Monday, November 23, 2020

Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists

JFK and Dag Hammarskjold

Biometric Police State? DHS Plans to Start Collecting Eye Scans and DNA — With the Help of Defense Contractors

Pompeo’s Attack on BDS Is an Assault on Free Speech

Trump Rushes to Auction Off Arctic Drilling Rights

It’s Time for the US to Face Up to Its War Crimes

Many Facts Being Explained.


By the time of his later career, Josephine Baker converted to Roman Catholicism. In 1968, she lost her castle owing to unpaid debts. That is why Princess Grace offered her an apartment in Roquebrune, near Monaco. Josephine Baker was on the stage again at the Olympia in Paris by 1968, in Belgrade, and at Carnegie Hall in 1973. She performed at the Royal Variety Performance at the London Palladium at the Gala du Cirque in Paris by 1974. On April 8, 1975, Baker starred in a retrospective revue at the Bobino in Paris. It was called "Josephine a Bobino 1975," which was done to celebrate her 50 years in show business. The revue was financed by Prince Rainier, Princess Grace, and Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. People celebrated it with rave reviews. There were so much demand for her performance that fold out chairs had to be added to accommodate spectators. The opening night audience included people like Sophia Loren, Mick Jagger, Shirley Bassey, Diana Ross, and Liza Minnelli. Four days later, Baker was found lying peacefully in her bed. She was surrounded by newspapers with glowing reviews of her performance. She was in a coma after suffering a cerebral hemorrhage. She was taken to Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, where she died, aged 68, on April 12, 1975. She received a full Roman Catholic funeral that was held at L'Église de la Madeleine. The only American-born woman to receive full French military honors at her funeral, Baker's funeral was the occasion of a huge procession. After a family service at Saint-Charles Church in Monte Carlo, Baker was interred at Monaco's Cimetière de Monaco.



The legacy of Josephine Baker is very much extensive. She expressed a fearlessness in self expression, and she courageously stood up against racial oppression. When Jim Crow apartheid existed in America, she opposed it. When the Nazis conquered France temporarily, Jospehine Baker not only spoke up against the evil of Nazism. She was actively involved in the French Resistance movement to defeat Nazism forever.  Before Grace Jones, before Madonna, before Dorothy Dandridge, before Lola Falana, before Beyonce, etc., there was Josephine Baker. Baker was inducted into the St. Louis Walk of Fame. Josephine Baker, on March 29, 1995, was named into the Hall of Famous Missourians. Many places of France are named in her honor. In 2015, she was inducted into the Legacy Walk in Chicago, Illinois. The Piscine Joséphine Baker is a swimming pool along the banks of the Seine in Paris named after her. Josephine Baker has an international following. She was more than an entertainer. She dedicated her life to advance the principles of equality, care for humanity, and justice. When I was a young child, I saw the autobiographical film about Josephine Baker's life starring the actress Lynn Whitfield. The film was called The Josephine Baker Story being originally featured on HBO in 1991. Lynn Whitfield  won an Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Miniseries or a Special – becoming the first Black actress to win the award in this category. In 2006, Deborah Cox starred in the musical Josephine at Florida's Asolo Theater, directed and choreographed by Joey McKneely, with a book by Ellen Weston and Mark Hampton, music by Steve Dorff and lyrics by John Bettis. In 2010, the great singer Keri Hilson portrayed Josephine Baker in her single "Pretty Girl Rock." On Thursday, November 22, 2018, a documentary titled Josephine Baker: The Story of an Awakening, directed by Ilana Navaro, premiered at the Beirut Art Film Festival. It contains rarely seen archival footage, including some never before discovered, with music and narration. Actress DeQuina Moore portrayed Baker in a biographic musical titled "Josephine Tonight" at The Ensemble Theater in Houston, Texas, from June 27 –  July 28, 2019. Josephine Baker's talent, activism, bravery, and work ethic inspire us all. 



From 1997-2006, it was the peak of the video model era. Video models have existed in music videos for years and decades and among numerous genres of music. Hip hop is no exception. A slang term for video models is video vixen. I will use the term video model, because it is a more fair description of their lives. The legacy of video models is complicated and diverse. They exist in every race, many of them have been humiliated not only in music videos but in areas outside of the music video scene. Many of them have diverse roles in videos. Some just dance. Some are in a fictional romantic story line in the videos. Some walk around to have fun. Some just act as company. Others do other controversial things in various videos not suitable for children. Hip hop and music in general have to deal with the evils of misogyny, colorism, etc. Unfortunately, many video models have been victims of misogyny, exploitation, harassment, abuse, pay inequality, and other problems. That is why we are clear that any man or any woman should be treated with dignity and with respect, regardless of his or her career choice. Some video models are lucky and have their own businesses, other jobs, became singers, became actresses, and much more successful situations in their life. Others still struggle to survive literally. The industry is cut throat. There is no other way to put it. We have to be honest, as we are all grown here. Some video models have been victims of colorism, fetishism, and other evils, but we have to discuss about these issues if we want real change. The video model culture deals with many controversial subjects. Many people have criticized many hip hop artists for using video models in submissive roles, while men artists are placed in positions of power. Many video models have been used as sexual objects, and called misogynistic slurs like the b word and the h word. Nelly's video of Tip Drill in 2004 have been criticized too as for its sexual objectification of women. Nelly said that the women voluntarily did these actions (as it's the argument of many artists involved in such situations), but there is a serious problem of music in general (not just hip hop) where women are objectified. The irony is that corporations exploit hip hop artists all of the time too. 


Hip Hop models have criticized the culture found in certain videos too. Candace Smith said in an XXL interview that, "what I've seen on [hip hop music video] sets is complete degradation. Sometimes, video models aren't rappers, but many women rappers have been video models too. The industry pressures many women artists to promote "sex appeal." Some women rappers are conscious, some are lyricists, and some want to take control of their sexuality. Artists like Lil Kim, Trina, Nicki Minja, Megan Thee Stallion, Remy Ma, Da Brat, Jacki-O, and other artists make the argument that they aren't exploiting themselves but they are expressing what they want in their videos (they feel like they are reclaiming their sexuality by doing what they're doing). Debates have come about about this subject. What is true is that if a person critiques these artists (that show their sexuality in full view) and not Too Live Crew, Luke, or many videos from artists that degrade women, then that person is a total hypocrite. Roxanne Shante and Salt-N-Papa made records to defend the image of women. This issue is complicated. We should reject the 2 extremes of a total degradation of a woman and the other extreme that any women not wearing a conservative dress in a video is somehow lacking in human character. In other words, there must be self-expression, respect shown to the dignity of women, and a balance to let the youth know that just because a video exists doesn't mean people should degrade a woman. We have to wise to never support videos that promote false stereotypes about black women. It is no secret that colorism is a serious problem in hip hop videos and in the music industry in general. Even in the 1990's and early 2000s (with colorism abundant), there were a diversity of complexions found among video models. For the few years now (especially since ca. 2005), many artists are overt in lusting after white, biracial, multiracial, and Latina women in their videos at the expense of them degrading black women. That's wrong. Those evils of colorism and racism have no justification in the world. For years, Hollywood and other industries have promoted the myth that black women, especially dark skinned black women, are not worthy of respect. Janet Hubert's recent words (which accurately describes the entertainment industry's known deception to prop up white imagery as superior when that is a lie) should be used as motivation for all of us to not only defeat racism and colorism. We have to oppose the slander of black people in general. Women should never be pressured to violate their core principles as an excuse to fulfill some corporate image. Corporations and some artists use women in the videos to gain the attention of men and to gain profit. Sex sells. The media in TV shows, magazines, and other media present the myth that African American women are immoral, hostile, only sexual, and these evil lies. We have that responsibility to defend black women and refute the lies from mainstream society. There is nothing wrong with admiring the beauty of black women. I'm attracted to black women. Yet, it is wrong to degrade black women. That point should always be emphasized. 


For long generations, women in hip hop have been diverse. Some use graffiti. Some are backpackers. Some are hardcore lyrically. Some are in conscious movements. Some have specialized lyricism in a massive level. Video models in hip hop music videos are from every walk of life. Some were raised in progressive households. Some have been abused. Some have risen up to have very successful careers in other arenas from fitness to business. One of the first video models in hip hop videos (in the 1997-2006 era) have been Lisa Raye McCoy. She has been on videos form Tupac, Lil Kim, Changing Faces, Ginuwine, Ghostface, Carl Thomas, Jamie Foxx, Master P, Jaheim, and other hip hop plus R&B artists music videos. Today, Lisa Raye McCoy is a grandmother, has businesses, and is on the FOX Soul show called Queens. Buffie Caruth was in many music videos and the film ATL. People know her now as more than a former video model, but she is now a famous author and fitness expert. Lauren London has modeled for Sean John for years. She is also an actress and been on music videos like Pharrell's song of Frontin and That Girl, Snoop, Ludacris, Common's Drivin' Me Wild, T.I.'s What You Know, Ne-Yo's Miss Independence, etc. She is the widow of the hip hop artist Nipsey Hussle. She has been on TV shows and movies like Next Day Air, I Love You, ATL, Beth Cooper, 90210 (and been on the covers of magazines like King and Jewel). Lola Monroe or Fershegenet Melauku is an Ethiopian-American. She was video model. Now, she is a rapper and actress. She was born in 1986. She was born in Addis Ababa and was in Washington, D.C. She was in music videos from Kanye West and Trey Songz. She made mixtapes and singles. Lola Monroe has been inspired by Jay Z, MC Lyte, Trina, Salt-n-Pepa, Lauryn Hill, and Tupac Shakur. Lola Monroe has one son.  Leila Arcieri was a video model who is now an actress. She was voted Miss San Francisco in the 1997 Miss California pageant. Vida Guerra is the famous Cuban American model who has been on videos and covers of magazines for years. She is now 46 years old. She was in videos from Frankie J, Kanye West, and even on the Chappelle Show to expose R Kelly's evil deeds. She is now a vegetarian. Amber Rose worked on the song of Put On in 2008. She has become a model and actress. Karrine Staffans is one of the most controversial former video models. Yet, her book called "Confessions of a Video Vixen" in 2005 told the truth that many musicians are adulterers and the industry has a lot of corruption in it. She has been in more than 20 music videos as one of the most popular video models of the 1997-2006 era. She is of Afro-Caribbean descent being born in Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands. That is why you can see your Caribbean accent and Northern accent by how she speaks. She was abused. She ran away when she was 16. She moved into NYC, Arizona, and finally into LA by 1999. She was born in 1978. She was in music videos like Hey Papi from Jay Z in 1999, LL Cool J's song, and Mystikal's song of Danger. She was in the movie A Man Apart, and modeled for Smooth Magazine. She was on KING too. Today, she is an author. Today, she helps women to know about the dangers of the entertainment industry and reach people to realize that misogyny in rap is not cool. Karine Staffans gave voice to a new generation of women to talk about these issues. 


One of the most resilient former video models is Melyssa Savannah Ford, who was form in Canadian (and her father is Afro-Barbardian. Her mother is Russian and Norwegian). She is 44 and born in Toronto, Canada. By the late 1990's, she was in numerous music videos. She was in men's magazines, TV programs, and films like Love for Sale, Think like a Man, Turn It Up, etc. She has publicly spoken out against music videos that promote  negative stereotypes against black women. She was on 112 ft. Lil Zane's Anywhere, Glenn Jones' The Thing to Do, Jadakiss' Knock Yourself Out, etc. She has been on XXL, Smooth, Maxim, and King. Melyssa Ford was on Soul Food, the TV show in 200, Entourage, The Game, Blood, Sweat and Heels, etc.  She survived a vehicle accident on June 2018. Now, she is a radio host, and a survivor. Nicole Narain has her own acting career. Leslie  Segar was on LL Cool J's Round the Way Girl music video and on Heavy D's Black Coffee. She had a successful career as a host of BET's Rap City. Segar had to battle colorism as a dancer and a host. Even at BET, she was made to feel like she didn’t meet a standard. Yet, Segar proved the haters wrong because of her media talent. Jennifer Lopez was in EPMD's Rampage, Janet Jackson's That's the Way Love Goes, and on In Living Color (as a dancer). Jossie Harris Thacker, Rosa Acosta, Sofia Marie, Shakur, Ms. Cat (Catya Washington), Xtine Noel, Kim Porter, Pilar Sanders, Gloria Velez, Esther Baxter, and other women were video models for a time. Some of the other unsung video models are the Afro-Trinidadian Simone Baptiste (who have a Master's degree, is a realtor, and her daughter is following in her footsteps), Nicole Ricca (who is from Jamaica. She has her own company and graduated from college), Chessika Cartwright (she was from Miami, Florida), Jeanettte Chaves, Sarah Rosete (she was in a singing group called Electric Red. Now, he is a mother to 2 children), Lanisha Cole (she is a photographer, actress, and from Pasadena, California), K.D. Aubert (she is a singer and actress), Sunday Carter, etc. Today, more and more people are learning the lessons that colorism, sexism, and other evils in the culture of the industry must be condemned. The movie starring Meagan Good called Video Girl from 2011 shows the truth about the video model culture in full detail. The movie was very realistic, and it had former video models in it like Melyssa Ford, Lisa Raye McCoy, Lola Monroe, Esther Baxter, Suelyn Medeiros, etc. It also starred La'Miya Good (or Meagan Good's sister), Adam Senn, Datari Turner, Bun B, and the legendary icon Ruby Dee. That film didn't sugarcoat a thing, and it outlines what's real. The truth is that we have to be wise to realize that you have to treat women with dignity and respect as equals if we are to come into the Dream made into fruition. There is nothing wrong with admiring the beauty of women respectfully. It is wrong to lust after a woman or mistreat a woman unjustly. It is as simple as that. That is why words, deeds, and thoughts must be in accordance to righteousness. We wish for anyone to wake up and come into the knowledge of the truth. 



The year of 2009 in hip hop about new artists and experimentation. The Notorious film soundtrack was released on January 13, 2009. It had Jay Z, Jadakiss, and other people. Albums from OJ Da Juiceman, Lisa "Lft Eye" Lopes,  and others were released in January too. Jermaine Dupri left Def Jam in 2009. Eminem, 50 Cent, and Dr. Dre's Crack a Bottle song would later reach number one on the charts. Souja Boy and Bow wow had a short feud. This was the year when 50 Cent and Rick Ross started to trade insults on various records. February 2009 saw Lil Wayne win 4 Grammy Awards at the 2009 Grammy Awards, Kanye West won 2 awards, and Jay Z including T.I. won one award each. On February 2009, albums from Zion I, B-Real, Grandmaster Flash (The Bridge-Concept of a Culture), Havoc, Joe Budden, Project Pat, and O.S.T.R. were released. Flo Rida released his R.O.O.T.S. album in March of 2009, TI was sentenced to jail for gun possessions, and other events happen. Relapse was released in 2009 from Eminem. Asher Roth's Asleep in the Bread Aisle and Rick Ross' Deeper Than Rap were high on the charts. By May of 2009, Ocean's 7 was formed. It was a supergroup made up of Jermaine Dupri, Nelly, Usher, Bryan-Michael Cox, Johnta Austin, Trey Songz, and Tyrone Davis. That month saw Method Man and Joe Budden having a dispute when Joe Budden falsely minimized Method Man's hip hop talent. DJ Paul released his album.  50 Center released his War Angel LP mixtape on June of 2009. This was the time when Michael Jackson passed away. The Game ended his feud with  50 Cent by June of 2009. Rakim made his comeback album of The Seventh Seal by July of 2009. Chamillionaire released his last mixtape on August of 2009. On September 2009, Jay Z and Alicia Keys performed Empire State of Mind at the 2009 MTV Video Music Award. Lil Mama jumped on stage because of her emotional connection that she had with the Jay Z and Alicia Keyes song praising NYC. DJ and producer Roc Raida died on September 19, 2009. Dj, Mr. Magic passed away. Jamala (Shyne" Barrow was released from prison in October 2009 after almost 9 years in prison. Beanie Sigel had a beef with Jay Z over money and influence, but they end it later on. Young Jeezy ended his beef with DJ Drama and Gucci Mane in December of 2009. T.I. was released early from prison. By 2009, Rick Ross's Deeper Than Rap  and Tech N9ne's Sicology 101 were very popular in the hip hop world. Gucci Mane shown his music along with Cam'ron, and Paul Wall. Method Man and Redman made Blackout! 2 on May 19, 2009. AZ made the album of Legendary. AZ is one of the few older artists that never lost his flow or lyricism. New artists and older artists made music like Hussein Fatal, Juicy J, Mos Def, Willy Northpole, Grand Puba, Maino, Yukmouth, Slaughterhouse, Killer Mike, Raekwon, Esoteric, Young Money, Kid Cudi, Mack 10, Royce da 5'9, Wale, 50 Cent (with Before I Self Destruct), and other people. The year of 2009 saw singles like Empire State of Mind, Best I Ever Had (from Drake, who was a newcomer back then), Keri Hilson ft. Kanye West plus Ne-Yo with Knock You Down, Forever (with Drake, Lil Wayne, Kanye West, and Eminem), Brother Ali's Good Lord, Nipsey Hussle's Hussle in the House, J Cole's Lights Please, Jay Z's Death of Autotune, and Jay Electronica's Exhibit C. 


In 2010, new developments existed in hip hop. DMX released his best songs in an album in January of 2010 along with Maino. Game signed a new record contract and returned to Aftermath Entertainment on February of 2010. The rapper Nujabes died on February 26, aged 36 in a traffic accident. On February 8, 2010, Canibus released the album of Melatonin Magik where he works with many underground artists to outline some of the most lyrical songs of all time. Ludacris in March of 2010 was the first rapper in 2010 to be featured on 3 top 10 Billboard Hot 100 charted songs. TI works on his new album after being released from prison. O.S.T.R. released its album.  Lil Wayne's of Rebirth reached gold with 505,000 copies by April of 2010. Guru died of multiple myeloma on April 19, 2010 at the age of 47 years old. He was a legend in hip hop with talent, skills , and a humble spirit. B.o.B's Nothin' on You was very popular. It would be platinum featuring Bruno Mars. B.o.B.'s album of B.o.B. Presents: the Adventures of Bobby Ray was released on May of 2010. Gucci Mane was released from prison in the same month. Eminem's single of Not Afraid debuts at number one in the Billboard Hot 100. The album of We Are Young from Young Money was Gold in May of 2010. Drake released the album of Thank Me Later, and Eminem released Recovery in June of 2010. Hip hop pioneer Rammellzee died on June 29, 2010. Recovery would be over 1,000,000 copies in its 2nd week. Drake hosted the August first annual Ovo (October's Very own) Festival having Jay Z, Eminem, Rick Ross, Young Jezzy, Bun B, and Fabolous. Kanye West's music video of Power is highly influential and shows that Kanye West will make music for a long time. DJ Khaled's All I do Is Win is popular. In the same month, Kanye West released Dark Twisted Fantasy and Nicki Minaj's Pink Friday were released. Huddy 6 (from Harlem's own Harlem World) died in a car accident at the George Washington Bridge in NYC at the age of 34. Lil Wayne was released from prison at November 2010. Dr. Dre released Kush from November 2010 featuring Snoop Dogg and Akon. Kid Cudi's debut album of Man on the Moon: The End of the Day was certified Gold by November of 2010. Waka Flocka Flame (born in NYC but he is based in Atlanta) had his first gold single of No Hands. By December 2010, Lil Wayne released his song 6 Foot 7 Foot" as part of his Tha Carter IV album. Hip hop artist Magnolia Shorty died as being murdered on December 20. Also, G-Dep in the same month admitted to committing murder in 1993. 2010 have albums from Brotha Lynch Hung, Snoop, Freeway, Beanie Sigel, The Outlawz, Inspectah Deck, Wiz Khalifa, Kurupt, Bone Thugs N Harmony, Trina, Nas and Damian Marley, Common, plies, Rhymefest, Juvenile, Rick Ross, and Lil' Flip. Many underground artists made music like Planet Asia, Sha Stimuli, Cyssero, Large Professor, Copywrite, Bronze Nazareth, Yelawolf, and other people. 


2011 saw tons of new events. By January of 2011, Shady Records signed Slaughterhouse and Yelawolf (who is known to glamorize the Confederate flag which I don't agree with). Jay Z and Eminem won Grammy Awards in February of 2011. Nat Dogg died on March 15, 2011. Lasers by Lupe Fiasco debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 selling 2014,000 copies its first week. It was the first rap album to debut at number one on the Billboard 200 in 2011. Dr. Dre had 100 percent of the digital royalty from the Chronic after a lawsuit from Death Row Records. Tupac's 40th years birthday was celebrated in Atlanta and was hosted by Afreni Shakur. People there include Mike Epps, Erykah Badu, Rick Ross, etc. Ironically, Jimmy Henchman would be arrested after a manhunt. U.S. Marshals and DEA agents in NYC catch him. Later, he admitted to many crimes. A Tribe Called Quest documentary was released, and Wiz Khalifa's Rolling Papers became gold in 2011. Kanye West and Jay Z released Watch the Throne. It was the fastest selling album of 2011. Kanye West proved to his older hip hop ally Jay Z that he was a worthy hip hop artist. It was the third album to be debut at number one on the Billboard 200 in 2011. Jay Z and Lil Wayne have a rap battle over money and influence with songs like HAM and It's Good. Pusha T makes more solo moves by signing with Def Jam Records. Lil Wayne's Tha Carter IV sold 965,000 in its first week. It's the 5th album to debut at number one. Ray J and Fabulous were involved in a verbal altercation by September 2011 in Las Vegas. This came after the Floyd Mayweather and Victor Ortiz match. J. Cole released his album of Cole World: The Sideline Story. It charts at number one on the Billboard 200. J. Cole is an artist respected by old school hip hop people and new school hip hop fans. He is from North Carolina. He bridges the generational divide in hip hop. Rapper Lola Monroe signed with Wiz Khalifa's label Taylor Gang. RoseMo 700 was murdered in Los Angeles after he claimed to beat up the rapper Game. Heavy D died in November of 2010 at Beverly Hills, CA in his home. Drake debuted at number one with his album of Take Care. 1017 Brick Squard affiliate Slim Dunkin was killed in an Atlanta studio. Waka Flocka Flame's 2nd album is Triple F: Friends, Fans, and Family was pushed to be released in 2012 because of Slim Dunkin's death. In 2011, hip hop artists like Lecrae, Schoolboy Q, Yukmouth, Keak Da Sneak, Talib Kweli, Paul Wall, Big K.R.I.T., Lil Kim, Saigon, Joel Ortiz, Layzie Bone, WC, Planet Asia, E-40, Mac Miller, Max B, Ab Soul, Bizzy Bones, Layzie Bone, Pete Rock, Ace Hood, and other artists made music.


In the year of 1995, monumental talent in R&B music transpired. Albums were total classics. By January of 1995, Mary J. Blige's My Life was high in the charts. In the time of July 8, 1995, Michael Jackson released the album of History: Past, Present and Future, Book 1. It had hip hop and rock artists like Shaquille O'Neal, Biggie, etc. It had Janet Jackson and Slash. His songs on it were Scream, You are Not Alone, Earth Song, They Don't are About Us, and Stranger in Moscow along with other music. The album touched on many issues from poverty (like in Brazil and in America), the environment, the allegations against him (which he denied), love romance, and music. By October 24, 1995, Mariah Carey released her album of Daydream. This was her 5th album that was shown from Columbia Records. Her album was about Mariah wanting to control her music more. Many of the songs from the album include classics like Fantasy, One Sweet Day, Always Be My Baby, Underneath the Stars, Open Arms, etc. One Sweet Day was one of the best selling songs of all time with Boyz II Men. Mariah Carey worked with Jermaine Dupri, and Babyface. Fantasy was a song with ODB that showed her pro-hip hop side. The single One Sweet Day top the Billboard Hot 100 for 16 weeks. It was the longest running number one single in Billboard's history or 23 years. R Kelly released the album of R Kelly in 1996 too. The Waiting to Exhale Soundtrack from 1995 featured singers like Whitney Houston's Exhale, Sittin' Up in My Room from Brandy, Not Goin' Cry from Mary J. Bilge Count on Me (from Whitney Houston and Cece Winans), Let it Flow from Toni Braxton, Why Does It Hurt So Bad from Whitney Houston, etc. Prince released his album along with Jodeci. In 1995, Monica had her first album of Miss Thang. She was a teenager from Atlanta back in '95 with songs like Don't Take it Personal. XScpae had the album of Off the Hook in the same year too. Stevie Wonder had his music, D'Angelo's Brown Sugar album was very much the start of the modern day neo-soul movement. D'Angela was from Richmond, Virginia. Angie Stone inspired him to show more confidence to make his musical career potent. Faith Evans' album of Faith was underrated. Soon, Faith Evans would be a pioneer of modern day R&B soulful music. Diana Ross made the album of Take Me Higher. Jon B, Paula Abdul, Adina Howard, Soul for Real, Terry Ellis, After 7, Deborah Cox, Jody Watley, Peebles, Groove Theory, and other musicians shown excellent music. Janet Jackson had songs like Runaway that shown the musical impact globally. The diverse artists of Eternal, The Whisperers, Oleta Adams, All-4-One, Veronica (Veronica Vazquez from the Bronx, NYC), Brian McKnight, and Montell Jordan were making classic songs. Singles in 1995 R&B music had it all like the song I Like from Kut Klose, Seal's A Kiss from a Rose, Nobody Knows from the Tony Rich Project, Adina Howard's Freak Like Me, Brownstone's If You Love Me, Scream from Michael Jackson and Janet Jackson, Candy Rain (from Soul For Real), Mary J. Blige and Method Man's I'll Be There for You/ You're All I need to Get by, and other singles. This is how We do It form Montell Jordan was one of the great songs of the time. The 1995 hit of Tell Me from Amel Larrieux and Bryce Wilson (of Groove Theory) was remembered by me too. 


1996 was one of the most soulful years of 1990's music in general. By January of 1996,Whitney Houston's song of Exhale (Shoop Shoop) and Monica's Before You Walk out My Life plus Like This and Like that were on the charts. Monica had that charisma that people gravitated to. Monica was part of a new movement of younger R&B teenage girls who blew up the scene with talent like her, Brandy, Aaliyah, Mya, and other artists. Songs like Not Gon' Cry from Mary J. Blige and R. Kelly ft. Ronald Isley Down Low (Bobody Has to Know) were popular. One of the great vocal records of SWV was You're the One song. This was part of their 1996 New Beginning album. Songs from that album like Use Your Heart and It's All About You signified that SWV was one of the great groups of the 1990's. Toni Braxton's Secrets album was her magnum opus. It was probably the best album she made lyrically and vocally. It made her from great singer to icon in the R&B singing world.  It was released on June 18, 1996, by LaFace Records and Arista Records. The album was nominated for Best Pop Album at the 1997 Grammy Awards. Secrets has been certified octuple platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). Worldwide, the album has sold over 15 million copies. In support of the album, Braxton embarked on the Secrets Tour, playing dates in North America and Europe from August 1996 to October 1997. In the summer of 1996, there was nothing but Toni Braxton songs on the radio playing like Like it Flow, Unbreak my Heart, etc. In 1996, Keith Sweat made the huge comeback with her album of Keith Sweat along with the song Twisted. New Edition made their reunion comeback with the song of Hit Me off. One in a Million was the 1996 album from Aaliyah. It was first released on August 27, 1996, by Blackground and Atlantic Records. The album was recorded from August 1995 to July 1996 with a variety of producers including Timbaland, Missy Elliott, Carl-So-Lowe, J. Dibbs, Jermaine Dupri, Kay Gee, Vincent Herbert, Rodney Jerkins, Craig King, Darren Lighty and Darryl Simmons. The album featured several guest vocalists, including Missy Elliott, Timbaland, Treach and Slick Rick. Aaliyah used hip hop beats with an R&B groove. Aaliyah helped to merge genres and made a new type of swag. Her music is timeless from One in a Million, Hot like Fire, 4 Page Letter, etc. Aaliyah released the album when she was 17 years old, so she had great intellect. Az yet made the song of Last Night. Blackstreet's No Diggity song was part of their Another Level album. The song had Dr. Dre and Queen Pen. Guinwine released Pony in 1996 too along with R. Kelly's I Believe I Can Fly. In 1996, Steelo from the group of 702 was very exciting. Many members of the group were born in Houston, Texas, but they were raised in Las Vegas, Nevada. The Fugees had R&B records too. Janet Jackson released When I Think of You in 1996 too. D'Angelo made Lady in 1996 with soul and power. Jodeci made Get on Up in 1996, Total made the song of Kissing You in the same year, Tell Me from Dru Hill came out in 1996, etc. Maxwell made his neo-soul song of Ascension in 1996. Songs from Mint Condition, Mista, Case, En Vogue (with Don't Let Go), Luther Vandross, Babyface, Monfah's You, Tamia, Falling from Montel Jordan, Lionel Richie, Joe, Donell Jones, Kenny Lattimore, Prince, Mark Morrison's Return of the Mack, Step by Step from Whitney Houston, and other people were inspirational. I believe in You and Me was another classic from Whitney Houston. H-Town, Tony Toni Tone, and Meshell Ndegeocello made music. Tevin Cmapbell's Back to the World, Art n Soul, and the Isley Brothers made songs. Gina Thompson ft. Missy Elliot in '96 showing the song of The Things That You Do was very soulful with a lot of flavor. 1996 was one of the greatest years of the 1990's in my life. 


The year of 1999 was the end of hhe 90s. It ended with a bang filled with old school artists and newartists on the scene. The song of Deborah Cox's Nobody's Supposed to Be Here was already a classic. Whitney Houston worked with Faith Evans and Kelly Price to make Heartbreak Hotel. It was popular in 1999. Janet Jackson worked with Busta Rhymes on What's It Gonna Be in the same year. It was a romance song. TLC ran 1999 with songs like No Scrubs and Unpretty (which exposes false beauty standards and wanted girls and women to appreciate their own physical image in a positive way). Also, Maxwell made the classic song of Fortunate. That was one of Maxwell's greatest vocal songs. Destiny's Child by 1999 was a force with Bills, Bills, Bills and Say My Name. Faith Evans with Never Gonna Let You Go and Eric Benet with Tamia's Spend My Life with You were totally '90s. Also, Faith Evans made another colloboration with Eric Benet with the song of Georgy Porgy  which was part of Benet's album called A Day in the Life. Deborah Cox and R.L. from Next showed sensitivity with the song We can't be Friends. Hip hop continued to merge with R&B with Heartbreaker featuring Mariah Carey and Jay Z. U Know What's Up had Donell Jones and Lisa "Left Eye" Lopes in 1999. P Diddy with R. Kelly had the song of Satisfy You. In 1999, we saw TLC with Fan Mail, Mary J. Blige with Mary, The Writing's on the Wall done by Destiny's Child, 100 % Ginuwine done by Ginuwine, Macy Gray, Blackstreet with Finally, Mariah Carey's Rainbow, Case's Personal Conversation, Brian McKnight's Back at One, Kelis' Kaleidoscope, It's Real done by K-Ci and Jo Jo, etc. Diana Ross made Every Day is a New Day. Prince, Jennifer Lopez, Angie Stone had Black Diamond, Dave Hollister, Silk Barry White, Shancie, Tevin Campbell, Hikaru Utada, Sisqo, Blaque, Coko, Tracie Spencer, Imx, and other people released albums. Blaque came out in 1999 with young people from Atlanta named Brandi Williams, Shamari DeVoe, and Natina Reed. Lisa Lopes helped them to follow their dreams of singing. Their name means Believing in Life and Achieving a Quest for  Unity in Everything. Their songs of 808 and Bring It all to Me firmly established them as anchors of the new generation of talent. Chico DeBarge, Imx, Mint Condition, Men of Vizion, Chante Moore, Montell Jordan, and other people had music. The end of the 1990's was an end of an era with outstanding sounds. Yet, real R&B music would continue in the 21st century as well. 


There are tons of foods that are healthy in our world. Apples have antioxidants, fiber, vitamin C, and other nutrients. It can help the human health, the skin, and the blood. Avocados are loaded with healthy fats. They have fiber, potassium, and vitamin C. Bananas have a large amount of potassium. They have vitamin B6 and fiber. They can help with improving human blood pressure too. Blueberries have some of the most powerful sources of antioxidants in the world. They can fight cancer, improve the skin, and build up the body in many ways. Oranges have vitamin C with fiber plus antioxidants. Strawberries have low carbs and calories. They have vitamin C, fiber, and manganese. Many of healthy fruits are cherries, grapes, grapefruit, kiwi, lemons, mangos, melons, olives, peaches, pears, pineapples, plums, and raspberries. Lamb have omega 3 fatty acids. Nuts have magnesium and vitamin E. Other healthy foods are asparagus, bell peepers, broccoli, carrots,  (with carotene antioxidants plus fiber including Vitamin K), cauliflower, cucumbers, garlic, kale, squash, etc. Many fish have omega 3 fatty acids and iodine. Brown rice is very nutritious with fiber, Vitamin B1, and magnesium. Oatmeal is great along with quinoa, Ezekiel bread, legumes, green beans, peanuts, sweet potatoes, and dark chocolate can help the human body in essential ways. 


 By Timothy