many black families. The wage gap and other forms of income inequality especially harming poor and working class black Americans. Reparations has nothing to do with random acts of empty rhetoric. Reparations is about structural change in making sure that total justice in enacted for African Americans. Reparations should be given to all black people of the African Diaspora too. No, the end of the Civil War wasn't reparations. Slavery existed after the Civil War via the peonage system (which was overt, virtual slavery where black people were kidnapped and forced to do labor against their wills throughout the South). America's wealth was build on the blood of black slaves. Reparations is about the advancement of real change and real accountability that honors us and our black ancestors.

She has established a decades long career that has shown a great light. Always a down to Earth person, her roles and her actions represent grace in action. She is Sister Phylicia Rashad, and she is 71 years old (with her Birthday that existed days ago). She was born in Houston, Texas, and her sister was the famous actress Debbie Allen. She graduated from the world famous HBCU Howard University at Washington, D.C. Many of her relatives are musicians and performers of the arts. Debbie Allen is known for being an excellent dancer. She earned magna cum laude in 1970 (at Howard) with a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree. She worked in theater with Sheryl Lee Ralph in Dreamgirls during the 1980's including other plays. Also, she has been on TV shows and famous movies. Phylicia Rashad was the first black actress of any nationality to win the Best Actress (Play) Tony Award, which she won for her 2004 performance as Lena Younger in a revival of the play A Raisin in the Sun by playwright Lorraine Hansberry. She was nominated for the same award the following year, for Gem of the Ocean. Her films stretch generations. She was on Just Wright, For Colored Girls, Creed I, Creed II, and Once Upon a Time When We Were Colored (I remember that movie when I was a teenager watching it). She has won many awards. She loves her family unconditionally, and she is a great role model for the younger generation of actresses and actors. She is an illustrious icon. I wish Sister Phylicia Rashad more blessings.

The ADOS is a low movement. For months now, many of their members have shown lies, anti-African bigotry, anti-immigrant slander, and pro-white supremacist views. I am an African American, but the ADOS isn't representative of me or other African Americans who love all black people in world regardless of nationality. Many ADOS members are Trump supporters. Then, you have Antonio Moore saying that he has more in common culturally with an European American than an African person. He has a brainwashed mentality. Then, you have Yvette Carnell citing the Nazi phrase "Blood and Soil" in trying to mention black American sacrifice in wars. That is disrespectful to black veterans and Jewish people. I'm not shocked by these developments ,since she is on the board of PFIR, which is funded by the white nationalist John Tanton. She said that black people must be transformed into being "white" in order to end inequalities. Self-hatred is found in Moore and Carnell indeed. She or Carnell said that Pan-Africanism is dead, which is a lie. I believe in Pan-Africanism, and it's alive and well. Moore assumed that one Igbo Nigerian person might have came from a slave trading family, which shows Moore being a traitor to black people (and an anti-African extremist). Carnell disrespected Talib Kweli's mother which shows that she's a coward and sellout (to especially the jingoistic American exceptionalism canard). I have more information about the ADOS movement. I have a lot of facts. Therefore, the ADOS movement is an enemy of black people. In the final analysis, we love black people worldwide, and we love Africa greatly.

Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika/

By Timothy

Thursday, June 20, 2019

The History of the United States of America Part 11: From 2008 to the present

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The History of the United States of America Part 11: 2008 to the The Present

This is the era of the United States of America history that we currently live in today. It has been filled with triumphs and tragedies. Debates and polarization consume this time. Not to mention that a new generation of progressive people have rose up to advance the principles of democracy, equality, and justice. During the age of 2008, we saw the housing bubble and Wall Street corruption which contributed to the late 2000’s recession. This was one large reason why Barack Obama was elected and inaugurated in 2009. President Barack Obama, as the first African American President, enacted large loans and economic stimulus packages aimed at improving the economy. The economy grew slowly but surely. Also, in our generation, we have witnessed the massive reform of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. This was the first law at a major attempt in creating a national health insurance program in America. President Barack Obama withdrew combat troops from Iraq, and the war in Afghanistan continued. The year of 2010 saw the Tea Party movement develop, and it caused the Republicans to gain control of the House and reduce the Democratic majority in the Senate. There were economic uncertainty, unemployment, and federal spending. Osama bin Laden was killed in 2011 by U.S. forces in Pakistan. After the re-election of President Barack Obama, new social changes happened involving marriage and other issues. Extra emphasis on climate change existed during this time with the growth of greenhouse gases. In both Obama terms, the epidemic of mass shootings transpired in Aurora, Sandy Hook, Charleston, Orlando, etc. The issues of race and policing were on center stage during the 2010’s when there are killings of many African Americans by cops. These African Americans are Eric Garner, Michael Brown, Philando Castille, and the names of so many other human beings. These events sparked the development of the Black Lives Matter movement. Protests, discussions, and rebellions against racism, police brutality, racial profiling grew. The strengths of the Obama Presidency transpired along with his weaknesses (like his embrace of respectability politics, his centrist streak on many issues, and his expansion of the American Empire in overtly sophisticated ways via drone strikes, extrajudicial assassinations, suppression of whistleblowers, etc.).

During this era of many events, there was the 2016 Presidential campaign. The overtly bigoted businessman Donald Trump defeated the former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. Trump started his campaign by going down an escalator back on the date of June 16, 2015. Trump promoted a wall, an executive order that promotes a ban on citizens from many Muslim-majority countries, and a hostility towards the media. People know about Donald Trump's racism, sexism, xenophobia, and his narcissistic personality. Many in the Women’s Marches brought five million marchers worldwide to oppose the agenda of Trump. Populist movements from across the political spectrum manifested from Brexit, Occupy Wall Street, Black Lives Matter, etc. By late 2018, Democrats gained control of the House, while Republicans added a slighter Senate majority edge. By the 2010’s, the country has experienced more racial problems. The rise of the alt-right movement came after the 2016 election. It is a white nationalist, racist movement that wants to expel or suppress the rights of sexual and racial minorities from America. Charlottesville saw confrontations and the murder of Heather Heyer. Since the mid-2010’s, the Department of Homeland Security and the FBI consider now the threat of white supremacist and alt-right violence as the leading threat of domestic terrorism in America. There is no question that Trump is a threat to democracy with his lies and corrupt political actions. We embrace empathy. Also, we saw a new progressive movement fighting for social and racial justice. Another revolution of technology came about with I-Pads, I-Phones XR, Oculus Rift, Uber, Netflix, Hulu, and the growth of social media platforms from Instagram to Snapchat. As the 2020 presidential election continues and new movements flourish, the same goal of liberty is embraced by many Americans.

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The Inauguration of President Barack Obama

The 2009 Inauguration of Barack Obama as the 44th President of the United States of America was a historic time. It occurred on January 20, 2009 just after 10 years ago. I was 25 years old on that day. The event set a record attendance for any event held in Washington, D.C. Barack Obama’s wife and the First Lady in 2009 was Michelle Obama. The Vice President was Joe Biden. Barack Obama had to resign from the Senate on November 4, 2008 in order for him to be sworn in as president. The inauguration was planned by mostly 2 committees of: the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies and the 2009 Presidential Inaugural Committee. Although the election was scheduled for November 4, 2008, the congressional committee began construction of the inaugural platform on September 24, 2008. The District of Columbia allowed bars and restaurants to stay open around the clock to help people celebrate the festivities. The co-chairs of the Presidential Inaugural Committee were William Daley, Penny Pritzker, John Rogers, Patrick Ryan and Julianna Smoot. The full length of the National Mall was used as the public viewing area for the swearing in ceremony. That extended from the United States Capitol to the Lincoln Memorial. They used environmental friendly actions like recyclable carpet for the platform, recycled paper for invitation and inaugural ball tickets, etc. Money raised for the event came from Halle Berry, Jamie Foxx, George Lucas, George Soros, and others. Tickets were sold. There were many pre-inaugural events. Barack Obama traveled on a train to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the birth of Abraham Lincoln on January 17, 2009.

He rode the Georgia 300 from Philadelphia to Washington, D.C. They stopped at Wilmington, Delaware where Biden joined the tour. During his speeches to the crowds, Barack Obama emphasized the theme "A New Birth of Freedom" using phrases associated with Lincoln such as "better angels" and "a new declaration of independence.” Thousands of people cheered him. By January 18, 2009, there was the We Are One concert. It happened at the Lincoln Memorial. The eve of the Inauguration Day, January 19, 2009, fell on Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, a U.S. federal holiday in recognition of Dr. King's birthday. Obama called upon communities everywhere to observe the King Day of Service, a day of citizen volunteer service honoring the human rights leader.  More than 13,000 community service events took place across the nation on the day, the largest participation in the 14 years since Congress passed the King Holiday and Service Act and more than double the previous year's event. Barack Obama and his family plus Joe Biden including his family worked in charities on that day. The Kids’ Inaugural: We are the Future concert was held at the Verizon Center (headed by Michelle Obama and Jill Biden) on January 19, 2009. Celebrities at the concert were Miley Cyrus, Demi Lovato, the Jonas Brothers, Bow Wow, George Lopez, Corbin Bleu, Queen Latifah, Billy Ray Cyrus, Shaquille O’Neal, and Jamie Foxx. Michelle Obama wanted people to volunteer in real life.

The inauguration ceremony took place at the West front of the United States Capitol. Performances existed from the United States Marine Band. Live performances came from the San Francisco Boys Chorus and the San Francisco Girls Chorus. Senator Dianne Feinstein, chair of the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies and the first woman to preside over a U.S. presidential inauguration, acted as the day's Master of Ceremonies. The Evangelical pastor Rick Warren gave the invocation at the inaugural ceremony. After that, the great vocalist Aretha Franklin sang “My Country, ‘Tis of Thee.” Vice President Biden took the oath first from Associate Justice John Paul Stevens. President Barack Obama took his oath after noon by Chief Justice John Roberts. Michelle Obama held the Bible, which was used by Abraham Lincoln at his 1861 inauguration, as Barack Obama placed his hand on the Bible and recited the presidential oath. Barack Obama’s inaugural address combined the responsibility of government to be accountable and hope for the future. The speech was traditional. He invoked the Founders in wanting change.

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Obama also highlighted the United States' religious diversity, referring to the country's "patchwork heritage" as a strength and saying, "We are a nation of Christians and Muslims, Jews and Hindus and non-believers." This was the first time a United States President acknowledged American non-believers in an inaugural address. The luncheon came after the speech. Then, President Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama walked the inaugural parade route. Marching bands were in the celebration. President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama attended 10 official inaugural balls during the evening of January 20, 2009. The Neighborhood Inaugural Ball, one of six balls held at the Walter E. Washington Convention Center, was the first stop of the evening for the President and First Lady. The Obamas danced their first song as Beyoncé Knowles serenaded them with her rendition of the Glenn Miller classic "At Last.”  Etta James sang At Last too. According to the Presidential Inaugural Committee, the Neighborhood Inaugural Ball was the first ball ever with free or affordable tickets, a contrast to recent history in which "inaugural balls generally have been closed to everyday Americans, populated instead by an exclusive circle of dignitaries and donors.” A portion of the tickets for the ball was reserved for Washington D.C. residents. President Barack Obama and his family plus Joe Biden and his family attended the interfaith National prayer service on January 21, 2009 (at Washington National Cathedral). Therefore, the Presidency of Barack Obama started in 2009 with exuberance and hope.

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Continued Domestic Terrorism

Immediately, Barack Obama revoked Executive Order 13233. This revocation allowed more records of former Presidents to be seen by the public. Barack Obama said that he wanted the closure of Guantanamo Bay detention camp. He signed an executive order banning torture and other illegal coercive techniques like waterboarding during interrogations. He wanted the Army field manual to be used as a guide. He invested in abortion. He ordered airstrikes with Predator drones in his Presidency. President Obama announced that companies receiving large amounts of federal bailout money through the Troubled Assets Relief Program (TARP) must cap top executive pay at US$500,000 on February 4, 2009. Throughout both terms of the Presidency of Barack Obama, domestic terrorism was very common. The Tucson shooting in 2011 killed 6 people and injured Representative Gabrielle Giffords. There was the 2012 Wisconsin Sikh temple shooting in the year of 2012. This was when on August 5, 2012; Wade Michael Page fatally shot six people and wounded four others in a mass shooting at a Sikh temple in Oak Creek, Wisconsin. Page was an American white supremacist and a United States Army veteran from Cudahy, Wisconsin. All of the dead were members of the Sikh faith. There was the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing. On April 15, 2013, two homemade bombs detonated 12 seconds and 210 yards apart at 2:49 p.m., near the finish line of the annual Boston Marathon, killing three people and injuring several hundred others, including 16 who lost limbs. Kyrgyz-American brothers Dzhokhar Tsarnaev and Tamerlan Tsarnaev were apprehended and claimed to have been motivated by radical Islamist beliefs.

On June 17, 2015, there was the Charleston Church massacre. Nine African American women and men were murdered. Their names were Clementa C. Pinckney (41), Cynthia Marie Graham Hurd (54), Susie Jackson (87), Ethel Lee Lance (70), Depayne Middleton-Doctor (49), Tywanza Sanders (26), Daniel L. Simmons (74), Sharaonda Coleman-Singleton (46), and Myra Thompson(59). Dylann Roof, a 21-year-old white supremacist, went into the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Charleston, South Carolina and shot and killed nine people. Roof is a white supremacist and owned a website where he wrote a manifesto in which he outlined his abhorrent views toward black people, among other peoples. Barack Obama gave a funeral sermon about America and race. He sang a song there too. Charleston united to condemn racism and to fight for justice. Today, white supremacists are the biggest domestic threat in America. Hurd's family announced that they are establishing the Cynthia Graham Hurd Fund for Reading and Literacy organization in her memory; it is expected to give children easier access to books. Nine artists from across the U.S. created portraits of the victims as a tribute. The portraits were put on display at Principle Gallery for one month, and were given to the victims' families afterwards. Artists involved in the memorial included Ricky Mujica, Mario Andres Robinson, Lauren Tilden, Paul McCormack, Gregory Mortenson, Catherine Prescott, Terry Strickland, Judy Takács, and Stephanie Deshpande. The aftermath of the Charleston Massacre was the elimination of the racist Confederate flag from the South Carolina state capitol in 2015. I will show more information about this historic event later on. Terrorism continued in the Orlando Pulse nightclub in June 12, 2016 where 49 people were murdered by Omar Mateen. 53 people were injured.  At the time, this event was the deadliest mass shooting in United States history (after 1945) by a single gunman, later eclipsed by the 2017 Las Vegas shooting. Additionally, it was the deadliest confirmed terrorist attack on U.S. soil since the 9/11 attacks.

New Reforms

One of his most important laws that he signed was the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act. It promoted fair pay regardless of sex, race, or age. Lilly Ledbetter, the plaintiff in the employment discrimination case Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. joined Barack and Michelle Obama at the signing ceremony. It was a long time coming, but the law has protected the lives of millions of Americans. President Obama signed the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 reauthorizing and expanding the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP). President Obama overhauled the Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives, renaming it the White House Office of Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships. President Barack Obama signed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. This plan included an economic stimulus plan. Obama signed the Omnibus Public Land Management Act into law. On May 20, 2009, President Barack Obama signed the Helping Families Save Their Homes Act of 2009 and the Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act are signed into law by President Obama to help alleviate burdens caused by the economic financial crisis in the United States. President Barack Obama nominated federal judge Sonia Sotomayor to take over the retiring Justice David Souter. Judge Sonia Sotomayor is the first Latina Justice on the U.S. Supreme Court. Obama received the Nobel Peace Prize by October 9, 2009. He left the HIV travel ban and signed the Hate Crimes Prevention Act in 2009 too. Barack Obama regulated banks with the Volcker Rule.

One of his biggest reforms was the Affordable Care Act. It has been called Obamacare. It took long debates to get it passed and signed. A compromise allowed the bill to lack a public option while banning discrimination based upon pre-existing conditions, it allowed young people to be on their parents plan until 26 years old, etc. The law transformed the American healthcare system in a way that wasn’t seen since the 1960’s. Obama wanted to increase quality, affordable, health care with better access. By 2019, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act exists with its strengths and weaknesses. Millions of Americans have health care for the first time and further action is needed to make the ACA better. The BP oil spill in 2010 showed the world that regulation involving the environment is necessary. The 2010 Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act is signed by President Obama. The Act gives regulators stronger authority when it comes to breaking up large companies and attempts to protect the consumer by restricting practices in consumer loans and credit cards. Barack Obama assisted veterans with the post 911 GI law. He signed Rosa’s Law that changes federal statues to use the more respectful phrase of intellectual disability.

The October 2010 21st Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act becomes law. It sets new standards so that Americans who are deaf, blind, or live with a visual impairment have equal access and opportunity to new technological innovations. The 2010 midterm elections increased the power of the Republicans in both houses of Congress. Reforms still existed like the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 that invested in nutrition programs. He banned Don’t Ask, Don’t tell in December of 2010. This ban allowed open LGBTQIAPK+ human beings to serve in the Armed Forces. By 2011, President Barack Obama signed laws dealing with the budget, he announced the end of the Iraq War in 2011, and he signed the American Jobs Act. As 2011 ended and 2012 began, President Barack Obama would not only run for President for his second term, but he lived through some of the most historic social changes in American history. By early 2012, the Presidential election of 2012 was under way. It was a much closer election than in 2008, but President Barack Obama would win a second term by November of 2012.

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Historic Societal Changes

There is no question that massive social changes have transpired in America during the Obama era. The SCHIP program was reauthorized in 2009 to help children. We saw more people see an expansion of social media and Internet technology. Also, cyber security issues dominated the times of the 21st century too. It is easy to see that President Barack Obama is the most pro-LGBTQIA U.S. President in history. Obama signed the policy to end the ban on travel to America by those infected with HIV. He allowed transgender people to serve openly in the military via the Pentagon by 2016. He was the first U.S. President to endorse the legalization of same sex marriage in public. During his second inaugural address on January 21, 2013, Obama became the first U.S. President in office to call for full equality for gay Americans. By June 26, 2015, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of legalizing same sex marriage nationwide in America via Obergefell v. Hodges. The White House was illuminated in rainbow colors on the evening of the Supreme Court same-sex marriage ruling. On July 30, 2015, the White House Office of National AIDS Policy revised its strategy for addressing the disease, which included widespread testing and linkage to healthcare, which was celebrated by the Human Rights Campaign. We see more discussions about sexual harassment and the rise of the MeToo movement. More criminals who harassed women or anyone else, are increasingly being charged from Harvey Weinstein to R Kelly. We witness more women in Congress and in leadership positions. Also, we have a more awareness of black people’s concerns from criminal justice issues to reparations. Also, there is a backlash.

There are new laws that restrict abortion in 2019. The crisis of immigration continues with migrants escaping warzones in Central America, and separation of families. The 2010's saw basically movements evolving from the Arab Spring to the yellow vest movement. From 2016 to the present, a neo-nationalist political backlash against globalization existed. This movement is promoted by Trump in abhorring progressive immigration policy and desiring free trade agreements. This movement does have xenophobic elements, and it’s found in Europe and in America. An aging population has increased worldwide, more young people have more economic pressures, and Europe plus Japan saw substantial population declines. Climate change is here and threats to biodiversity are ever present. Many of the youth are changing too. In May 2014, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control reported those teenage pregnancies and their uses of drugs and alcohol reached record lows. A 2013 survey showed that the rate of teen smoking dropped to 15.7%, the rate of teenagers having unprotected sex dropped to 34% and the rate of teenagers participating in a physical fight dropped to 25%, much lower than their counterparts 22 years earlier.

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The Issues of Race and Police Brutality

The United States of America had to deal with the issue of race since its founding. Many of the authors of the Declaration of the Independence and the Constitution wrote about liberty, but didn’t practice what they preached in their acts as slave-owners. America is unique in the sense that we have the most diverse amount of people in human history, and we still have to fight for rights that should have been inborn from the beginning. When Barack Obama became President, some naively believed that we lived in a post racial nation (and that racism would be gone soon). Back in November 2009, conservative host Lou Dobbs inaccurately states that we live in a “21st century post partisan, post racial society." Immediately, when President Barack Obama was in office, he experienced racism from many people. Some racists called him a witchdoctor (on the issue of the ACA), questioned his nationality (in claiming that he was born in Kenya, which was false), the bigots disrespected his wife plus his children, and some called him racial slurs. That is totally unjustified. It is one thing to express legitimate critique of his Presidency (in dealing with his drone strikes, hawkish actions, his harsh actions against whistleblowers, and on other issues). Yet, the racism against Obama was evil and disgusting. On October 28, 2009, the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act was passed to authorize federal prosecution of all racially motivated hate crimes. In 2010, Shirley Sherrod is a black woman who was falsely accused of being racist towards white Americans. She was from the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

The Fair Sentencing Act was passed on August 3, 2010 that reduced sentencing disparities between crack and powder cocaine to an 18:1 ratio. Today, we have people from across the political spectrum opposing the corruption found in the criminal justice system. Many people in America don’t see eye to eye on many issues. In a Washington Post/ABC News poll conducted in December 2014, about 50% of white respondents said they believed that the justice system treats Americans of all races equally, but only 10% of African-Americans said the same. In the spring of 2015, according to a Gallup poll, 13 percent of black Americans surveyed identified race relations as the most important problem the United States faces, compared with 4 percent of white Americans. So, it is obvious that we must deal with the issues of race, sex, and class in order for us to go into the Promised Land of true freedom and justice. During the Obama era and beyond, the epidemic of police brutality continues to exist in America plus worldwide. This is not just an American issue. It’s a global issue. In Brazil, many victims of police brutality exist. In 2015, according to a study by The Guardian, police officers in the United States killed 7.13 black Americans per million, compared with 2.91 white Americans per million. People from many quarters have exposed the killings of African Americans and people of every color. The Obama Presidency dealt with many of these issues of the killings of black Americans whether by vigilantes or by the police.

Kenneth Chamberlain Sr. was killed on November 19, 2011. The death of Trayvon Martin was caused by the racist vigilante George Zimmerman (he is a racist since he was caught on tape using the n word, and he is pictured celebrating the Confederate flag). Zimmerman was told by the police to not follow Trayvon Martin, but he did anyway. He provoked a confrontation and killed Trayvon Martin. If Zimmerman left that child Trayvon Martin alone, Trayvon Martin would be alive today. Zimmerman has a known history of stalking people in Sanford, Florida. Trayvon Martin’s death took place on February 26, 2012. The country of America was divided. Debates on stand your ground, race, class, and vigilantes existed. Zimmerman escaped justice by being acquitted by a jury. Zimmerman later became involved in incidents with the police, his girlfriends, and other people. He has been accused of domestic abuse, and he is recorded on tape using a racist slur against a black man. Trayvon’s friend Rachel Jeantel has been slandered, but she is multilingual and achieved great accomplishments. The documentary "I am Trayvon Martin" documented Zimmerman’s racism and extremism with facts. Zimmerman has threatened the co-executive producer of the documentary Michael Gasparro, Jay Z, and Beyonce. Zimmerman is a total fraud and a coward. Malcolm Shabazz or Malcolm X’s grandson was killed in Mexico. One of the worst decisions in history was when the Supreme Court overturned part of the 1965 Voting Rights Act in Shelby County v. Holder. Since June 25, 2013, draconian anti-voting rights laws have been passed in the South and in the Midwest. The Voting Rights Act is gutted of Section Five. After George Zimmerman was acquitted on July 13, 2013, tons of protested existed from Florida to NYC, Chicago, etc. By 2013, a new movement was created. It was a combination of the old school protests of the Civil Rights Movement and the progressive side of the Black Power movement with its emphasis on Blackness. It is the Black Lives Matter movement. It was created by 3 black women whose names are Alicia Garza, Patrisse Cullors, and Opal Tometi. It has been loved and hated. It has been praised and condemned, but it has existed to this very day since 2013. We can all agree with their views of police brutality being bad, racial profiling must be eliminated, and all black lives should be protected. They condemn sexism, ageism, and make it their mission to protect the lives of black LGBTQIA+ human beings. There is the epidemic of the murder of black trans people, and murder should be condemned. Worse news came about involving innocent lives in Missouri. By 2014, Michael Brown was shot by police officer Darren Wilson at Ferguson, Missouri. The officer said that he used self-defense, while Brown’s family said it was a murder. Immediately, a rebellion existed in Ferguson which never occurred in America on that scale since the 1992 LA rebellion.

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Sister Bree Newsome climbed up the flagpole to take down the Confederate racist flag in order to stand up against the racism executed against black people. She wanted to oppose oppression found in the world, and she advances the principle of human liberation to this very day. Her words outline power, and she has spoken in favor of the rights of the poor and all oppressed human beings in general. 

The “Hands up, Don’t shoot” movement existed. Progressives, black activists, and other people met in Ferguson to organize, protest, and stand up for their rights. During the Ferguson uprising, many cops deployed military weapons, some innocent journalists plus citizens were unjustly arrested, and many people suffered tea gas (from ordinary citizens to journalists). During the funeral of Michael Brown, Al Sharpton (who was a FBI informant) made the disrespectful comment that people shouldn't make "ghetto pity parties" when the truth is that silence is betrayal. Through ups and down, Ferguson became the start of a new era of black youth activism. July 17, 2014 was when Eric Garner was choked to death unjustly by a police officer. Other cops around Garner did nothing to stop it. This was in New York City. Black children, black women, black men and the black elderly continued to be killed across America. Nine African Americans were murdered at the Charleston Church called the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church at downtown Charleston, South Carolina. The community in Charleston came together to fight racism and murder. President Barack Obama came to remember the victims via his eulogy about the Charleston victims. Barack Obama has a mixed record on police brutality issues. He set up legitimate policies to address police brutality with consent decrees, meetings, etc. Likewise, he gave middle of the road speeches that mention respectability politics and compromise. The Say Her Name movement addresses the epidemic of black women being murdered by the police and other criminals. Sandra Bland died in a Texas jail after a traffic stop where the cop acted inappropriately towards her.

In 2015, Freddie Gray was arrested by Baltimore police, and he died in custody while he was in a hospital afterwards. Immediately, Baltimore had its rebellion which was its largest since 1968. We still have a system of oligarchy, racism, and classism. That is why we have some cops acting as occupiers in poorer communities. The system of racism/white supremacy is global. What goes on in America does happen internationally. The rebellion in Baltimore never existed as a product of a vacuum. It existed after decades of neglect, austerity, poverty, deindustralization, lax educational opportunities, racism, police brutality, and other evils (by the system of white supremacy). People have been hurting in Baltimore and throughout the Americas for centuries. Police terrorism and police occupation have been a common occurrence against black people. Baltimore Attorney Marilyn Mosby, and former Baltimore mayor Stephanie Rawlings-Blake worked in the city as well. Marilyn Mosby is still the Attorney in Baltimore in 2019.

Most of the cops involved in the arrest of Gray were acquitted. This is a common pattern, because the police union and the police institution are one of the most powerful lobbyists in America. They influence laws, they fund politicians, they ask for donations, and it is very difficult to cause any cop to be held accountable for misconduct. That is why many cops have gotten away with harassing, murdering, raping, and brutalizing people. As media coverage of police shootings intensified, protests erupted in the wake of the July 5, 2016 shooting of Alton Sterling in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and the July 6, 2016 shooting of Philando Castile in Falcon Heights, Minnesota. A respected school nutritionist, Castile was one of 233 African-Americans shot and killed by police in 2016, a startling number when demographics are considered. African-Americans make up 13 percent of the U.S. population but account for 24 percent of people fatally shot by police. According to the Washington Post, blacks are "2.5 times as likely as white Americans to be shot and killed by police officers." The irony is that one of the issues that those in the March on Washington from 1963 wanted was the end to police brutality. Over 55 years later, we are still fighting for that same end.

On July 7, 2016, towards the end of one of these protests in Dallas, Texas, Micah Xavier Johnson ambushed and fired upon a group of police officers, killing five officers and injuring nine others. Two civilians were also wounded. Later, the United the Right rally featured neo-Nazis, Neo-Confederates, and other extremists who support white supremacy. They are a disgrace to real freedom loving people. One young black person was assaulted and one white woman was murdered by a white racist. Her name was Heather Mayer. Many people of color like Native Americans, Latino Americans, Asian Americans, etc. do experience racism, police brutality, and discrimination. The separation of families on the U.S./Mexico border is horrible. The stealing of Native Americans’ lands to build a pipeline is evil. Therefore, oppression is intersectional. In 2019, debates on racism and police brutality continue with Democratic Presidential candidates dealing with those issues too.  Police brutality is not new. Back during the 19th century, many police agencies kidnapped runaway slaves. Back during the date of March 7, 1965, there was Bloody Sunday where cops assaulted innocent protesters at Selma, Alabama. Rodney King in the early 1990’s was viciously assaulted by crooked cops with nightsticks on tape. The difference now is that Black Lives Matter, Hands Up Don’t Shoot, and other movements use cell phone evidence and other technologies to record such misconduct. Cops, who terrorize innocent people, are terrorists period. Recently in June of 2019, many cops in Philadelphia were caught showing raciat, anti-protestor, and Islamiphic comments in social media. There should be no blue wall of silence. There ought to be a total existence of justice. 

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In 2019, there is another police killing of an unarmed, mentally ill black woman named Pamela Turner in Baytown, Texas.  Video of the incident existed, and the officer claimed that the mother grabbed his taser and had multiple warrants. The woman was only 44 years old, and she should have experience assistance not a death sentence. There is no excuse to shoot the woman 5 times when medical assistance can easily be called to help Pamela Turner. Supporters of the “All Lives Matter” phrase readily want to minimize the systemic threats and institutionalized oppression faced by African Americans.  The fatal shootings of Aiyana Jones, Laquan McDonald, Tamir Rice, Walter Scott, and other Brothers and Sisters make us aware that we have so much more to go in seeing a better union in America. We have to address redlining, discrimination, the prison industrial complex, and other injustices that harm black communities. Also, we want human liberation. There is no human liberation without black people being liberated indeed.

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The 2016 Presidential Campaign

The 2016 Presidential election in America was one of the most controversial and important elections in human history. It was filled with debates about economics, emails, social issues, and foreign policy matters. It had an overload of media coverage, Internet discussions, and issues of tolerance. Trump presented a right wing populist campaign with the message of “Make America Great Again” and he criticized political correctness. The term MAGA is oxymoronic since it ignores the troubled history of America during the past and present. We don't want to revert to a time where minorities had their rights completely violated or when slavery was legal. He or Trump opposed free trade agreements not for economic rights reasons, but for xenophobic reasons. Hillary Clinton called many of Trump supporters bigots, which is true. Hillary Clinton wanted to expand President Obama’s policies. She wanted progressive policies on racial issues, women rights issues, LGBT issues, and she wanted an “inclusive capitalism.” Capitalism without any regulations is abhorrent. Capitalism, historically, has been involved in exploitation and human suffering. The 2016 Presidential election allowed people to witness many candidates competing to lead America in the post-Obama era. The result of the election was a great tragedy. The results came about because of both financial angst (and populist acceptance) and the massive embrace of racism found in certain segments of the American people. Many Trump supporters are overt racists since they voted for a racist xenophobe Trump. We have to analyze the election from 2016 chronologically in order to see it for what it was. The election was emotional and very personal from the beginning. As early as November 2014, the moderate Jim Webb of Virginia started an exploratory committee for a positive run for President. Former Governor from Florida Jeb Bush formed a political action committee or PAC for a possible run the Presidency.

As 2015 continued, many more candidates rose up from Democrats and Republicans like Chris Christie, Martin O’Malley (a former Governor of Maryland), Lindsey Graham, Mitt Romney, George Pataki, Ben Carson, and other people. By March 5, 2015, Mark Everson, former Commissioner of Internal Revenue, formally announced his candidacy for the presidential nomination of the Republican Party. On March 18, 2015, Donald Trump, CEO of The Trump Organization since 1971, formed an exploratory committee in preparation for a possible run for president on the Republican Party ticket. Ted Cruz ran for President on March 23, 2015. In early April of 2015, Rand Paul (who is known for his non-interventionist foreign policy views) and Lincoln Chafee ran for President. Rick Santorum decided to have an exploration to see a possible run for President. On April 12, 2015, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton formally announced her candidacy for the Presidential nomination of the Democratic Party. She sent out a video to outline her goals and her story. She went into Iowa to campaign. Immediately, Hillary Clinton received tons of support. On April 30, 2015, Bennie Sanders officially launched his campaign.

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Sanders went after oligarchs, lobbyists, super PACS, and economic inequality. He wants a political revolution to transform America in many ways. From the start, neoliberals and the far right hate him because of his progressive views. Bernie Sanders did the right thing in promoting economic justice. He did the right thing in allowing society to witness the economic, health, and educational disparities among the poor and the super wealthy in order to advocate for progressive change in the Untied States of America. His weakness was that he struggled to connect the intersectionality of economic injustice, racism, and sexism. Oppression comes in many forms, and you have to make that complex connection in order to make the plan of action work more comprehensively. For example, the criminal justice disproportionately sends harsher sentences to black people, poor people, and other people of color more so than white Americans (as proven by numerous sociological studies). Hillary Clinton had many strengths in her campaign, and her weakness was that on some issues, she aligned with the establishment from a hawkish foreign policy to other moderate positions. Many Wall Street interests funded the Hillary Clinton campaign. Also, Hillary was critiqued fairly, and criticized unfairly via sexist attacks against her from many quarters (from far right Republicans to some Bernie Bros members).

Senator Marco Rubio of Florida officially ran for President by April 13, 2015. In May of 2015, Carly Fiorina of California, Ben Carson of Maryland, former Governor of Arkansas Mike Huckabee, Rick Santorum, George Pataki, and others ran for President on the Republican side. Martin O’Malley increased his campaign race. Lindsay Graham, Lincoln Chafee of Rhode Island, Bobby Jindal, Rick Perry, and Jeb Bush ran for President in June of 2015. One June 16, 2015 was when Donald Trump of New York officially declared his candidacy for President. From the start, his campaign was filled with hated, bigotry, and lies. His first campaign speech slandered some undocumented immigrants as rapists and heinous criminals. The Republican side had more people like Scott Walker, John Kasich, and Jim Gilmore from Virginia. Republican candidates debated each other by August of 2015. They discussed about many issues. By August of 2015, Republican candidates debated on C-SPAN in New Hampshire (at the New Hampshire Institute of Politics in Goffstown, New Hampshire), and later at FOX News. Simi Valley California was where another Republican debate existed. At first, many Republican candidates didn’t take Trump seriously.

Later, that would change. Trump would disrespect the Republican candidates personally about their wives, their fathers, and on other issues. Trump would disrespect Jeb Bush's wife and Ted Cruz's father. The first Democratic debate was held in Las Vegas, Nevada at Wynn Casino on October 13, 2015. From the start, the race had the two front runners of Bernie Sanders and Hillary Clinton. Sanders attacked Clinton as too moderate, and Clinton attacked Sanders as promoting unrealistic proposals. For a time, the campaign was very personal as Hillary Clinton said to Bernie Sanders to say those criticisms about her to her face. To this day, many Hillary supporters can’t tolerate Bernie supporters (and vice versa). By the end of 2015, the Presidential race was unlike any other before 2016. By early 2016, more Democratic and Republican debates existed. Hillary Clinton won the Iowa Democratic caucus on February 1, 2016 and Ted Cruz won the same caucus on the Republican side in Iowa. Older Democratic people supported Hillary while Bernie Sanders had massive support among progressives including younger Americans. Super delegates supported Hillary Clinton massively in 2016. It is no secret that members of the Democratic establishment didn’t like Bernie Sanders since he criticized capitalist exploitation and wanted democratic socialism to be praised. Hillary Clinton was criticized for calling black children “super predators” and voting for the Iraq War. Bernie Sanders has his imperfections, and Bernie Sanders opposed the Iraq War. Also, it is important to note that many of the Bernie Bros. have issued sexist remarks against Hillary Clinton, and that is wrong period. Sexism is totally evil.

By February of 2016, many Republicans candidates ended their campaigns like Rand Paul, Rick Santorum, and Mike Huckabee. While Bernie Sanders won many primaries in Vermont, Oklahoma, Minnesota, Colorado, etc., Hillary Clinton won more primaries in more states like Massachusetts, Virginia, Texas, Georgia, South Carolina, Alabama, etc. Bernie Sanders had large rallies in the Bronx and in other places nationwide. While this was going on, Trump continued to spew division, hatred, and ad hominem attacks on his opponents. Bernie Sanders fought until the end. By July of 2016, Bernie Sanders endorsed Hillary Clinton. Donald Trump won the Republican primary and decided to get Indiana Governor Mike Pence as his Vice Presidential running mate. Mike Pence makes no bones about his very conservative views. Hillary Clinton chose Virginia governor Tim Kaine as his Presidential running mate. Time Kaine was the mayor of Richmond too, and he has a center left side. Donald Trump had his Republican convention in Cleveland, Ohio. It was filled with paranoia, xenophobic rhetoric from Trump, and fear mongering. The reactionary Alex Jones was at RNC to agitate and slander progressives. The Republican speakers there loved the extreme rhetoric from Trump. It is no secret that Donald Trump provoked violence at his rallies or violence occurred at his rallies. Trump explicitly said that he wished for protesters to be beaten up. Protesters were opposing Trump’s agenda on July 12, 2015 in Phoenix, Arizona. On August 25, 2015, during a press conference, Univision anchor Jorge Ramos began to question Trump since before being called on. After being told "Sit down! you weren't called" and "Go back to Univision", Ramos continued to protest Trump's plan to deport undocumented immigrants and their children born into citizenship in the U.S. Trump motioned to his security, with Keith Schiller removing Ramos from the event. Trump later met with Ramos alone. Keith Schiller also punched a protester on September 3, 2015.

In Richmond, Virginia, people clashed among protesters and Trump supporters on October 14, 2015. On February 29, 2016, at a rally, veteran photojournalist Chris Morris was grabbed by his throat and thrown to the ground by a member of the Secret Service. On March 1, 2016, a black woman named Kashiya Nwanguma attended a Trump rally in Louisville, Kentucky, with two anti-Trump signs. She reported that Trump supporters ripped her signs away and shouted insults at her. On March 10, 2016, as Trump was being led by police from a rally in Fayetteville, North Carolina, an African American protester was punched by a Trump supporter. Charges of assault and battery were filed by the Cumberland County Sheriff's Office. A protester being led by police from a rally in Fayetteville, North Carolina, was sucker punched by John McGraw, a Trump supporter. McGraw later told the media that the next time he saw the protester, "we might have to kill him.” McGraw was subsequently charged with assault and battery and given 12 months of probation. That assaulter receiving only probation exposes the brutally racist criminal justice system. On Meet the Press, Trump said that he had instructed his team to look into paying McGraw's legal fees and said, "He obviously loves his country." On March 11, 2016, during a rally in St. Louis, at which Trump was "repeatedly interrupted by protesters, violence broke out between supporters of Trump and protesters, resulting in 32 arrests.” A planned event for later that day in Chicago drew confrontations between supporters and protesters in the arena at the University of Illinois at Chicago before Trump could come out to speak, due to an unusually large number of protesters, and the campaign cancelled the rally due to safety concerns. Trump stated that he made the decision himself, commenting, "I didn't want to see people get hurt [so] I decided to postpone the rally." Protests existed in New York City and all over America.

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Later, The Democratic National Convention has held in July 25-28, 2016. It was held at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The atmosphere was completely different than the RNC. Hillary Clinton accepted the nomination as the first woman to win the Democratic nomination in American history. The Convention had a large amount of diverse human beings. It was a ground breaking convention.  The Green Party and Libertarian Party existed with their candidates. Jill Stein and Ajamu Baraka were part of the Green Party. Evan McMullin ran as an independent. The first presidential general election debate was held at Hofstra University in Hempstead, New York. (The first debate was originally going to be held at Wright State University, but the location was changed due to rising security costs that were being incurred by the school). Hillary Clinton ends up taking the majority support after the debate. By October 7, 2016, Trump’s campaign almost ended with the tapes leaked out from Access Hollywood. It showed Donald Trump and Billy Bush talking about exploiting women in vulgar, sexist terms back in 2005. Trump bragged about grabbing women by their private area. Criticism was fierce. Trump has been accused of sexual harassment by many women. Later, WikiLeaks began publishing thousands of emails from the personal Gmail account of Clinton campaign manager John Podesta, revealing excerpts from Clinton's paid speeches to Wall Street. The Hillary email scandal hurt the Hillary Clinton campaign too. Hillary Clinton was a better debater than Donald Trump. Trump used personal insults. Gary Johnson ran on the Libertarian ticket. One event that contributed to the defeat of Clinton was when on October 28, 2016; James Comey announced that the FBI will be investigating newly discovered emails pertinent to its previous investigation of Hillary Clinton's private server.

Hillary's lead in the polls dropped heavily within days. From that point onward, it was the beginning of the end. By November 6, 2016, James Comey told Congress there is no evidence in the recently discovered emails that Clinton should face charges over handling of classified information. By this phase of the election, scholars and journalists questioned whether Russians and Putin are influencing the election. We know now that Russian intelligence is complicit in election meddling during the 2016 election.

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On Election Day on November 8, 2016, it was a shocking event. Hillary Clinton won the majority of the popular vote, but Donald Trump won most of the Electoral College. Therefore, Trump won the 2016 Presidential election. Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and Michigan voted for Trump while Virginia voted against Trump since Virginia has a large minority population. Also, Virginia is a more progressive state politically than 20 years ago. When you look at demographics, most liberals and moderates voted for Hillary Clinton while most conservatives voted for Trump. 58 percent of white people voted for Trump, 88 percent of black people voted for Hillary Clinton, 65 percent of Asian people voted for Hillary Clinton, and 65 percent of Hispanic people voted for Hillary Clinton. The vast majority of white men and white women voted for Donald Trump. The vast majority of people from 18-39 years old voted for Hillary Clinton while people 40 and older voted for Donald Trump. The election results was a product of the paradox of many Obama supporters supporting Trump since they believed in his right wing populist message, and Trump appealed to the latent (plus overt) xenophobia plus racism found among many Americans. Donald Trump is a billionaire demagogue whose policies would lead into class war, national chauvinism, militarism, and the expansion of police state power. Trump hypocritically claimed to be for the common people, but he had elected a cabinet of far right ideologies, corporate leaders, criminals, and those who endorse oligarchy. That is why Trump passed his massive tax cut for the super wealthy. Donald Trump is a racist, white supremacist. Since 2016, we have seen the growth of radical, far right movements and the resistance against such evil being advanced too.

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The Trump Presidency

After the 2016 election was over, tons of Americans were shocked. Many people were massively dismayed at some xenophobic, sexist, and racist liar being selected as President by the Electoral College (not by the majority of voters as the majority of the American voters voted for Hillary Clinton). This is the new reality. The Vice President is Mike Pence of Indiana. Trump lied and said that massive voting fraud existed up to 5 million illegal votes in favor of Hillary Clinton. Multiple studies have shown that there is no evidence of widespread voter fraud. Mike Pence after Chris Christie headed up the Trump transition team. President Barack Obama spoke with Donald Trump on November 10, 2016 on giving him advice. Allies of Trump early on were Senator Jeff Sessions of Alabama, retired Army Lt. Gen. Michael T. Flynn, former New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani, former presidential candidate Ben Carson, and former House Speaker Newt Gingrich. Donald Trump was inaugurated on January 20, 2017. His wife, Melanie Trump accompanied him, and he was sworn in by Chief Justice John Roberts. Trump’s speech during his inauguration was filled with fear mongering rhetoric. He promoted the concept of America First. He wanted policies to benefit American workers and American factories without realizing that Americans aren’t islands.

We are interconnected with the human family globally, and what benefits America should benefit the world positively without xenophobia. At the age of seventy, Trump surpassed Ronald Reagan and became the oldest person to assume the presidency, and the first without any prior government or military experience. His original cabinet has been changed so much since many of them quit, resigned, fired, or convicted for criminal wrongdoing. The Trump cabinet is the most corrupt cabinet of any Presidency in over 35 years old. Rex Tillerson was once the Secretary of State until Mike Pompeo took over in 2018. Jeff Sessions was once the Attorney General until William Barr replaced him. Ryan Zinke left the Secretary of Interior by 2019 and David Berhardt is the acting one. The Trump administration has been characterized by record turnover, particularly among White House staff. By the end of his first year in office, 34 percent of Trump's original staff had resigned, been fired, or been reassigned. As of early March 2018, 43 percent of senior White House positions had turned over. Many members of his own officials have privately gone against his agenda.

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Turning Back the Clock and the Resistance

 During the first year of the Trump administration, he turned back the clock on many issues. He did so not only because of his hatred of Obama’s policies. He did so since he arrogantly believes in a far right view that individualism matters above the common interests of the collective people. Power is meant for the people not for the select few in an oligarchy. He permitted the confirmation of the conservative Neil Gorsuch as an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court. He tried to end the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. He repeatedly wanted to repeal the ACA or the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. He failed to repeal the ACA. He labeled China as a currency manipulator and issued tariffs on China. He promoted the 2017 Shayrat missile strike in Syria without congressional approval. He opposed NATO on the grounds of nationalist reasons not on imperialist reasons. Trump used many executive orders to get his agenda going. Presidential historian Michael Beschloss said that "based on a legislative standard"—which is what the first 100 days has been judged on since the tenure of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who enacted 76 laws in 100 days including nine that were "major"—"Trump is really pretty low down on the list." By December of 2017, Trump signed the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. It cut taxes on the super wealthy. It cut the corporate tax rate to 21 percent. It lowered personal tax brackets, increased child tax credit, and doubled the estate tax threshold to $11.2 million, and limited the state and local tax deduction to $10,000. Most people benefiting from that law are the rich.  Households in the lower or middle class would also see a small tax increase after the tax cuts expire. The bill is estimated to increase deficits by $1.5 trillion over 10 years. Trump watches FOX News, and FOX News is one of his biggest allies. He doesn’t read much. He mainly works from only 11 am. to 6 pm. on many occasions He is known for making tweets constantly and using false statements. There is no question that he has an issue with the rule of law. He has contempt for the First Amendment that goes against his views. He wanted the Justice Department to investigate his critics. He refuses to agree to submit to lawful subpoenas. He restricted access of one journalist illegally. In spring of 2018, Trump told White House counsel Don McGahn that he wanted to order the DOJ to prosecute Clinton and Comey, but McGahn advised Trump that such action would constitute abuse of power and invite possible impeachment. Any press entity that exposes Trump has been criticized by Trump as "fake news.” He has called the media the enemy of the people.

On his first day in office, Trump falsely accused journalists of understating the size of the crowd at his inauguration, and called the media "among the most dishonest human beings on earth.” He has supported law enforcement to crack down on crime, and he is silent on the epidemic of police brutality in America. He wants to overhaul programs from the Obama administration that fight police brutality. In July 2017, the Department of Justice reinstated the use of asset forfeiture, which is the practice of seizing the property of crime suspects who have not been charged or convicted with a crime. This meant that local authorities in the 24 states that banned the practice or limited its use so that it could now seize property from individuals who have not even been charged with a crime if the property is forwarded to the federal government. Previously, in February 2017, when a sheriff complained about a state senator who proposed legislation to end asset forfeiture, Trump responded, "Who is the state senator? Do you want to give his name? We'll destroy his career." Trump in a July 2017 speech to police officers said that he wanted officers to rough up suspects in the police car. Even some law enforcement agencies criticized Trump over that statement.

Recently, Trump has used the token talk of the First Step Act in order to obfuscate criticism of his evil policies. We know that prisoners need rehabilitation, job opportunities after they leave jail, and nonviolent drug offenders don’t deserve the same time as rapists. In August of 2017, Trump pardoned the felon Sheriff Joe Arpaio. He pardoned former black heavyweight boxer Jack Johnson (I have no issue with that pardon), Dinesh D’Souza, Scotter Libby, and other people. One of the administration's first actions was to indefinitely suspend a cut in fee rates for HUD mortgages implemented by the Obama administration. The cut in fee rates would have saved individuals with lower credit scores around $500 per year on a typical loan. In September 2017, the DOJ announced it would not defend in courts a mandate that would have extended overtime benefits to more than 4 million workers. From the Muslim ban based upon nationality to his radical immigration policy that harmed the lives of even migrant children, Trump is just an authoritarian extremist. In 2017, he put a freeze on hiring federal civilian employees, he withdrawn from the TPP, he revoked the Mexico City policy, he endorsed the Keystone XL Pipeline, and issued other policies. One of the most disgraceful actions of Trump was his response to the Hurricane disaster the harmed Puerto Rico in 2017. Instead of showing empathy towards the victims, Trump scapegoated a Puerto Rican mayor, was lax with sending resources to Puerto Rico, and threw towels to the people in a patronizing, bigoted way. Puerto Ricans are Americans, and they are entitled to the same dignity and respect just like any other group of people.

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The Resistance is a movement created by women (especially women of color) to fight Trump’s agenda. From the moment that he was selected President, Resistance movement members have fought for progressive views. They protested worldwide by January of 2017 in America, Europe, Asia, and throughout the world. Donald Trump is one of the most controversial Presidents in American history. From his demonization of his critics, to his vulgar slander of peaceful NFL protesters (who oppose police brutality), and to his habitual lying, Trump is infamous for his abhorrent views. The Women’s March of 2017 motivated the world to see that freedom is not to be taken for granted. If you want to be free, you have to fight for it. Many leaders of the movement are Carmen Perez, Bob Bland, Tamika Mallory, Linda Sarsour, Teresa Shook, Vanessa Wruble, Evvie Harmon, etc. The Resistance opposed the aim of a border wall along the Mexico-United States border, efforts to end the ACA, the withdrawal of the Paris Agreement, the evil acts of the Unite the Right rally, repeal of neutrality regulations in the Internet, etc. The White House wants changes to the census to strife votes from Democrats. The Trump administration permitted the separation of immigrant families near the U.S./Mexico border while placing many migrants in internment camps (filled with harsh conditions. That is disgraceful). So, the Resistance is here to stay. Many members of such progressive movement want the impeachment or resignation of Donald Trump and his administration.

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The August 11-12, 2017 Charlottesville tragedy was one of the most melancholy times in American history. It showed the face of evil hate, and it showed the courage of anti-racist activists who stood up against fascists. The racists in the Unite the Right rally included white supremacists, neo-fascists, the Klan, militias, alt right extremists, and neo-Confederates. These evil people wanted to maintain the Confederate monuments and memorials of Robert E. Lee after the decision of the city of Charlottesville to remove such abhorrent images. Confederates were dedicated to maintain slavery and racism in America. Anyone who supports the Confederacy is a racist period. Before the rally, numerous Confederate monuments were removed from public places nationwide in America after the Charleston church shooting massacre of 2015. Many streets were renamed after removing the name of figures from the Confederacy. These victories caused a far right wing backlash. These racists wanted to protect what they deem "Confederate heritage," but a heritage based upon oppression is no true heritage at all. Charlottesville Vice Mayor Wes Bellamy was heroic to stand up against evil. Before the rally, there was the Spencer march on May 13, 2017 to protest the city’s plans to remove the statue of Lee.

A counter protest took place at the same night too. The Ku Klux Klan held another rally in Charlottesville on July 8, 2017. About 50 Klan members and 1,000 counter protesters gathered at a loud but nonviolent rally; the Klan members left the park after about 45 minutes. In opposition to the rally, the Charlottesville Clergy Collective created a safe space at First United Methodist Church, which was used by over 600 people. On the evening of Friday, August 11, a group of white nationalists—variously numbered from "dozens" to "about 250” gathered for an unannounced (and unsanctioned by the city) march through the University of Virginia's campus. They marched towards the University's Lawn chanting Nazi and white supremacist slogans, including "White lives matter"; "You will not replace us"; and "Jews will not replace us.” The Nazi slogan "Blood and Soil" was also used. Mostly white men were there, and many of them used tiki torches.  Later, a fight happened at the Rotunda, and Virginia State police broke it up. Meanwhile, progressive, anti-racist clergy led a pre-planned ecumenical Christian and interfaith prayer service at St. Paul's Memorial Church on University Avenue in opposition to the Unite the Right rally. The Cavalier Daily reported, "While waiting for rides at Nameless Field after the march, several of the 'alt-right' protesters hurled anti-Semitic, homophobic and misogynistic slurs at several reporters and community members asking them questions. One man asking questions was thrown to the ground and surrounded by marchers after a brief physical altercation." Mayor Michael Signer condemned the alt right gathering, writing the following: "When I think of candlelight, I want to think of prayer vigils. Today, in 2017, we are instead seeing a cowardly parade of hatred, bigotry, racism, and intolerance march."

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The Unite the Right rally was organized by Jason Kessler and Richard Spencer. The bigots in the rally had semiautomatic rifles, Nazis symbols, Confederate battle flags, Deus Vult crosses, and they spewed hate. The racists encountered anti-fascist and anti-racist groups. By August 12, 2017, more racism erupted. Some waved Confederate flags, and others held posters targeting Jews that read "the Goyim know," and "the Jewish media is going down.” Protesters also shouted racial slurs and "Jew" when Charlottesville mayor Michael Signer was mentioned, and they waved Nazi flags and signs claiming, among other things, that "Jews are Satan's children." Dozens wore Donald Trump's red "Make America Great Again" campaign hats. Saturday morning worshipers at synagogue Beth Israel, faced with men in fatigues with semiautomatic rifles across the street, and a call on Nazi web sites to burn their building, felt it prudent to exit the synagogue through a back door, carrying their Torah scrolls with them. Progressive religious clergy people sang “This Little Light of mine.” They prayed and linked arms. Harvard professor Cornel West, who organized some of the counter-demonstrators, said that a group of "20 of us who were standing, many of them clergy, we would have been crushed like cockroaches if it were not for the anarchists and the anti-fascists who approached, over 300, 350 anti-fascists". West stated, "The neofascists had their own ammunition. And this is very important to keep in mind, because the police, for the most part, pulled back."

Violent clashes happened among protesters and counter protesters. Virginia then Governor Terry McAuliffe declared a state of emergency. Those in the location in opposition to the racists were the National Council of Churches, Black Lives Matter, Anitifa, etc. Before the rally, counter protesters obtained permits to gather at McGuffey Park and Justice Park, both less than a quarter-mile from Lee Park. Charlottesville City Council spokeswoman Miriam I. Dickler later stated that counter protesters did not need permits to protest the rally at Lee Park. The Virginia State Police called the rally an unlawful assembly. Street brawls existed throughout August 12, 2017. At around 1:45 pm, a self-identified white supremacist James Alex Fields Jr. deliberately rammed his car into a crowd of counter-protesters about 0.5 miles (0.8 km) away from the rally site, killing Heather Heyer and injuring nearly 40 other people. Heyer was at the location to oppose bigotry and intolerance. Fields fled the scene in his car but was arrested soon afterward; he was tried and convicted in Virginia state court of first-degree murder, malicious wounding, and other crimes in 2018, with the jury recommending a sentence of life imprisonment plus 419 years. The following year, Fields pleaded guilty to 29 federal crimes in exchange for federal prosecutors' agreement not to seek the death penalty. At the rally, one black young person named DeAndre Harris (who was a former special education instruction assistant) was assaulted by racists in a parking garage too. He received a head laceration requiring stitches, a concussion, a knee injury, a fractured wrist, and a spinal injury. The people who did this were Alex Michael Romas, Jacob Scott Goodwin, Daniel P. Borden, and Tyler Watkins Davis. Donald Trump’s response to the tragedy was offensive and disgraceful. He did not initially denounce the marchers explicitly, instead condemning "hatred, bigotry, and violence on many sides."

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While Trump later stated that he condemned neo-Nazis, his first statement and his subsequent defenses of it, in which he also referred to "very fine people on both sides." There are no fine people on both sides. Neo-Nazis, white nationalists, and Neo-Confederates aren’t fine people. They are evil people. Unite the Right held an anniversary rally on August 11–12, 2018, in Washington D.C. Like the original, the rally was expected to draw large protests from religious organizations, civil rights groups, and anti-fascist organizers. The rally's turnout consisted of 20–30 protesters amidst thousands of counter-protestors. At August 12, 2017, there was a police helicopter crash too. Citing an FBI source, Virginia Representative Tom Garrett has stated that racial divisions fomented by Russian agents contributed to violence at the rally. The Heaphy report criticized the city’s handling of the rally.  The report found that the Charlottesville Police Department had failed to adequately prepare for its events, had a flawed plan of response, and was not properly trained. The report also criticized actions by the Charlottesville City Council, attorneys from the city and state, the University of Virginia and the Virginia State Police. Law enforcement failed to break up fights or take an active role in preventing fights and was instructed not to intervene except in cases of "extreme violence." This decision represented "a tremendous tactical failure that has real and lasting consequences." University of Virginia officials were aware of plans for a torchlight rally by white nationalists but "took no action to enforce separation between groups or otherwise prevent violence." Charlottesville police and Virginia State Police failed to operate under a unified command and did not even use the same radio channel. David Duke defended Trump’s remarks. Nationwide and worldwide, people led candlelight vigils to condemn racism in Washington, D.C., Cambridge, Massachusetts, Brooklyn, Los Angeles, and Berlin. Former Governor Terry McAuliffe and Michael Signer wanted the racists to leave Charlottesville. Signer blamed Trump for fueling racial hatred in America.  Beinart wrote that unlike the alt-right, the members of Antifa are not practitioners of an ideology that advocates the ethnic cleansing of other racial and religious groups nor do they "celebrate regimes that committed genocide and enforced slavery", and Antifa promotes egalitarianism unlike the alt-right.

University of Virginia Center for Politics director Larry J. Sabato, who lives on the university grounds and saw the march on August 11, said that the weekend was among the university's saddest days, stating: "I hope people will put it into context and understand that we had no control over the individuals organizing it, nor the people who showed up. What we can control is our personal and institutional reaction to it. What I saw was pure evil." Atlanta mayor Kasim Reed called for city flags to be flown at half-staff, and indicated he favors renaming Confederate Avenue. German Chancellor Angela Merkel called the violence "horrifying" and "evil" and said: "It is racist, far-right violence and clear, forceful action must be taken against it, regardless of where in the world it happens." German Justice Minister Heiko Maas similarly condemned the violence, antisemitism, and racism of the neo-Nazis at the rally. Trump’s statement to make a moral equivalence of protesters and counter protesters is evil by him. Domestic white supremacist terrorism is the issue. Trump believes that removing Confederate statues was about changing history, which is a lie. Removing statues deals with dealing with reality, and many resources document the evil history of the Confederacy. More than 60 Democratic and Republican members of the U.S. House of Representatives and the United States Senate condemned Trump's remarks. Among those were Senators Bernie Sanders, John McCain, Tim Scott, Susan Collins, Chuck Schumer, Cory Booker, Elizabeth Warren, Jeff Flake, Orrin Hatch, Heidi Heitkamp, Claire McCaskill, Joe Manchin, Dean Heller and Tammy Duckworth, and House members Robert C. "Bobby" Scott, Don Beyer, Barbara Comstock, Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, Will Hurd and Gerry Connolly, as well as Ohio Governor John Kasich and former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney.

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 House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi said, "The president's continued talk of blame 'on many sides' ignores the abhorrent evil of white supremacism ..." Speaker of the House Paul Ryan stated, "We must be clear. White supremacy is repulsive. This bigotry is counter to all this country stands for. There can be no moral ambiguity." Democratic Rep. Steve Cohen of Tennessee announced on August 17, that he would introduce articles of impeachment against President Trump for his remarks in the press conference, stating that Trump had "failed the presidential test of moral leadership." The racist, anti-Semitic members of the Rise Above Movement had members arrested for evil acts. Many people from the Presidential advisory councils resigned, but they resigned because of pressure knowing full well that Trump have said racist statements long before the events of Charlottesville. A progressive movement in Charlottesville has inspired people to fight for justice. Nikuyah Walker, one of the local activists who charged into a city council meeting days after the rally to confront the city leadership, was elected mayor in January 2018. She is the first black woman mayor of Charlottesville. Also, she has a long legacy of activism in real life and is from Charlottesville, Virginia. So, the future legacy of the city will not be the past. Justice is our goal like always.

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The Mueller Investigation

The Mueller investigation caused a total of 34 people to be indicted. Eight of them pleaded guilty to or been convicted of felonies. These included five Trump associates and campaign officials. None of the convictions or indictments were for collusion by the Trump campaign with Russians to influence the election, nor were any such charges suggested. Lieutenant General Michael Flynn, who had been appointed as National Security Advisor by the incoming Trump administration, was convicted of making false statements to FBI investigators about his conversations with Russian ambassador Sergey Kislyak during the presidential transition, and he was dismissed from his position. Former Trump campaign chairman Paul Manafort was found guilty on eight felony counts of tax evasion and bank fraud, pursuant to his earlier lobbying activities for the Party of Regions of former Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovich. He later pled guilty to conspiracy to defraud and obstruction of justice; in total, he was sentenced to over seven years in jail. In February 2018, Mueller's team indicted thirteen Russian citizens and three Russian entities, including the Internet Research Agency (IRA), for conducting social media campaigns about the U.S. elections, and twelve members of the Russian GRU cyber espionage group known as Fancy Bear, for hacking and leaking DNC emails.

In June 2018, Konstantin Kilimnik, Manafort's business partner in Ukraine, was indicted for witness tampering at the behest of Manafort; Kilimnik is suspected of working for Russian intelligence. Trump’s former personal lawyer Michael Cohen pled guilty to making hush payments to Stormy Daniels and Karen McDougals. This was in violation of campaign finance laws. He was also convicted for several unrelated counts of bank and tax fraud. Cohen had a change of heart to expose Trump as a narcissist, a racist, and a corrupt person. Campaign adviser George Papadopoulos was convicted for making false statements to the FBI. Russian gun activist Maria Butina was interviewed by Special Counsel investigators, then prosecuted by the National Security Law Unit and imprisoned for spying.  Longtime Trump advisor Roger Stone, who had met with a Russian person offering to sell derogatory financial information about Hillary Clinton, was indicted on seven charges and has pled not guilty. Dozens of ongoing investigations originally handled by the Special Counsel's office were forwarded to district and state prosecutors, other Department of Justice (DoJ) branches, and other federal agencies. When the investigation ended at March 22, 2019, the Mueller Report was submitted to Attorney General William Barr.

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Barr acted as the President’s personal attorney instead of an unbiased individual. He defended Trump and said that there was no collusion and no obstruction of justice. That is a lie, because the Mueller report said that it doesn’t exonerate Trump on the issue of obstruction of justice. The report found no collusion of Trump and the Russians, but it did state that Congress has the responsibility to charge Trump with obstruction of justice. The report cited many examples of obstruction. A redacted version of the report was released to the public on April 18, 2019. The report concluded that two forms of Russian interference occurred and "violated U.S. criminal law." Mueller later said that the investigation's conclusion on Russian interference "deserves the attention of every American.” Mueller refused to indict Trump because of an Office of Legal Counsel (OLC) opinion. Barr and Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein refused to charge Trump on obstruction of justice.

Upon the abolishment of his position on May 29, 2019, Mueller stated that: "the Constitution requires a process other than the criminal justice system to formally accuse a sitting president of wrongdoing.” In other words, he wants Congress to deal with the process of indicting Trump with obstruction of justice charges. To this day, members of Congress want the whole unredacted report to be released. Some people want Donald Trump to be impeached. I believe that he should be impeached too because of various reasons. There is no question that Trump committed obstruction of justice. Trump has called on people to lie for him, fired people because of the Mueller report, resisted subpoenas, and refused to allowed officials to testify in Congress. Impeachment means that after an investigation, the President is charged with high crimes and misdemeanors (by the House). The Senate ultimately can remove a President from office. Recently, the Presidential candidates of Kamala Harris and Elizabeth Warren want Trump to be impeached. When you have Republicans and numerous progressives making the case for impeachment of Trump, then Trump is having a real problem. We shall see what the future holds.

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The Historic 2018 Midterm Elections

The 2018 United States mid-term elections was one of the most important elections in American history. It caused the House of Representatives to be run by a majority of Democrats. That never happened in years. It was an election of history making in an unprecedented level for women, black people, people of color, and other minorities. It allowed progressives to show their voices. It prevented a total Republican domination of the Congress, and it made people aware that social change is still a concept to promote. The Republicans controlled the Senate with a gain of 2 seats. The 2018 elections had the highest voter turnout in midterm elections since 1914. It saw many firsts. In various referenda, numerous states voted to expand Medicaid coverage, require voter identification, establish independent redistricting commissions, legalize marijuana, repeal felony disenfranchisement laws and enact other proposals. It saw the first people in various groups like race, sex, sexuality, etc. The Democrats issued a message that focused on health care to galvanize their base of supporters to vote for them. Many candidates opposed the tax cuts for the rich, immigration policies from Trump, and Russian interference in elections. It was a blue wave election. Ilhan Omar of Minnesota and Rashida Tlaib of Michigan became the first Muslim women elected to the House of Representatives, Ayanna Pressley became the first African-American woman elected to the House from Massachusetts; Sharice Davids of Kansas and Deb Haaland of New Mexico became the first Native American women elected to Congress, and Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez of New York became the youngest-ever woman member of the House at age 29. Jared Polis, who was elected governor of Colorado, became the first openly gay man to be elected Governor Kevin Stitt, who was elected governor of Oklahoma, was elected the first Native American governor in the nation. Black women are anchors of the progressive movement in America, and they heavily were involved in the blue victories.

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Over 20 black women serve in Congress as a result of the historic 2018 election. Lauren Underwood is part of the House from Illinois and she is a black woman. Lucy McBath, a gun control advocate whose son was murdered in 2012, won in Georgia’s Sixth District, flipping a seat that had been in Republican hands for nearly four decades. Jahana Hayes, a 2016 National Teacher of the Year, is the first black woman to represent Connecticut in Congress. These women’s victories in the 2018 midterm elections will make them part of the largest women congressional class in history next January — overall; more than 100 women will become members of Congress. Almost exactly 50 years to the day that Shirley Chisholm (D-NY) became the first black woman elected to Congress, the results of Election Day 2018 meant that the number of black women in Congress will climb above 20 for the first time in its history. The lesson is that if you want real change, you have to speak to the concerns of black women. That is just the truth. You can't be for human liberation unless you show unconditional support to black women. Letitia “Tish” James became the first black woman, first woman, and first African American elected to the position of New York attorney general. Illinois House of Representatives member Juliana Stratton was elected lieutenant governor of Illinois. At the local level, a group of 19 black women dubbed the “Houston 19” all won election to judgeships in Harris County, Texas. Rachael Rollins became Massachusetts’s first black district attorney. Georgia’s Stacey Abrams may have lost the election in 2018, but her call for change resonates today. Andrew Gillum’s Florida campaign for governor ended not for his victory. Yet, we still know that 2018 was a turning point to make sure that Trump is held accountable for his policies. With a majority Democratic House, you have a check. Nearing 2020, we see a new era of history.

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Nearing 2020 and America’s Future

Now, the United States of America is experiencing a crossroads period in its history. We have come a long way, but also, we have such a long way to go in seeing the Dream made real for all people. We live in a paradox too. Many people are rich currently, while other human beings in America experience homelessness from the large urban centers to rural communities. In real life, I have seen the homeless in Los Angeles, in Baltimore, and in Virginia. We also have massive access to advanced technology from the Internet to I Phones. Likewise, there are those in positions of power who spew xenophobia, racism, and unnecessary divisiveness too. One example is how Trump claims to be for the people, but he vulgarly disrespects peaceful NFL protesters, women, and anyone who disagrees with his reactionary views. The essence of a true follower of righteousness isn't about bragging about much you have (or shaming others for their situations). It is about living out the creed of tolerance, human justice, kindness, and community solidarity. That creed has been embraced by people of many walks of life.

We are not naive either. We have seen the negative consequences of unfettered, unregulated capitalism. We have seen oligarchs receive record profits at the expense of the suffering of the working people and the poor. It is certainly not right to witness millions of Americans who struggle to go to the doctor for fear of hospital care being too expensive. Some are forced to work 60-80 hours a week because they lack a living wage. Some areas now in the United States have no paid family leave. We have the right to the fight legitimately for reparations for black Americans, and we must confront police brutality too. Veterans sleeping in the streets, massive homelessness, and other injustices represent the reality that we are not truly free in the world now. Getting freedom means to demand for it and fighting for it. We want transformative change. It is no secret that the some sections of ruling class (which includes many Republicans and even some centrist Democrats. Corporate interests dominate the prison industrial complex and the military industrial complex) and reactionaries back then opposed FDR's Social Security plan, LBJ's Medicare plan, and now they oppose even a $15 an hour minimum wage. When monopolistic big business interests have more power than some countries and advance corrupt policies, then it is the time to reclaim our desire to combat oligarchy and economic injustice. When Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. praised democratic socialism, he was right.

As we near 2020, we continuously realize what is really important. Those things consists of caring for family and friends, growing in a more mature, forthright fashion, and standing up against injustice. We know about the evil in the world. Police brutality, migrants placed in internment camps, a hostility towards the freedom of the press, massacres in Sudan, etc. are abhorrent. That is why I reject red baiting, racism, xenophobia, and any form of bigotry. We recognize the heroes working day in and day out who contribute their time to save lives, to follow honor, and to develop institutions that enrich society. The Civil War taught us that intervention is necessary to eradicate slavery and the nefarious Confederacy. The Civil Rights Movement (filled with heroic men, women, and children) taught us that social activism is a key way in getting results. In the 21st century, various movements now teach us that caring for our neighbors without exceptions represents the best in ourselves. I do believe in reparations. Ta-Nehisi Coates recently gave an eloquent speech about the necessity to bring about reparations. Here are some of his historic statements in front of the House on June of 2019:

"...The method of cultivating this asset was neither gentle cajoling nor persuasion, but torture, rape, and child trafficking. Enslavement reigned for 250 years on these shores. When it ended, this country could have extended its hallowed principles — life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness — to all, regardless of color. But America had other principles in mind. And so, for a century after the Civil War, black people were subjected to a relentless campaign of terror, a campaign that extended well into the lifetime of Majority Leader McConnell.

It is tempting to divorce this modern campaign of terror, of plunder, from enslavement, but the logic of enslavement, of white supremacy, respects no such borders, and the god of bondage was lustful and begat many heirs. Coup d’états and convict leasing. Vagrancy laws and debt peonage. Redlining and racist G.I. bills. Poll taxes and state-sponsored terrorism.

We grant that Mr. McConnell was not alive for Appomattox. But he was alive for the electrocution of George Stinney. He was alive for the blinding of Isaac Woodard. He was alive to witness kleptocracy in his native Alabama and a regime premised on electoral theft. Majority Leader McConnell cited civil rights legislation yesterday, as well he should, because he was alive to witness the harassment, jailing, and betrayal of those responsible for that legislation by a government sworn to protect them. He was alive for the redlining of Chicago and the looting of black homeowners of some $4 billion. Victims of that plunder are very much alive today. I am sure they’d love a word with the majority leader.

What they know, what this committee must know, is that while emancipation deadbolted the door against the bandits of America, Jim Crow wedged the windows wide open. And that is the thing about Senator McConnell’s “something”: It was 150 years ago. And it was right now.

The typical black family in this country has one-tenth the wealth of the typical white family. Black women die in childbirth at four times the rate of white women. And there is, of course, the shame of this land of the free boasting the largest prison population on the planet, of which the descendants of the enslaved make up the largest share..."

It is important to promote morality, integrity, honor, and fidelity to the truth. That means that we reject adultery, murder, rape, harassment, racism, xenophobia, and other sins that harm the soul. It is important to note that being born in this world as you are is not a sin. Love is not a sin. You have the right to live on this Earth just like anyone else. All human beings are created equal; therefore all human beings are entitled to liberty, equality, and justice regardless of background. Any human should never experience murder, discrimination, or injustice. Oppression is a sin. I do believe in the development of the black community, the growth of black children, Black Love, and black Pan-African unity forever and ever. Therefore, we don't give up. We are steadfast in our commitment to real, progressive change. We desire America's future to be better than its past and present.

In the end, we shall overcome.

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Appendix A: The Culture of the 2010’s

The 2010’s is all about covering as much of the human family as possible in the realm of literature, television, the arts, movies, etc. It is the time of an expansion of independent, internet streaming services that outline more accessible shows for the people worldwide. It is also a time of music being influenced by the growth of new social movements from BLM to MeToo. The world is in the midst of economic issues too from the start of the 2010s seeing global recession to the superpower competition among America and China. One facet of the 2010s culturally is the rise of popularity of smartphones, tablets, and other IoT devices. This has grown by the Internet, mass media, mobile apps, social networking, and videotelephony. By the 2010’s, we saw the first quantum machine, scientists created the synthetic genome, the Curiosity rover landing on Mars, and further research of cells. Fashion dealt with skater fashion, revival of fashion of the 1970’s plus the 1990’s, and young men wearing full beards. Many men wore goatees and mustaches. Women wore the athleisure tend with more formal dress. Many Sisters are showing gorgeous afros too. There is the increase of gluten free diets, veganism, vegetarianism, and food photography. Energy drinks and sprinkling water is popular in the 2010’s. Music of the 2010s is completely different. People can use 32 or more tracks in real time. More globalization and music streaming services are commonplace. Dance and pop music developed in the 2010’s. EDM, sythpop, indie, trap, and mumble rap are very influential. R&B and hip hop have power. Hip Hop and R&B surpassed Rock and Pop music as the most consumed form of music in the United States in 2017. K-Pop from South Korea and other international forms of music have grown too including dubstep (plus drum step from the UK). Music streaming services such as Sound cloud, Spotify, Apple Music, and Pandora Radio became the preferred music delivery systems, similar to movie and television streaming services such as Netflix. Music from gospel, country, pop, rock, etc. has been alive today as well.

By the early 2010’s, singers like Rihanna, Tyler Swift, Lady Gaga, and others continued to make records. In hip hop, new artists like Kendrick Lamar, Drake, J. Cole, Young Thug, Migos, and 21 Savage dominated the charts. By 2010, Teddy Pendergrass passed away at the age of 59 years old. Teddy Pendergrass revolutionized singing. In 2010, artists united for the Hope for Haiti Now telethon to give aid to the victims of the Earthquake. Artists from Wyclef Jean to Keith Urban plus Rihanna participated in it. The 52nd Annual Grammy Awards at the Staples Center in Los Angeles, California on January 31, 2010. Beyoncé breaks a record, winning 6 Grammys in one night, including Song of The Year for "Single Ladies (Put a Ring on It)". Taylor Swift wins 4 Grammys, including Album of The Year for Fearless. At just 20 years old, Swift became the youngest ever winner of Album of the Year. Beyoncé increased her popularity. The charity single "We Are the World 25 for Haiti" debuted at No. 2 on Billboard Hot 100 singles chart with 267,000 digital downloads and debuted at No. 1 on Billboard Hot Digital Songs chart. Justin Bieber shows his music. Carrie Underwood won the Entertainer of the Year at the 45th Annual Academy of Country Music Awards. On May 4, 2010, Bone Thugs-n-Harmony released their reunion album with all original five members entitled Uni5: The World's Enemy. Macy Gray releases The Sellout to critical acclaim. It is her first studio album in over three years. By 2010, songs like Bad Romance and Telephone (with Lady Gaga and Beyoncé) receive massive rotation. ITunes show music from the Beatles after years of disputes on November 16, 2010. Kanye West whose his album My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy in 2010. 53rd Grammy Awards nominees announced from Los Angeles' Club Nokia with Eminem leads with ten nominations for his album Recovery. Bruno Mars scored seven nominations and Lady Gaga, Jay-Z and Lady Antebellum with six nominations each. The ceremony was held in the Staples Center on February 13, 2011.

In 2011, Britney Spears released new music with Hold It Against Me. Lady Gaga released Born This Way. Nate Dogg passed away at 41 on March 15, 2011 from a stroke. Chris Brown released music. Watch the Throne came out which featured Jay Z and Kanye West. Rock artists like Red Hot Chili Peppers, Blink 182, Korn, and other artists released music. Etta James and Whitney Houston passed away in the year of 2012. Whitney Houston was an icon who had the greatest singing voice in our generation. Adele's single "Set Fire to the Rain" reaches #1 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, (by February of 2012) making her album, 21, the first album in history to have three #1 songs from the same album by a British female artist. Nicki Minaj, Madonna, M.I.A. Madonna, LMFAO, and Cee Lo Green perform at the 2012 Super Bowl. Donna Summer passed away from cancer at the age of 63 in 2012 too. Donna Summer was the Queen of Disco and her voice was incredible. 2012 saw pop artists like Tyler Swift, Rihanna (with her Unapologetic album), The Weeknd, etc. achieve monumental success. In 2013, Cher returned to music. Jay Z released his Magna Carta Holy grail album. By December 13, 2013, Beyoncé released her visual album called Beyoncé. It was historic and filled with creativity. It was filled with themes about intimacy, sex, monogamous love, relationships, feminism, and self-worth. It was an honest album. Pretty Hurts is one of Beyonce's great songs on the Beyonce album since it taught the lesson of self-acceptance (and showing the world that beauty is truly from within). This album increased Beyoncé’s icon status. In 2014, Bruno Mars was a very popular artist including Katy Perry. Michael Jackson’s second unreleased posthumous album of Xscape was released. Linkin Park released new music. In 2015, we saw Shania Twain tour. Janet Jackson released Unbreakable in 2015. It was very powerful. Janet's music is just universally loved by all. Kendrick Lamar’s popularity grew as well. In 2016, Beyoncé released her Lemonade album. Lemonade was a visual album too. It focused on blues, reggae, rock, hip hop, soul, country, trap, electronic, and other forms of music.

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Lemonade was historic and touched on black culture, religion, family, and it was very honest. With songs like Formation, Sorry, Hold Up, Freedom featuring Kendrick Lamar, All Night, Daddy Lessons, etc., she didn’t hold back. Lemonade was nominated for nine awards at the 59th Annual Grammy Awards in 2017, winning Grammy Awards for Best Urban Contemporary Album and Best Music Video. "Formation" received nominations for Record of the Year, Song of the Year, and Best Music Video, while "Hold Up", "Don't Hurt Yourself", and "Freedom" were nominated in pop, rock, and rap categories, respectively. The album won a Peabody Award in the Entertainment category. Lemonade celebrates Blackness as beautiful and powerful. In 2016, David Bowie released his album Blackstar, and Rihanna showed her eight studio album called Anti. Ciara performed the National Anthem at the second College Football Playoff Championship. 3 Doors Down shown their album and Gwen Stefani in 2016.  Lady Gaga released her fourth studio album, Joanne, which debuted at number 1 on the Billboard 200, making her the first woman of the 2010s to have four number one albums. JoJo released her first album in ten years titled Mad Love.

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A Tribe Called Quest released We Got It from Here... Thank You 4 Your Service, their first studio album since 1998 and also their final studio album. In 2017, Chance the Rapper won a Grammy. The iHeart Radio Music Awards took place at the Forum in Inglewood, California. Jay Z in 2017 released 4:44. 4:44 was about Jay Z having self reflection on his life, on his marriage, on economic empowerment, and about his hometown of New York City. Linkin Park’s Chester Bennington passed away at LA in the age of 41 at 2017. Tom Petty and Troy Gentry passed away too. In 2018, new artists and old ones rose up. There was the popularity of artists like J. Cole, Cardi B, Lenny Kravitz, Janelle Monae (with Dirty Computer), Christina Aguilera, etc. In 2018, XXXTentacion passed away in Florida, and Mac Miller passed away as well. In 2018, Aretha Franklin passed away. Aretha was a rare talent who had the greatest singing voice involving soul of all time. She was a civil rights activist, and a woman who desired total Respect involving her life. By October 26, 2018, the Black Eyed Peas released their first album in eight years, Masters of the Sun Vol. 1. This is their first album without Fergie since her departure from the band in early 2018, and their first album as a trio since their 2000 album Bridging the Gap. Mariah Carey released her album called Caution in 2018 too. Ice Cube released new music.

Hootie and the Blowfish reunite by the end of 2018 too. In 2019, creative music still flourished. Nipsey Hussle passed away at the age of 33 in late March of 2019. Nispey Hussle loved his community of Los Angeles, and he wanted to stop gang violence plus poverty. Ciara released her first album in four years, Beauty Marks. Rap, pop, rock, hip hop, gospel, jazz, and other forms of music are still expressed globally. Cloud gaming, virtual reality, and 3D gaming existed. Movies and TV shows in the 2010’s are dominated by superhero and science fiction movements. From Despicable Me to the Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse, these animation films inspired our minds. In April–May 2019, Avengers: Endgame grossed over $2.5 billion worldwide, becoming the highest-grossing superhero film of all time and the second highest-grossing movie of all time, only surpassed by 2009's Avatar. Black Panther inspired a new generation of people to promote their black consciousness. Dramas existed too like All Eyez on Me. More shows existed on Amazon prime, YouTube, Netflix, and other streaming services. New shows like Snowfall, Pose, This is Us, Black-ish, etc. outlined the diversity of human beings.

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In terms of sports, legends continuously existed. Usain Bolt in the 2012 and 2016 Olympics in London and Rio became the most successful sprinter in human history. He has records in the 100m, 200m, and the 4X100m relay. Michael Phelps became the most decorated Olympian ever after winning his 22nd medal in the 2012 Summer Olympics. In 2012, the women’s USA track and field team made the record of the 4X100m relay. The names of the winners are Tianna Bartoletta, Allyson Felix, Bianca Knight, Carmelita Jeter. These women ran an exciting race. Carmelita Jeter pointing at the time with the balon was a classic moment of pure joy. New England Patriots, the Seahawks, and other NFL teams won the Super Bowl during the 2010's. The Heat, the Cavaliers, and other diverse teams won the NBA Finals. The Cleveland Cavaliers won their first championship in the 2016 NBA Finals. The Cavaliers were the first in the NBA history to come back from a 1–3 series deficit. The Chicago Cubs won the World Series, erasing a 108-year championship drought, defeating the Cleveland Indians in Game 7 of the World Series on November 3, 2016. In 2018, the Philadelphia Eagles won Super Bowl LII over the New England Patriots 41–33, ending their 57-year championship drought and bringing home their first ever Super Bowl. Nick Foles wins Super Bowl MVP. The Rio Olympics was historic too. The Raptors won the 2019 NBA Finals in beating the Golden State Warriors in a 4-2 game series.

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(image from Reuters)

Appendix B: Updates on the 2020 Presidential Election

Today, the 2020 Democratic Presidential race has the most diverse field of candidates in the Democratic side in American history. The candidates with the most popularity running now are of course Joe Biden, Kamala Harris, Elizabeth Warren, Pete Buttigieg, and Bernie Sanders. I took my time to listen to many voices to see the truth. The truth is obvious. Kamala Harris is a very intelligent woman of color who have policies that I do agree and other policies that I don’t agree with. The problem in the Democratic Party now is that it is battling an ideological war between sincere progressives and Wall Street corporate Democrats who are more concerned with the status quo than real liberation. Real liberation is about ending structures of oppression and forming monumental solutions to the people not moderate policies that only benefit the few. Kamala Harris is known for being a prosecutor. His father is a Jamaican man (whose ancestors owned slaves) and his mother was an Indian woman. Her mother was involved in civil rights causes. Kamala Harris was a prosecutor, and now she is a Democratic Senator. Her campaign rally to announce her candidacy in Oakland, California was huge, she gave an eloquent speech, and she is a powerful debater. The question about her is her policies involving criminal justice issues and other matters. The two extremes must be rejected. One extreme promotes sexism and racism against her. We must be clear to condemn any racist or sexist attacks against Kamala Harris. She should be treated with fairness.

The other extreme desires no critique of her and promotes the lie that any legitimate critique about Kamala Harris’ policies is akin to sexism or racism. That isn’t the case as people have the free speech right to fairly critique her record. Even though I don’t agree with the ADOS movement on every issue, they are certainly not Russian bots. That’s wrong for some to assume so. First, I will show where I agree with her and where I disagree with her. Kamala Harris opposed the death penalty of one person. She believes in teaching nonviolent inmates and some juvenile offenders skills for employment. She filed a brief in the Supreme Court encouraging public universities to consider race in admissions. She went after illegal dumping and air pollution. She went about companies like BP, Chevron, etc. who polluted. She supported single payer health care and free college tuition for families earning less than $140,000. Here is where I disagree with her on. She never actively challenged the death penalty when she was Attorney General. She defended the three strikes law. She wanted voters to reject Proposition 66 (which was a ballot initiative that would have made only serious or violent felonies trigger life sentences). When she ran for attorney general, her Republican opponent actually ran to her left on the issue. She was wrong to promote a cruel truant law that threatened parents of truant children with a $2,000 fine and a year in jail.  By October 2012, mothers had been imprisoned under the law.

“We are putting parents on notice,” she said in her inaugural speech as attorney general. “If you fail in your responsibility to your kids, we are going to work to make sure you face the full force and consequences of the law.” Daniel Larsen’s case was truly concerning. Larsen’s release was challenged by Harris when he didn’t commit a specific crime, and Larsen is back at court. She did back a bill that required reports on officer-involved shootings to be posted publicly online and mandated bias training and that justice department agents wear body cameras. Yet, as district attorney, she refused to hand over the names of police officers whose testimonies had led to convictions despite the officers’ arrest records and histories of misconduct. As attorney general, she also opposed instituting police body cameras statewide and stood against a bill requiring her office to investigate fatal police shootings. Harris was likewise a firm proponent of the nefarious policy of civil asset forfeiture, sponsoring a bill to allow prosecutors to seize profits before charges were even filed. Years before that, she opposed AB 639, a bill that aimed to reform asset forfeiture.  Black people today aren’t buying the situation where a candidate talks about rap or speaks in an accent, then everything is cool. Just because a candidate went into Howard, is an AKA, or listens to Snoop doesn’t mean we will ultimately vote for you.

We want tangible policy positions that will help our people or African Americans directly. Therefore, Kamala Harris is a politician with a mixed record (which includes some great things that she had done like during the housing crisis, she won a historic mortgage settlement case that helped more than 84,000 California families). Her greatest challenge is her disturbing record involving criminal justice issues (especially refusing to release prisoners under a judge’s order to ease overcrowding. She supported the Broken Windows policy).

Now, it is important to evaluate all candidates not just one. Cory Booker has officially won for President too. He was born in Washington, D.C. and is now a Senator from New Jersey. He is the first African-American U.S. Senator from New Jersey. He was once the mayor of Newark from 2006 to 2013. Cory Booker is known as a social liberal. He believes in affirmative action, single payer healthcare, same-sex marriage, and women’s rights. He has been involved in the bipartisan movement to end the War on Drugs and have replacements. Booker have spoken in favor of criminal justice reform (including him proposing legislation like his new clemency plan in 2019. Author Michelle Alexander classified the prison system as the new Jim Crow. In my view, she is correct). Many people’s major questions about Cory Booker deal with his ties to corporate interests. For example, he took the most contributions from Wall Street for his 2014 campaign than any other candidate including Senator Mitch McConnell, R-Ky. He has received donations from Big Pharma. He recoiled against the campaign's criticisms of Mitt Romney’s private equity firm, Bain Capital. “I’m not about to sit here and indict private equity,” said Booker, on NBC’s Meet the Press. As he explained in a 2011 speech, “disparities in income in America are not because of some ‘greedy capitalist’ — no! It’s because of a failing education system.” You can’t fight oligarchy without exposing greedy capitalists. Yet rather than improving this system by increasing school funding or building public “community schools,” Booker made a hard case for charter schools as well as school vouchers , i.e., state funding for parents to pay for private schools. The truth is that greedy capitalists do contribute to income inequality. Booker has opposed gun violence and desires legitimate gun reform measures.

Pete Buttigieg is running from President. He is the Mayor of South Bend, Indiana, and he was born in South Bend, Indiana too. He is a military veteran of the War on Afghanistan as a U.S. Navy Lieutenant. Julian Castro from San Antonio, Texas is running for Texas as well. He was the Mayor of San Antonio, Texas and he worked as the 16th United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development under President Barack Obama from 2014 to 2017. Castro wants balanced budgets, free trade, universal pre-K, universal health care, a Green New Deal, and campaign finance reform. He certainly wants tighter gun control like the assault weapons ban and limiting access to high capacity magazines (and closing the gun show loophole). He wants a pathway to citizenship for most undocumented residents in America. He doesn’t want a border wall and desires ICE to be reconstituted. Julian Castro have talked about reparations for African Americans. He is the first Texan in the 2020 race, and would be third-youngest President if elected. In his announcement, Castro emphasized Medicare-for-all, universal pre-K, and a pathway to citizenship for undocumented immigrants as part of comprehensive immigration reform.

There is controversy with Joe Biden. The reason is that Biden said that he was willing to even work with a segregationist like Eastland in order to get civil rights policy passed. Cory Booker called for Biden to apologize. To his credit, Booker is one of the first Presidential candidates (along with Kamala Harris and Beto O'Rourke) to do so. It is one thing to work across the aisle to get laws passed, but Biden used a bad example of him citing terrible racists in citing his points. Therefore, he should apologize in my opinion in making sure that people have to show respect to our community. America isn't just made up of white American moderate voters. Black voters exist in the millions. Our voices matter, and our concerns ought to be respected.

John Delaney, Tulsi Gabbard, Bernie Sanders, Beto O'Rourke (he has an inspirational message, but his weakness is that he lacks  major policy goals and ways on achieving his goals. Ou'Rourke must bring in more specific content), and Kirsten Gillibrand are running for President too. Elizabeth Warren is running for President and promotes a wealth tax, banking regulation, environmental protections, and other progressive measures. She announced her run for President at a rally in Lawrence, Massachusetts. She wanted to promote labor rights as a major theme in her speech. She talked about race, class, women, immigrants, union members, and other issues. Her speech talked about homeownership, the criminal justice system, and exposing racism as evil. There is the Native American controversy where she apologized for claiming to have a significant Native American ancestry in her family tree which isn’t the case at all. U.S. Senator from Minnesota Amy Klobuchar ran for President in the snow. She is the woman who believes in many progressive principles too. Other people running for President include Michael E. Arth, Harry Braun, Ken Nwadike Jr., Robby Wells, Marianne Williamson, and Andrew Yang. Elizabeth Warren has been praised for showing details in her proposals in dealing with education, the prison system, economic justice issues, race, sex, etc. She believes in a wealth tax to tax the super wealthy in order to fund social programs. The Presidential race of 2020 is never dull. It is an exciting time for Americans and people throughout the world. At the end of the day, we want detailed proposals and solutions to the real problems found in the United States of America. The choice is ours.

By Timothy

The next part of this series will be the final chapter in the United States of America series. It has been a journey indeed. The last part will deal with the culture of America in detail. The upcoming final part of this historic series will deal with cuisine, sports, art, music, literature, holidays, etc.