Wednesday, October 31, 2018

The Aftermath of Pittsburgh.

It is very clear that Trump is an enemy of truth. He's a hypocrite for claiming to oppose anti-Semitism but slanders refugees as "invaders." It is clear that Central American migrants are escaping poverty, murder, and violence. They shouldn't be scapegoated for the issues in America. The people of hate who spew bigotry and racism should be exposed. Trump desiring to end birthright citizenship which is impossible since that is part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. Also, he wants to send more than 5,000 military troops as a way in his mind to confront suffering refugees. Trump is an overt fascist. Trump’s fascistic language also inspired right-wing Trump-supporter Cesar Sayoc to mail pipe bombs to Democratic Party figures last week and Gregory Bush to kill two African-American people at a grocery store in Kentucky. Also, we remember the lives lost in Pittsburgh at the Jewish synagogue. Racist violence against immigrants (of many colors) have existed in America, Sweden, Romania, Italy France, Germany, and other parts of Eastern Europe. Anti-Semitic attacks have existed in America, England, Germany, and other places worldwide. So, this is a fight against fascism. There are black immigrants in the world too and we have total support and solidarity with them. Also, he or Trump has attacked Gullium in disrespectful terms.

Many protesters are in Pittsburgh now to let their voices to be heard in expressing opposition to the xenophobia, sexism, and racism displayed by Donald Trump. We, who are Americans, have this responsibility to not only speak of democratic freedoms. We have to protect them and stand up for the oppressed too. Part of that responsibility is about voting. Voting deals with education, how tax dollars are allocated, which judges rule on cases, and other state plus local political matters. Trump has a known history of using his speeches to incite violence and use ad-hominem attacks against people who disagree with his obscene rhetoric. While Trump refuses to tone down his hate speech, we won't tone down our progressive views. Clean water, clean air, help to the elderly, an eradication of police brutality, economic investments to help the poor, freedom for black people, an end to anti-Semitism, and rejecting imperialism are views that we accept 100 percent.

Hate crimes in America have jumped 20 percent since 2016. This is shocking news but not surprising. While one so-called President now has recently condemned anti-Semitism, he has called for violence against protesters without apology. He has slandered the media constantly. The evil of anti-Semitism has existed for thousands of years and it has increased in America. Hate crimes against Jewish Americans have increased too. This problem extends to Brazil. Recently, a racist President Jair Bolsonaro was elected in Brazil. He hates progressives and has made that known overtly. He was defender of the US-backed, 21-year military dictatorship that ruled Brazil until 1985. Jair has demonized the poor as unworthy of having children. He is so evil that he said that his own daughter was conceived by a moment of "weakness." He is totally evil. During this time, leaders have to lead.

Throughout the 1990's and beyond, she has been a member of Generation X with an incredible career. She is an actress who has participated in movies and TV shows that stretches multiple genres. She is honest, loving to her children, and a trailblazer. Back in the day, a lot of black women didn't have many diverse roles in TV and movies. One example is how legends like Cicely Tyson and Dorothy Dandridge suffered massive discrimination during the 1960's. She is now 48 years old and her name is Nia Long. Nia Long was a woman who was a bridge between the old school and the new school generations. Her efforts allowed the future generation of black actresses to achieve multifaceted roles. She was born in Brooklyn, NYC and she was raised in South Los Angeles, California. When I was a kid during the 1990's, I certainly admired her charisma and her beauty. She is a very beautiful black woman. I admire her today. For years, she was in many iconic movies of the 1990's like Friday, Love Jones, Soul Food, and Boyz N The Hood. She was in the Fresh Prince of Bel-Air TV show. Her family has a lot of Afro-Caribbean heritage too. She has two children and she continues to work in her career plus in her other endeavors. Her life shows everyone that regardless of your background, you shouldn't give up hope. As long as you have life, you can do something beneficial to yourself including other human beings. That is one purpose of life which is to bless others. I wish Sister Nia Long more blessings.

It is also important to acknowledge modern day heroes too. Sister Sherrilyn Ifill is a modern day hero. She is a law professor and president and director-counsel of the NAACP Legal Defense Fund. She is not only an excellent scholar of voting rights and other judicial matters. She has been on the front lines to oppose voter suppression policies throughout America. She is key in desiring a progressive agenda that makes all Americans experience blessings without oligarchy. Ifill received her B.A. degree from Vassar College and her J.D. degree from New York University School of Law. Her family came from Barbados. To this very day, she speaks out in favor of social justice, affirmative action, voting rights, and true justice for all. She has courage and great insights that people ought to appreciate. I wish the absolute best for Sister Sherrilyn Ifill. Anyone who loves the Civil Rights Movement or freedom movements in general should study Septima Clark's story. She was a woman of the South who worked in the land in America to fight oppression and defeat injustice. She lived during Jim Crow and saw the end of it. She inspired Dr. King and other heroes of the movement. With her educational gifts, she taught countless people about literacy, voting rights, and about everyday living in general. She lived to be 80 years old from 1898 to 1987. Her philosophy desired knowledge to help the oppressed to establish their own destinies as human beings. Her parents were slaves, but they later became free during the age of Reconstruction. Her contributions were sacrosanct.

She was the Grandmother or the Civil Rights Movement

Rest in Power Sister Septima Poinsette Clark.

By Timothy

Monday, October 29, 2018

More Civil Rights History.

After the passage of the Civil Rights Act, new changes came to America in 1964 and beyond. The fight for freedom wasn't over yet. By August of 1964, Congress passed the Economic Opportunity Act. It gave federal funds for legal representation of Native Americans in both civil and criminal suits. It allowed the ACLU and the American Bar Association to represent Native Americans in cases that later would win them additional civil rights. By this time, the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party challenged the seating of the all-white racist Mississippi representatives at the Democratic National Convention in Atlantic City, New Jersey. The MFDP group wanted no compromise, but an agreement came. This caused many from SNCC and the MFDP to reject the Democratic Party. Some came onward to the path of political independence and ultimately into the Black Power movement. In the convention, Fannie Lou Hamer gave the heroic, accurate speech about America condemning the policies of the state brutalizing African American men, women, and children. Fannie Lou Hamer made the point that she was a victim of abuse from racists and she desired freedom 100 percent. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize on December 10, 1964. He was the youngest person to be honored during that time. Dr. King gave the money that he had received from Oslo, Norway to the Civil Rights Movement. Coretta Scott King was with him in Oslo too. On December 14, 1965, the Heart of Atlanta v. United States case upheld the Civil Rights Act of 1964. 1965 became a monumental year of the Civil Rights Movement in general. The early part of the 1965 year saw the Selma movement growing into new heights. On February 18, 1965, a peaceful protest march in Marion, Alabama led to Jimmie Lee Jackson being shot by Alabama state trooper James Bonard Fowler. Jackson died on February 26, and Fowler was indicted for his murder in 2007. Malcolm X by 1965 supported the Selma voting rights movement. He became more international, advocated for pan-Africanism, believed in women's equality, and worked with many liberation movements worldwide. Malcolm X became more progressive. Later, he was assassinated in Manhattan, New York City at the Audubon Ballroom on February 21, 1965. He had a funeral, and the world mourned. Malcolm X was one of the greatest black heroes in human history, and we are inspired by his words and his deeds. Then, on March 7, 1965, Bloody Sunday happened. This was when civil rights workers in Selma, Alabama, begin the Selma to Montgomery march but they were forcibly stopped by a massive Alabama State trooper and police blockade as they cross the Edmund Pettus Bridge. Many marchers were injured by police clubs. This march, initiated and organized by James Bevel, became the visual symbol of the Selma Voting Rights Movement. John Lewis, Amelia Boynton Robinson (1911-2015), and others were assaulted by police officers. Condemnation of the actions of the crooked cops on Bloody Sunday was massive worldwide. By March 15, 1965, President Lyndon Johnson used the phrase "We Shall Overcome" in a speech before Congress on the voting rights bill. The Selma to Montgomery March was completed ultimately. On March 25, 1965, a white volunteer Viola Liuzzo was shot and killed by Ku Klux Klan members in Alabama, one of whom was an FBI informant. The black deputy sheriff Oneal Moore was murdered in Varnado, Louisiana on June 2, 1965. July 2 1965, was when the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission was opened.

The Voting Rights Act was signed by President Lyndon Baines Johnson on August 6, 1965. It eliminated literacy tests, poll tax, and other subjective voter tests that were widely responsible for the disfranchisement of African-Americans in the Southern States and provided federal oversight of voter registration in states and individual voting districts where such discriminatory tests were used. After this time, there was an acceleration of the amount of African Americans in political positions among all levels of government. From August 11-15, 1965, the Watts rebellion happened. For years in Los Angeles before 1965, many black people were victims of poverty, discrimination, racism, and police brutality. The Watts rebellion occurred after the accusations of mistreatment and police brutality by the Los Angeles Police Department towards the city's African-American community. Watts existed in South Central Los Angeles. The results of the rebellion were over 34 people were killed, 1,032 injured, 3,438 arrested, and cost over $40 million in property damage. Dr. King came to Watts to advocate nonviolence and he was booed by some in the crowd which was rare back then. Dr. King later realized that civil rights isn't enough and that you need to also address the economic conditions of the people in order for real freedom to come about. By September 1965, Raylawni Branch and Gwendolyn Elaine Armstrong became the first African-American students to attend the University of Southern Mississippi. Bill Cosby co-starred in I Spy, becoming the first black person to appear in a starring role on American television on September 15, 1965. For the record, I don’t agree with Bill Cosby’s adultery and his using drugs to have sex with women (which he admitted in his disposition). Cosby is an evil person. I cite this fact for a historical reference. President Johnson signed Executive Order 11246 requiring Equal Employment Opportunity by federal contractors on September 24, 1965. By January 10, 1966, NAACP local chapter president Vernon Dahmer was injured by a bomb in Hattiesburg, Mississippi. He died on the next day. By January 1966, Dr. King and the SCLC went into Chicago to fight for housing rights, civil rights, educational opportunities, and economic justice among African Americans. By June 5, 1966, James Meredith started a solitary March Against Fear from Memphis, Tennessee to Jackson, Mississippi. Shortly after he started, he was shot with birdshot and injured. Civil rights leaders and organizations rallied together and continued the march leading to a large rally at the capital of Mississippi. On June 16, Kwame Ture first used the slogan Black power in a speech. Black Power is one of the most distorted philosophies in human history. Kwame Ture meant Black Power as saying that he wanted black people to define their own identity, control their own communities, and form institutions to eliminate racism. Black Power was a call for independence politically and socially for black people. It wasn't an advocacy of segregation as Jim Crow was about the government to force segregation while depriving black people of basic human rights. It was about independence. Many moderate NAACP leaders condemned Black Power like Roy Wilkins since he felt that it was a veiled plus slick reference to black separatism and black supremacy. Dr. King took a nuisance view while praising the positives of Black Power that embraced self-determination and the love of Blackness while rejecting separatism. While this was going on, the Chicago Open Housing Movement continued. Dr. King, Bevel, and Al Raby (from Chicago) were leaders of the movement. They made massive rallies in the summer of 1966 and demanded Mayor Richard J. Daley to end housing discrimination. The Summit conference ended the campaign. Before, there was a white racist backlash so fierce in Chicago and in the suburbs like in Cicero that Dr. King was hit in the head with a rock. By September of 1966, Nichelle Nichols was cast as a black woman officer on television's Star Trek. She briefly considered leaving the role but was encouraged by Dr. King to continue as an example for the black community. The Black Panther Party was founded by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland, California by October of 1966. It merged Black Nationalism, socialism, and other revolutionary philosophies into one. Its goal was to end police brutality, allow socialism to exist in the black community, end imperialism, and give power to the people. It lasted for many years and became a symbol of the progressive side of the Black Power movement. On November 1966, Edward Brooke was elected to the U.S. Senate from Massachusetts. He was the first black senator since 1881.

By January 9, 1967, Julian Bond was seated in the Georgia House of Representatives by order of the U.S. Supreme Court after his election. Many racist Southerners opposed Bond, because Bond publicly opposed the Vietnam War and opposed the draft (that forced people against their wills to join the military to fight in the Vietnam War). The Vietnam War in 1967 was front and center in foreign policy debates by this time. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. gave his courageous “Beyond Vietnam” speech in New York City’s Riverside Church. He wanted the defeat of “the giant triplets of racism, materialism, and militarism.” In that speech, he eloquently exposed the Vietnam War as immoral and how it stripped the necessary resources from the poor in America to benefit the military industrial complex. Dr. King was heavily criticized for criticizing the Vietnam War from conservatives (including some editorial writers) to moderate African American civil rights leaders. Yet, Dr. King continued to fight for what was right, which was the ending of the unjust Vietnam War. By June 12, 1967, in Loving v. Virginia, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that laws that prohibited interracial marriage was unconstitutional. Thurgood Marshall was the first African American appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court on June 13, 1967. The Detroit rebellion happened from July 23-27, 1967. It came after a raid by the Detroit Police Department. The police wanted to put a raid on an unlicensed club that celebrated the returning Vietnam Veterans hosted by mostly African Americans. Detroit was a city filled with economic inequality, police brutality, etc. Over 43 people (33 black human beings and ten white people) were killed, 467 injured, 7,231 arrested, and 2,509 stores looted or burned during the rebellion. It was one of the deadliest and most destructive riots in United States history, lasting five days and surpassed the violence and property destruction of Detroit's 1943 race riot. The movie In the Heat of the Night was released on August 2, 1967. It starred Sidney Poitier. On November 17, 1967, there was the Philadelphia Student School Board Demonstration. This was when 26 demands were peacefully issued by students, but the event became a police riot. The Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner movie was released on December 11, 1967. It starred Sidney Poitier again. In the trial of accused killers in the murders of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner, the jury convicts 7 of 18 accused men by the end of 1967. Conspirator Edgar Ray Killen was later convicted in 2005. James Earl Jones starred in the play of The Great White Hope based on the life of the heavyweight boxer Jack Johnson. The book Death at an Early Age: The Destruction of the Hearts and Minds of Negro Children in the Boston Public Schools was published in late 1967 too.

1968 was one of the most dynamic years in human history. On February 1, 1968, two Memphis sanitation workers were killed in the line of duty. They wanted to escape the rain and weren’t allowed to go into certain areas because of racist policies. These African Americans experienced low wages, lax benefits, and disrespect by employers plus by the reactionary Mayor Loeb. After this tragedy, black garbage workers executed a strike. Their wives and children supported the strikers. The movement was local at first and spread nationally. The Orangeburg Massacre occurred during a university protest in South Carolina. Black people were murdered by cops. The first day of the Memphis Sanitation strike happened on February 12, 1968. On March of 1968, while filming a prime-time television special, Petula Clark touched Harry Belafonte's arm during a duet. Chrysler Corporation, the show's sponsor, insisted the moment be deleted, but Clark stood firm, destroyed all other takes of the song, and delivered the completed program to NBC with the touch intact. The show was broadcast on April 8, 1968. Later, there was on American television, an interracial kiss between Nichelle Nichols and William Shatner on Star Trek. Also, it is important to praise Black Love as Black Love is Beautiful and a Revolutionary Act.

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. supported the Memphis strikers and had great support among black people and many labor activists in the city of Memphis. By April 3, 1968, Dr. King gave his famous Mountaintop speech. In that speech, he predicted the future and realized that the work for justice will continue. He knew that he would live long enough to see the Promised Land, but black people in the future would see it. On April 4, 1968, Dr. King was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee by a rifle. From April 4-8 and on one in May 1968, rebellions exist in more than 150 U.S. cities in response to the assassination of Dr. King. The revolts existed in Washington, D.C., Chicago, Baltimore, Louisville, Kansas City, NYC, etc. By April 11, 1968, the Civil Rights Act of 1968 was signed. The Fair Housing Act is Title VIII of this Civil Rights Act. This law banned discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing. The law was passed following a series of contentious open housing campaigns throughout the urban North. The most significant of these campaigns were the Chicago Open Housing Movement of 1966 and organized events in Milwaukee during 1967–68. In both cities, angry white mobs attacked nonviolent protesters. By May 12, 1968, the Poor People’s Campaign marched on Washington, D.C. They formed the location of Resurrection City at Washington, D.C.. Their goals which were progressive (in billions of dollars to help the poor in housing, education, and jobs) and these legitimate demands weren’t met. Yet, their efforts contributed to investments (like Medicaid, Head Start, etc.) to fight poverty in general. Senator Robert F. Kennedy, a Civil Rights advocate, was assassinated on June 6, 1968, after winning the California presidential primary. His appeal to minorities helped him secure the victory at the California primary. On September 17, 1968, Diahann Carroll starred in the title role in Julia, as the first African American actress to star in her own television series where she did not play a domestic worker. In October 1968, Tommie Smith and John Carlos raised their fists to symbolize black power and unity after winning the gold and bronze medals, respectively, at the 1968 Summer Olympic Games. Both men wanted oppression to end. They are readily praised today, but they were heavily disrespected by extremists back in 1968. In Powe v. Miles, a federal court held that the portions of private colleges that are funded by public money are subject to the Civil Rights Act. By the end of 1968, Shirley Chisholm became the first African-American woman elected to Congress.

By Timothy

Friday, October 26, 2018


Women in Prison Punished More Harshly than Men Around the Country

What H. Rap Brown Says to Us 50 Years Later, Part 2

The Great Un-Blackening: The Corporate Project to Erase Black People from Politics

On the Packages and other Matters.

Trump is a notorious coward. He has autocratic views where anyone that disagrees with him is called a liar when news organizations have documented tons of his lies. Donald Trump had promoted a false sense of grievance when he was born in privilege. He never was from the ghettos struggling to survive. He wasn't from a rural location experiencing rural problems. He is a rich person trying to prop himself up as some working class nationalist when he worked with business elites for decades, even before the 1980's. His rhetoric of mocking the media, slandering women, questioning the intellect of black people who oppose his retrograde agenda, and his words inciting violence have contributed to the events that we see now (which is about explosive devices being sent nationwide). He calls Democrats mobs, but many of his supporters include mobs of bigots who assault people and mobs of haters who curse out even innocent people. This midterm election is the most important election in our generation. A black woman and a black man in Georgia and Florida respectively could be the first black Governors of their states in history. There is record early voting, and we are inspired to make more history real. We will defend not only democracy but true freedom too. When you have a society and a current reprehensible administration filled with corruption, then reasonable people have every subsequent right to use any legitimate means necessary to enact peaceful social change.

When a so-called current President claims to want unity but still scapegoats the media when the media is the victim of a terrorist attack, then that person has no credibility to lecture anyone on civility. The perpetrator of these actions should be punished and experience justice. The incendiary rhetoric that this occupant in the White House has shown degrades people based on race, religion, and political philosophy. Therefore, we should never mimic the nihilism promoted by Trump. No one should coddle him either. He is a grown man over 70 years of age. He knows what he is doing, and he isn't insane. He is a narcissist who openly displays hatred and bigotry. The hypocrites (which include many conservatives, many GOP members, etc.), who lecture us on morality and character, openly support Trump when he has shown amorality and a lack of empathy. Trump jokes about controlling his rhetoric which shows his mockery of the responsibility to uphold democratic values. His words have provoked violence in America. This isn't new. Trump is a reflection of the past hatred that has existed in America for centuries. Many of my people are the recipients of violence as history has shown. We should be about our business advance true respect, dignity, and cooperation in establishing authentic solutions in building up society. Independent, progressive thinking will make a difference.

No one should be surprised at Megan Kelly's offensive support of blackface and then she made an "apology" to save face. She has been for years to be hostile to activists against police brutality. She worked on FOX and was on Bill O'Reilly's appealing to conservative extremists. That is why we can't be naive. Racists will be racists. We will fight racism and oppression. It is certainly our responsibility to encourage each other, stand up for truth, and build in our own communities so blessings can flourish. Suspicious packages have been sent to CNN headquarters at New York City, to the home of the Clintons, to the homes of Brennan, to the home of George Soros, to the office of Maxine Waters, to the office of Kamala Harris, to the home of former Attorney General Eric Holder, and to the office of former DNC chairman Debbie Wasserman-Schultz. This evil event has many lessons. One lesson is that there is no excuse for anyone to execute violence against innocent people. There is no excuse for anyone to send bombs to random locations as a means to enact fear and violence either. All of these people, who were victims of these attempted attacks, are political people who disagree with the agenda of the extremist Donald Trump. We can agree to disagree with leaders without being violently disagreeable. For years, Trump has used words to not only incite fear but to incite violence. He has called for people to assault protesters. He has said that he wanted the police to harm suspects violently. He is the one who wishes to punch a dissenter in the face at a rally. He is the one that has gone out to use vulgar language to describe black people, women, and immigrants. Trump is a habitual liar. Therefore, we have to rise above hatred, but not be naive in our views. We believe in the freedom of the press, universal health care, and social justice. The far right reactionaries believe in intolerance, racism, and austerity. I'm glad that no one was hurt today. I believe in true unity and civility, but not compromise. I won't compromise my views for the sake of advancing some fake "unity." I believe in promoting my views while being peaceful in advancing my views.

When you think about a beautiful, strong black woman, you think of Ciara. It's her Birthday today, and she gives inspiration to women and men about how to achieve your dreams. Her gift and strength are that she is humble about her walk and honest in her journey. She doesn't possess a selfish ego and is always active to display an openness about her spirituality. A dancer, a singer, a businesswoman, and an actress all describe her life in absolute terms. She was born in Austin, Texas. She was raised in places all over the world as she was part of an Army family. During her teenage years, she lived in Atlanta. Atlanta is home to much legendary hip-hop and R&B musicians. By 2003, she was signed to Laface. One year later in 2004, her stardom bloomed into new heights with many records. Ciara was hailed as the "First Lady of Crunk&B." Everyone knows that she can dance. Touring the world is her specialty. From albums to TV show appearances, she has made her mark as a 21st-century star. Later on, she married the love of her life who is Russell Wilson.

She is the quarterback of the Seattle Seahawks. He is a man who has honor, loves his wife, and has respect for his family. Russell Wilson is also a humble man and a great person. Ciara made this point clear in her IG posts and in her music that you don't have to be brute to be a real man. You can be a real man by handling your responsibility and treating women the right way with dignity and with respect. Ciara is 100 percent right on that point. Ciara has done modeling, charity (like fighting for cancer research and investing in school supplies), and other actions that manifest her multifaceted career. She loves fitness too. She has many children, and we salute her accomplishments. Ciara shows us daily that we can use self-expression while honoring the essence of our individuality at the same time. She is a blessed woman. I wish Sister Ciara more Blessings.

By Timothy

Wednesday, October 24, 2018

New Developments.

There are a lot of new around. Trump has lied and said that the refugees are a caravan filled with criminals. Trump has threatened to use the military on the border and cut off funding to Honduras when Western policies contributed heavily to the crisis found in Central America in the first place. Right now, the DHS and other agencies have overtly deported tons of immigrants. Trump has allowed tons of children to be stripped from their families and placed many children in internment camps. Then, he backtracked on some of this action after public outcry, but many children are still not reunited with their own families. We shouldn't be surprised by Trump's disgraceful conduct since he admitted recently that he is a "nationalist." He has used slurs to describe refugees escaping poverty, violence, and destruction. Trump is receiving help from extremists like Stephen Miller, Bannon, and Gingrich.

He demonized socialists when Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. praised democratic socialism. DuBois was once a socialist. So, a socialist is not a prerogative. Many socialists helped to create Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid, and other blessings that some take for granted. The Trump regime's tax cuts for the wealthy (causing deficits), policies of authoritarianism, promotion of ending net neutrality, acts of bigotry via executive orders, and promotion war deem that regime as fascist. Also, Ted Cruz made a disrespectful comment of seeking the arrest of candidate O'Rourke. O'Rourke is a Texas progressive that has publicly addressed police brutality, health care, education, the environment, and other real issues. It is about time that more progressives have Congressional representation from Texas. Also, you have Kemp slandering Stacey Abrams when she is forthright in exposing the voter suppressing policies of Kemp. Kemp is overt in his xenophobia by dehumanizing undocumented immigrants. Just because an immigrant is undocumented doesn't mean that he or she is less than human. You have a racist robocall against Andrew Gillum that no Republican has condemned except for a handful of them. So, we have the right to vote for local, state, and federal candidates.

Tons of news are existing about the caravan of migrants escaping persecution, poverty, and other destructive social conditions in Central American nations. These problems existed for a long time in part by the West supporting far-right regimes decades ago. Later, these regimes have continued to inflict cruelty and murder against their own citizens. They number in about 7,200 human beings. They have traveled past Mexico and are headed into America. Like usual, Trump is lying by saying that these migrants are made up of heavily criminals (like MS-13 and Middle Eastern terrorists), and those in favor of immigrant rights seek chaos. Mexicans are giving them water, food, and other supplies in assisting them on their quest to make the world realize that this is a serious issue. Trump has promised to bar the migrants from seeking asylum in America. His words violate international law. The xenophobes have to remember that xenophobia is evil just like racism is evil. Not too long ago, during the Dust Bowl, many people from Oklahoma faced prejudice when they migrated into California and Texas. Not too long ago, innocent Japanese Americans were placed into concentration camps. Not too long ago, my parents and my grandparents experienced Jim Crow for real in Virginia and in North Carolina. Chinese, Italian, German, and Irish immigration faced oppression when they came into America during the 19th century. I firmly believe in proletarian internationalism as workers' rights are not just national. They are international in scope. So, we shouldn't scapegoat the sojourner. They are allies in their drive for freedom and justice. To make it plain, jobs, health care, and education are human rights unequivocally.

Regarding sports, he is one of the greatest athletes in history. He changed the world with his activism and style of play. He fathered internationalization the game of soccer, and his name is Brother Pelé. His whole name is Edson Arantes do Nascimento, and he is 78 years old. Três Corações, Minas Gerais, Brazil is his place of birth. He grew up in poverty, and he was taught to play soccer by his father. As an Afro-Brazilian, he was a victim of racism and bigotry. Yet, he continued to perform excellently in stadiums as a great striker. As early as the 1950's, he became world famous. By the 1960's, his popularity only grew into newer heights. He became the all-time leading scorer for the Santos team. Two years later, he came out of semi-retirement to sign with the New York Cosmos of the North American Soccer League (NASL) for the 1975 season. Pele was one man who caused more Americans to recognize soccer decades ago. Personal records, tributes, and other accolades are a part of his life. What is most important with him is the love that he has for his family and the sport of soccer. I wish Brother Pele more blessings.

Yesterday was the Birthday of Martin Luther King III or the son of the late, great Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther King III is a lifelong civil rights activist like both of his parents. He was born in Montgomery, Alabama and was raised in Atlanta, Georgia. He had a B.A. in political science from Morehouse College. He protested apartheid and was arrested for it during the 1980's like her eloquent speaking sister Bernice King. He was once the head of the SCLC or the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. His organization of Realizing the Dream focuses on nonviolent activism and forming cooperative bonds among humanity so real healing can exist. Also, he has worked to address educational issues, health care, and criminal justice matters. He married his longtime girlfriend who is named Arndrea Waters. Now, Arndrea Waters is Martin Luther King III's wife. The couple has one child, which is a blessing. Her name is Yolanda Renee King. She is the grandchild of Dr. King and Coretta Scott King. Recently, Yolanda Renee King gave a passionate, heroic speech against gun violence in America. At age nine, Yolanda Renee King spoke at the March For Our Lives demonstration in Washington, D.C. on March 24, 2018. Martin Luther King III has a long legacy, and he is 61 years old right now. After these long years, we still believe in the Dream. The Dream plainly states that you have equal worth and value irrespective of your background. Also, that Dream means precisely that any form of oppression and discrimination must end for justice to flourish in our world.

I wish Brother Martin Luther King III more Blessings.

By Timothy

Monday, October 22, 2018

JFK's assassination.

As we approach the fifty-fifth anniversary of the evil assassination of President John F. Kennedy, we witness even more information coming about that deals with his life plus legacy. For decades, JFK has been a very popular human being. He never lived beyond 50 years old, but his life existed with leadership, monumental events, and historical changes. He lived during the Cold War, the Civil Rights Movement, and World War II. His family loved him and expressed solidarity with him. His wife, Jacqueline Kennedy-Onassis, propelled fashion and other aspects of culture in the White House including abroad. His brother, Robert Francis Kennedy, was his close ally and he was the Attorney General of America. Now, we witness a greater appreciation of his courage and his enthusiasm to advance idealism in the midst of a changing world. As the 35th President, he set out a course to promote the arts, commerce, space exploration, civil rights, and economic development in a myriad of speeches and policies. John Fitzgerald Kennedy also wanted environmental protection as Nature must be honored with continuous cultivation. Today, as we approach 2020, we are further inspired to intrepidly execute compassion, to believe in tolerance, and to accept the great responsibility to believe in human justice for all. That means that tax cuts for the super wealthy is not representative of democratic principles. Income inequality and stagnant wages are not right politics. Investment, progressive taxation, and civil liberties must be advanced in order of America and the world to reach into higher heights of fairness and equality. This time is the fall of 2018, and we will always believe in the awe-inspiring principal of social justice.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy was born on May 29, 1917, in Brookline, Massachusetts. He was born in wealth and privilege. His Kennedy family was very wealthy. His father was the businessman Joseph Kennedy, and his mother was Rose Fitzgerald. As a child and into his adolescence plus adulthood, John F. Kennedy experienced many health illnesses and diseases. During his youth, he traveled into many schools. JFK suffered taunts for being Irish, and kids challenged him in fights. Later, he enrolled in Harvard College. One of his famous pieces of literature was a book entitled, “Why England Slept.” The book criticized appeasement which was done by some British leaders. Appeasement contributed to the rise of World War II. Joseph Kennedy supported Neville Chamberlain’s actions in the run-up to World War II. It is no secret that Joseph Kennedy made anti-Semitic remarks. During World War II, the Navy enlisted John F. Kennedy. He saved lives after the Japanese destroyer Amagiri rammed his PT 109 boat. He was praised and joined the House of Representatives. He visited Vietnam early in his career and criticized colonialism in his famous November 14, 1951 speech. John F. Kennedy came into the Senate and released his Profiles in Courage book in 1956. That book documented the courage of eight senators throughout American history. It sold 2 million copies during that time. He ran for President in 1960 and won after a hard campaign. He defeated Richard Nixon, praised the separation of church and state, and outlined his New Frontier vision for America. His 1961 inaugural address was one of the greatest speeches of the 20th century.

In that speech, it was a combination of anti-Communist rhetoric and a call for public service in idealistic terms by him saying, “...ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country.” JFK had strengths and weakness. He was strong to resist the military generals who wanted an invasion of Cuba. Some accused him of not being more overt in fighting for civil rights legislation early in his Presidency out of political reasons (since Congress had tons of pro-segregationist politicians). John F. Kennedy believed in nuisance and wanted to have access to many perspectives as possible before making a final political decision. The irony with JFK was that he had a more contentious relationship with the Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev at the beginning of his Presidency, and then later, their relationship improved (with the signing of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, talks about détente, the creation of a nuclear hotline, and other policies that resisted war with the Soviets). Also, others pushed President John F. Kennedy on many issues. Dr. King, SNCC, and other civil rights leaders had many meetings with the Kennedy administration so that administration would promote real civil rights legislation in Congress. He had fears about the March on Washington and then supported it. So, John F. Kennedy was not a perfect man, but he was a man who changed to be more progressive and open-minded by the end of his term. John F. Kennedy was a very intellectual, intelligent man. He would outline views with eloquence, examples, and other forms of inspiration. He passed away in a cruel, evil murder. We are indeed motivated to carry forward the vision of egalitarianism and justice.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy was a liberal. He said so himself in a speech. Many conservatives promote the lie that John F. Kennedy was a conservative. That isn’t the case at all. John F. Kennedy gave a speech to accept the New York Liberal Party Nomination in 1960. He said the following words, “…If by a "Liberal" they mean someone who looks ahead and not behind, someone who welcomes new ideas without rigid reactions, someone who cares about the welfare of the people-their health, their housing, their schools, their jobs, their civil rights and their civil liberties-someone who believes we can break through the stalemate and suspicions that grip us in our policies abroad, if that is what they mean by a "Liberal", then I'm proud to say I'm a "Liberal.” Kennedy called his domestic program the "New Frontier". It ambitiously promised federal funding for education, medical care for the elderly, economic aid to rural regions, and government intervention to halt the recession. He also promised an end to racial discrimination, although his agenda, which included the endorsement of the Voter Education Project (VEP) in 1962, produced little progress in areas such as Mississippi where the "VEP concluded that discrimination was so entrenched.” JFK supported affirmative action policies, promoted labor rights, believed in civil rights, advanced environmental protections, and believed in the investment of the arts. During the 1960 campaign, Kennedy proposed an overhaul of American immigration and naturalization laws to ban discrimination based on national origin. He saw this proposal as an extension of his planned civil rights agenda as president. These reforms later became law through the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, which dramatically shifted the source of immigration from Northern and Western European countries towards immigration from Latin America and Asia. The policy change also shifted the emphasis in the selection of immigrants in favor of family reunification. The late president's brother, Senator Edward Kennedy helped steer the legislation through the Senate. Many conservatives lie and say that since JFK wanted tax cuts passed, then he was a conservative.

The truth is that the top marginal tax rate was at 91 percent which was created to pay for World War II. JFK acknowledged this and wanted it to go down. So, he wanted to lower the top rate to 65 percent, and that rate would go down to 70 percent under the Revenue Act of 1964. The current top income tax rate was 39.6 percent, which was more than 50 points lower than Kennedy’s time. Also, JFK lived during a time of less income inequality than today. Back then, the richest 1 percent of households had less than 10 percent of the income share in 1962. Now, the 1 percent owns much more than 10 percent of the income and the super wealthy today pay less in taxes. Some rich folks pay no income taxes today. John F. Kennedy was a Keynesian, not a supply-side tax cutter. Kennedy believed that budget deficits can have a stimulative effect which is anathema to neoliberal views. JFK wanted tax cuts to stimulate demands and grow the economy from the bottom up. John F. Kennedy believed in both tax cuts and spending increases to stimulate the economy. He wanted to do tax cuts first and then increased spending later.  "First we'll have your tax cut," he told chief economic adviser Walter Heller, 11 days before his assassination, "then we'll have my expenditures program." One of the greatest pieces of evidence that John F. Kennedy wasn’t a conservative was how he gave a speech at Madison Square Garden promoting universal health care for the elderly (which would be Medicare). That was in May 20, 1962 and conservatives back then, including Ronald Reagan, opposed him. The conservatives slandered JFK as promoting socialism or communism by JFK saying that the elderly deserve government health care. In that speech, he said the following words, “…And then I read that this bill will sap the individual self-reliance of Americans. I can't imagine anything worse, or anything better, to sap someone's self-reliance, than to be sick, alone, broke--or to have saved for a lifetime and put it out in a week, two weeks, a month, two months…” John F. Kennedy supported Social Security which is a government program. Therefore, John Fitzgerald Kennedy supported Social Security, health care insurance for the elderly, civil rights, environmental protections, labor rights, investments in welfare, educational development, ending the tax loopholes for oil companies, and a higher minimum wage. Therefore, he wasn’t a conservative. By his own words, President John F. Kennedy was a liberal.

By Timothy

Friday, October 19, 2018

How H. Rap Brown Forecast the Future of Black Power

Why I'll Be At the Womens March on the Pentagon This Weekend

Congo in the Abyss

The Sino-American Innovation Dilemma: A Conflict with Deep Roots and Tough Solutions

Trump’s Alliance with Body-Choppers, Death Squads and Child Killers: Saudi Arabia, Brazil and Israel

Friday News in Later October of 2018.

There is the news about the mysterious death of Jamal Khashoggi. Khashoggi was a well-known critic of Saudi Arabia's leadership because of its evil, authoritarian policies plus its anti-democratic measures. He was in risk of his life because he expressed his free speech rights to desire reform in Saudi Arabia including the rest of the Middle East. Trump has been hesitant to blame Saudi Arabia. He said that Saudi Arabia would face severe consequences if he feels like that they were involved in the death of Jamal Khashoggi. It is no secret that Trump supports authoritarian, fascist regimes found in Brazil (with the extremist Jair Bolsonaro, Jair supports free markets, torture, and sterilization for the poor), Saudi Arabia, and in the Philippines. Turkish authorities have said that Saudi authorities used a series of steps to murder Jamal Khashoggi. They mentioned that Saudis asked him to sign a document. When he refused to do so, the Saudis killed him and grotesquely dismembered his body. America supports Saudi Arabia not just because of oil. They are also in unison because they are in agreement to support the war on terror and being a buffer against Iran. Also, America aids Saudi's military in attacking Yemen constantly in its civil war. The Trump regime is a criminal enterprise filled with scandals, corruption, and an alliance of right-wing nations like Brazil, Saudi Arabia, Israel, and other countries. We know the truth, and we must act accordingly to promote justice and equality.

Recently, many black senior citizens were forced off the bus in Georgia when they were about to take them to vote. This cowardly injustice against seniors is a total intimidation tactic by reactionaries in trying to suppressing the vote. Voter suppression is real in America. It isn't found just in South. It just doesn't involve a poll tax. Today, it revolves around banning voting sites, limiting the days when people can vote, and the restrictions of IDs affecting voting. Many felons can't vote even if they paid their debts to society. Far-right Republicans are getting innocent people off of rolls. Intimidation, involving the police and people trying to force African Americans not to vote, is still going on in 2018. We can't be naive in America. We have to fight for our rights. Also, we should stay in that voting line. You have the right to legal representation if someone is trying to violate your voting rights. Voting is not some quaint privilege. Voting is a complete human right that must always remain. Also, we live in a historic time. Many black women and other human begins are heroically running for Congress with moving platforms. Voting revolves around the principle that democracy that grows is by and for the people.

Georgia eliminated over 200 polling places. 50,000 people are blocked to vote in Georgia by Kemp. Georgia is the first state in America that supported voter suppression efforts in their voter ID law in 2005. This problem is a nationwide problem where there is the disenfranchisement of Native Americans in North Dakota. Florida and other states have like-minded voter suppression laws including Texas. That is why we have to be aware of these things and encourage voting. Voting isn't just about politicians in Congress. It is about sheriffs, judges, school board officials, and other leaders in our community. Whom you vote deals with taxes, healthcare, education, and other real issues. We can't be apathetic. Apathy is the cruel philosophy that we should ignore reality. We have to defend and fight for our rights to maintain them. Younger millennial adults have been fired up as a means for them to stand up in voting. That is why we do need change. Voting should be a national holiday, and voter registration should be more accessible. Also, early voting must expand. Justice is our aim.

There was a shouting match between Bolton and Kelly at the White House over immigration. Reports are saying that they are cursing at each other. Trump is threatening to use the military to prevent a march of refugees from entering America. Also, Trump has threatened not to fund Honduras and other nations where these refugees are traveling from Latin America. Trump is a hypocrite. Peaceful people humbly designating borders didn't create America. There were no borders in America initially. It was made up of a collective of the indigenous people who didn't speak English and were not of Western European descent. America established its borders by theft, war, conquest, slavery, and genocide of the original inhabitants of the Americas. The boundaries to the South existed after the Mexican-American war during the 1840's. Therefore, we have to look at history. Many American policies in Latin Americans influenced this refugee crisis in the world. We have to respect immigrant rights, and yes, many black people are immigrants too.

When you think about STEM fields, you have to acknowledge the contributions of this woman. You can't understand NASA fully or African American history in a comprehensive fashion without mentioning her. She is Sister Mae Jemison, and it was her birthday days ago. She is now 62 years old. Her legacy is wide-ranging indeed. She was the first African American woman who traveled into space. She encourages black people, other people of color, girls, women, and everyone in general to love STEM fields. STEM deals with the cultivation of civilization from counting money to handling complicated formulas that relate to calculus or trigonometry. Therefore, young people and anyone of any age have the right to learn and grow with STEM. Her intellectual genius and her great ingenuity make society more enriched. She was born in the South at Decatur, Alabama. She grew up in Chicago. Mae Jemison dreamed of traveling into space since her youth. She graduated from Sanford in 1977 with a B.S. degree in chemical engineering and B.A. degree in African and Afro-American Studies. Mae Jemison was 16 when Jemison started college. She was the head of the Black Students Union in college. Mae Jemison worked in engineering and faced racism including sexism, but those repugnant evils never crippled her dreams. She had her M.D. degree in 1981 at Cornell Medical College. She worked in the Peace Corps and NASA. Nichelle Nichols inspired her. In 1992, she traveled into space. Back then, scientists used experiments in orbit about illness and the human body's reactions to space situations. She is an author and a dancer. From being on Star Trek: The Next Generation to promoting organizations that increase the number of women and minorities having STEM-related occupations, Mae Jemison is a heroic black woman. I wish Sister Mae Jemison more blessings.

By Timothy

Wednesday, October 17, 2018

Information about Life.

50 years later is a long time. On that day (on October 16, 1968), 2 courageous black men stood up for justice during the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City. They rose their fists up in the air to protest racial oppression and advocate for social justice. They suffered threats, discrimination, and the hardships of their livelihoods. Still, they never wavered in their commitment to human freedom. Their actions inspired us who are black people. We black Americans love our noble heritage and our resiliency. They also encouraged freedom loving people of every color. They inspired us in the strength of their outstanding convictions. They showed the power of Blackness in the full array. No one could stop them. They knew that they would be victors of the race in the top three finishers. Tommie Smith and Juan Carlos were the men who stood up in protest. Before Kaepernick, before Mahmoud Abdul-Rauf, and before other NFL players kneeling, there were Tommie Smith and John Carlos. Smith was part of the Olympic Project for Human Rights (OPHR). The OPHR was a human rights organization. These men were the victims of poverty, and they wanted actions that would eliminate racism, poverty, and all of the evils found in this society. At first, Smith wanted a boycott of the Olympics unless different measures existed. Dr. King, before he died, wanted this 1968 Olympic boycott. Later, Carlos and Smith decided to go into the Olympics as a way for them to oppose inequality and injustice. Peter Norman (from Australia) was in support of Smith and Carlos. He won the silver medal during the games, and he wore an OPHR badge. When Peter passed away, Smith and Carlos came to the funeral as his pallbearers. Tommie Smith and John Carlos are legends (of the Black Power movement and the human rights movement). Their salutes with their fists changed history, and we salute their courageous sacrifice for our Brothers and our Sisters.

When I was in my 20's, I heard of Keyshia Cole's music all of the time. She was born in Oakland, California and she personified the power of exceptional talent. Inescapable power defines her voice. It's was her Birthday recently, and she is 36 years old. She was one of the few people who met both MC Hammer when she was 12 and later Tupac Shakur. When she was 16, she was involved in the local youth organization called the East Oakland Youth Development Center or EOYDC. The Way It Is was her debut album from 2005. Famous songs from her include I Changed My Mind, Love, and Never. The album Just Like You came about in 2007. Her singing gift is also about the flexibility of her majestic voice, and her music relates to the experiences of working-class human beings (especially in describing the real-life situations of women) who have been through the rain and the storm. Her songs readily have stories about heartbreak involving romance and finding the power to move forward in desiring a resolution in life. Yes, the way that she wore her cornrow braids is very fly. She admitted that she is inspired by Tupac Shakur, Mary J. Blige, Antia Baker, Brandy, Monica, and other artists. She has also praised other hip-hop artists like Queen Latifah, Big Daddy Kane, Kid 'n Play, Ll Cool J, and other musicians. Touring and performing more music are actions that relate to her life. I wish Sister Keyshia Cole more blessings.

The world economy is still very fragile. There is economic growth, but tons of workers work 2 or 3 jobs to survive. Income inequality has not radically declined, and the super wealthy control the vast majority of the wealth in America. A Just Capital study of the largest 1,000 U.S. firms found that 57 percent of the overall tax cut windfall went to shareholders, compared to only 7 percent that went to workers in bonuses or benefits. There is a trade war between America and China causing increased costs for many goods and services. When American economic growth is so reliant on other nations, an extended trade war will cause long-term damage to the U.S. economy. There is an increase in interest rates by the Fed. Also, the stock market has declined in over 1,000 points in 2 days. While Trump is opposed to Medicare for all, most industrialized nations have universal health care saving millions of lives every single day. Trump, Graham, and other reactionaries slander protesters as the "mob" when what these protesters are doing is exercising their First Amendment rights. They desire to expose an oligarch like Kavanaugh, and they do not want corruption to ruin democratic values.

Fannie Lou Hamer was a champion for humanity and wanted black people to experience freedom. She was born in Montgomery County, Mississippi in 1917. To know about black history in America and the Civil Rights Movement in general, you have to know about Mississippi. Mississippi is the land of black sharecroppers. Mississippi is the land of blood. That blood was of the blood shed by our Brothers and Sisters who just wanted liberty in the world. Medgar Evers also is from Mississippi at Decatur. Fannie Lou Hamer grew up as a sharecropper. She was religious. By the 1950's, she worked heavily in the Civil Rights Movement. She was threatened, she was beaten, and she was cursed at. Yet, her courageousness was inspirational. She was a black woman on a mission to promote the creed of justice for the human race. She confronted those in power from racist sheriffs to the President of America. Back in 1964 (which was before my time, but my parents were alive then), she spoke at the Democratic National Convention to promote seats for the MFDP delegation (who wanted to reject the seats from the Democratic white supremacists from Mississippi). In her speech, she condemned racism and exhorted America to live up to the ideals of human liberty and justice. During this time in 2018, our rights are threatened daily by people who care more for privilege, financial gain, and bigotry instead of human rights and tolerance. Fannie Lou Hamer was a leader and an organizer. She was part of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP). Hamer worked with SNCC. She was a leader of Freedom Summer back in 1964 in Mississippi to organize the registration of voters. She was vital in getting laws passed and she opposed the Vietnam War as unjust (which it was). Also, she promoted anti-poverty measures like cooperatives to assist the lives of the suffering. She lived until 1977, and her legacy is golden and forthrightly powerful.
Rest in Power Sister Fannie Lou Hamer.

Many lawsuits are existing now that are fighting for health care (since the Trump regime wants to eliminate protections given to people with pre-existing conditions), fighting against pollution, and fighting against the xenophobic Muslim ban. In essence, Montesquieu was right to set the standard of the separation of powers, so one branch of government would not reign supreme over the other branches. We have an executive branch authoritatively dominating our society with little regulation. We see an insecure, racist, xenophobic, and sexist male who praises Robert E. Lee and uses vulgar language to describe black people who disagree with him including protesters. Therefore, this male (i.e., Donald Trump) is an enemy of democracy and an enemy of freedom loving people of the world. Graham is another snake. He once claimed to be against Trump, and we knew he was a liar. Today, he is one of the President's greatest supporters. McConnell is a hypocrite who wants his way and desires only GOP dominance over Congress. A party that is overt in claiming that a woman's testimony about Kavanaugh doesn't matter, that claims that immigrants should be placed in internment camps based upon their lack of documentation, and believes that cops can use stop and frisk against black people is a disgraceful party.

By Timothy



Monday, October 15, 2018

Trump and Women

Motown's Influence.

The illustrious cultural black American powerhouse of Motown exhibited excellent talent. Its history is extensive. Its music has been iconic for decades and influences today’s music near 2020 as well. It started with Berry Gordy Jr. He borrowed $800 from his family saving club (called Ber-Berry Co-op) to start Tamla Record Company in Detroit, Michigan. This event took place in 1959. Berry Gordy was once a songwriter for local Detroit acts like Jackie Wilson and the Matadors. Wilson’s single called “Lonely Teardrops” was written by Gordy. Later, the Motown record label established itself on January 12, 1959. Motown had an important role in causing many artists to have success, and it was the soundtrack (along with other music from Stax Records, and other record companies) of the Civil Rights Movement. Motown showed the power of the universality of music and the great cultural excellence of African Americans. Hitsville U.S.A. studio was the recording studio of early Motown artists. The Motown song was a style of soul music that made people dance. Joy and excitement consumed crowds when individuals listened to Motown music. The sound used tambourines to make the backbeat. It had melodic guitar lines and melodic plus chord structure. Motown included a call and response singing style that started from gospel music. The Funk Brothers helped with the cultivation of the Motown song too. During the 1960’s, Motown had 79 records in the Top Ten of the Billboard Hot 100 record chart between 1960 and 1969. Motown immediately grew fast. Its first hit was the song, "Money (That's What I Want)." which was sung by Barrett Strong. Berry Gordy Jr. and Janie Bradford wrote the song. Motown signed the Matadors who became the Miracles. Several of Gordy's family members, including his father Berry Sr., his brothers Robert and George, and sister Esther, were given key roles in the company. By the middle of the decade, Gwen and Anna Gordy had joined the label in administrative positions as well.  Esther Gordy Edwards was the Senior Vice President in charge of International Talent Management, Inc. This event took place in 1960. In the same year, the Marvelettes, Marvin Gaye, and Mary Wells signed with Motown. Mary Wells recorded “Bye, Bye, Baby” on Motown label. Early Motown artists included Mable John, Eddie Holland, and Mary Wells. The Miracles featuring Smokey Robinson, Bobby Rogers, Ron White, Pete Moore, and Claudette Robinson recorded the first Motown record to sell one million copies. The record was called “Shop Around.” Motown went to the Music Publishing Awards too where Jobete received an honor.

In 1961, the Temptations signed with Motown. They were once called the Elgins. Stevie Wonder signed with Motown in the same year too. Eddie Holland’s record “Jamie” is released on the Motown label written by Mickey Stevenson and Barrett Strong. The style of Jackie Wilson influenced the song. The Marvelettes release, “Please Mr. Postman,” by Brian Holland, Freddie Gorman, Robert Bateman, William Garrett, and Georgia Dobbins, on the Tamla label. This song was the first Motown song to reach the number one position on the Billboard Hot 100 pop singles chart. The Vice President of Motown was Smokey Robinson in 1962. By 1962, The Motor town Revue left Detroit to tour the East Coast and South. Groups included in the tour were: the Miracles, Martha and the Vandellas, the Supremes, Mary Wells, Stevie Wonder, Marvin Gaye, the Contours, the Marvelettes, and the Choker Campbell Band. The Contours released “Do You Love Me,” which was written for the Temptations in 1962. As Gordy was unable to locate the group, Contours got the song. Mary Wells had a hit with “You Beat Me to the Punch,” written by Smokey Robinson. It reached #1 on the R&B chart and #9 on Billboard’s Pop chart in 1962. By 1963, disc cutting machines existed to cause demos to be on a record. Mary Wells was on American Bandstand with Dick Clark. Martha & the Vandellas were nominated for “(Love Is Like) A Heatwave,” written by Brian Holland, Lamont Dozier and Edward Holland, Jr. In 1963, Stevie Wonder performed at the Olympia Music Hall in Paris, France for a two-week engagement. In 1964, Motown’s Artist Personal Development Department started. This program allowed Motown artists to learn etiquette and other forms of presenting themselves to the wider public. Maurice King, Maxine Powell, and Cholly Atkins worked with the artists. By 1965, Motown employed 125 people. Motown reached into new heights by the mid-1960's.

Motown launched its international label, Tamla-Motown, in London, England back in 1965. The Temptations tape “Ready, Steady, Go” television show in England, and Brenda Holloway performed with the Beatles on their North American Tour in 1965. Temptations had its #1 hit with “My Girl,” written by William “Smokey” Robinson and Ronald White of the Miracles back in 1965 too. The Temptations reached into new heights after that song existed. Motown released its first eight-track tapes. Five Motown releases reached #1 on the top ten pop charts including “I Can’t Help Myself” by the Four Tops and “Stop In The Name of Love” by the Supremes in the same year of 1965. Norman Whitfield started to produce the Temptations in 1966. By 1966, Motown grossed $20 million. Gladys Knight and the Pips, Tammi Terrell, and the Isley Brothers signed with Motown in 1966. Nick Ashford and Valerie Simpson signed with Motown as staff writers in 1966. Motown purchased another studio called Golden World Records (Studio B) and acquired Edwin Starr in that acquisition. In 1967, Motown had five labels called Tamla, Motown, Gordy, Soul, and V.I.P. Stevie Wonder toured Europe. Martha and the Vandellas recorded “Jimmy Mack” on the Gordy label back in 1967. Diana Ross & the Supremes performed at Expo 67, the group’s name changed to reflect Diana as lead. In 1967, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., recorded the album “Why I Oppose the War in Vietnam” on Motown’s Black Forum record label, and he spoke out against the war in New York. Dr. King advocated racial, economic, and social justice without apology. In 1967, more than 150,000 people protested the war in Washington, D.C. A fifth label, Soul, featured Jr. Walker & the All Stars, Jimmy Ruffin, Shorty Long, the Originals, and Gladys Knight & the Pips (who had found success before joining Motown, as "The Pips" on Vee-Jay).

In 1968, Vice President, public relations, Mike Roshkind accompanied Stevie Wonder, the Temptations, and Martha and the Vandellas on a Far East Tour. Motown moved its headquarters from West Grand Blvd. to a new downtown office location at 2457 Woodward Avenue at the Fisher Freeway in the same year. In 1968, Marvin Gaye’s version of “I Heard It Through The Grapevine” hit #1 on the pop chart. Suzanne de Passe worked for Motown as Mr. Gordy’s Creative Assistant. The Supremes met Queen Mother. Under Norman Whitfield’s production of more psychedelic-based material, The Temptations released “Cloud Nine.” This record was known as part of “psychedelic soul." Motown had 5 of the Top 10 records on the Billboard Magazine chart in 1968. Holding the number 1, 2, & 3 positions for an entire month. The Jackson Five performed at the Daisy Disco in Los Angeles with an introduction by Diana Ross in 1969. Michael Jackson was the lead singer of the group, and Michael Jackson later became an international superstar in his own right. In the same year of 1969, The Temptations’ “I Can’t Get Next To You” reached #1 on the pop chart. Motown senior vice president Esther Gordy Edwards met with Motown licensees in Czechoslovakia, Romania, Finland, Austria and also visited Russia. In 1970, Berry Gordy and entertainer and recording artist Sammy Davis, Jr., started Ecology record label. Motown addressed the issues of the Vietnam War with the release of “Guess Who’s Coming Home, Black Fighting Men Recorded Live in Vietnam", on Black Forum label. Edwin Starr released “War”, written by Norman Whitfield and Barrett Strong in 1970. Motown signed the rock act Stoney and Meatloaf on the Rare Earth label. In 1971, Stevie Wonder turned 21 and signed a more comprehensive and lucrative contract with Motown, and Michael Jackson appeared on the cover of Rolling Stone. The new Supremes (Jean Terrell, Cindy Birdsong, and Mary Wilson) appeared on the David Frost Show in 1971. In the same year of 1971, Sly and the Family Stone record “Family Affair.” Motown established branch offices in both New York City and Los Angeles during the mid-1960's, and by 1969, Motown had begun gradually moving more of its operations to Los Angeles. Gordy initially rejected several tracks that later became critical and commercial favorites; the two most notable being the Marvin Gaye songs "I Heard It Through the Grapevine" and "What's Going On.”

In 1972, Motown moved headquarters from Detroit to Hollywood, California, so they left branch office in Detroit at Hitsville, U.S.A. The songwriting/production team of Holland-Dozier-Holland left over pay disputes, so this situation of moving took place.  By this time, Motown loosened its production rules, allowing some of its longtime artists the opportunity to write and produce more of their material. More independence resulted in the recordings of successful and critically acclaimed albums such as Marvin Gaye's What's Going On (1971) and Let's Get it On (1973), and Stevie Wonder's Music of My Mind (1972), Talking Book (1972), and Innervisions (1973). Some artists, among them Martha Reeves, the Four Tops, Gladys Knight & the Pips, and Motown's Funk Brothers studio band, either stayed behind in Detroit or left the company for other reasons. By re-locating, Motown aimed chiefly to branch out into the motion-picture industry, and Motown Productions got its start in film by turning out two hit-vehicles for Diana Ross: the Billie Holiday biographical film Lady Sings the Blues (1972), and Mahogany (1975). Other Motown films would include Scott Joplin (1977), Thank God It's Friday (1978), The Wiz (1978) and The Last Dragon (1985). Ewart Abner, who allied with Motown since the 1960's, became its president in 1973. Despite losing Holland–Dozier–Holland, Norman Whitfield, and some of its other hitmakers by 1975, Motown had many hit records. In 1972, Suzanne DePasse became corporate director of Motown Productions, which produced “Lady Sings the Blues,” a movie about the life of blues vocalist Billie Holiday starring Diana Ross, Billy Dee Williams, and Richard Pryor. The Commodores signed with Motown and opened for the Jackson Five. The Four Tops released “(It’s The Way) Nature Planned It." MCA Inc. controlled Motown later on. Motown still had many successful artists during the 1970's and 1980's, including Lionel Richie and the Commodores, Rick James, Teena Marie, the Dazz Band, Jose Feliciano, and DeBarge. Motown started to lose money by the mid-1980’s. During the 1990's, Motown was home to successful recording artists such as Boyz II Men and Johnny Gill. By 1998, Motown had added stars such as 702, Brian McKnight, and Erykah Badu to its roster.

Motown was later sold to PolyGram in 1994, before being sold again to MCA Records' successor, Universal Music Group, when it acquired PolyGram in 1999. Motown spent much of the 2000's headquartered in New York City as a part of the Universal Music subsidiaries Universal Motown and Universal Motown Republic Group. From 2011 to 2014, Motown was a part of The Island Def Jam Music Group division of Universal Music. On April 1, 2014, Universal Music Group announced the dissolution of Island Def Jam; subsequently Motown relocated back to Los Angeles to operate under the Capitol Music Group. Motown now operates out of the landmark Capitol Tower. For many decades, Motown was the highest-earning African American business in the United States. The Rhythm & Blues Hall of Fame inducted Motown during the class of 2018 on June 3, 2018, at the Charles H. Wright Museum. Motown legend Martha Reeves received the award for Motown Records. If anyone desires to know real music, he or she ought to study Motown.

By Timothy

Friday, October 12, 2018

Spotlight Series: Blogger Kelley

Friday Commentaries.

The following is why I reject the views of the moderates. For years and decades, some desire us to be moderate, so we can please people who don't think as we do. That is fantasy since historically, many people have awakened not by moderation, but by the truth. For example, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. wrote a letter while he was in a Birmingham Jail back in 1963. He didn't criticize progressives. He exposed white moderates since they were more concerned with the status quo and comfort than freedom and justice for black Americans. This fact is accurate today. Not to mention that the American political mainstream is so far right today. FDR called for universal health care in the 1940's. Dr. King called for a guaranteed annual income for Americans in 1968. Hubert Humphrey called for direct government investment in employment back in the 1970's via his Humphrey-Hawkins Full Employment Act, the first attempt at full employment legislation. The political establishment is much more conservative on economic issues today (since the 1980's) than back in the 1960's and the 1970's. The moderate professes to desire people to experience peace, but they refuse to engage in an ideological struggle for that peace. At the same time, the Right scapegoats the Left for polarization while this same Right ignores Trump supporters assaulting protesters and crowds of Trump acolytes enacting hate crimes at a high level. Peace is not attained by compromise or giving in.

Historically, sacrifice and solid effort have caused tranquility to flourish. The Confederacy lost by a conflict, which Union leaders of many colors were active in defeating the bigoted rebels. A unified front against fascism defeated the Nazis. Jim Crow apartheid in America ended by a courageous confrontation against evil. I can go down the list of other occurrences as well. Therefore, either we are hot or cold. We aren't lukewarm. We are clear that we desire universal healthcare for all, social justice, and racial justice. There is no question that we want to end to police brutality, to have our civil liberties protected, and to witness workers' rights. We believe in the rights of women, the human rights of immigrants including undocumented immigrants, reparations (as have been given to Jewish people, Native Americans, and others throughout human history), and the flourishing of black communities (as I am a black man). The creed of promoting the general welfare is part of the progressive credo. We cherish that credo permanently including the goal of justice for all.

Kanye West gave a 10-minute monologue to Donald Trump. He wanted to support Trump. It discussed race and culture in America. His purpose was to desire to do something about the situation in Chicago and the prison industrial complex. Trump made this a show, and Kanye brought a provocative presentation. The truth is that we have issues in the African American community, but Trump is a person who doesn't represent what we, who are black Americans, desire. We are a compassionate people. We also desire what other communities want. We want community development, investments in education, the ending of police brutality, respect outlined to our families, and healthcare being more available and affordable. It is easy to target Kanye West since he's an easy target. He has mental health issues, has self-hatred, and is wrong in agreeing with the Trump agenda.

What is important is promoting a progressive agenda for our people and our descendants. Also, Jim Brown was there in league with Trump. Brown disappoints me, but that isn't shocking since Jim Brown believes in rigid capitalism and he rejects nonviolent resistance. I believe in nonviolence and self-defense at certain circumstances. Therefore, we are clear to oppose Trump, because of his sexism, his racism (as proven by his comments about the Charlottesville tragedy, his words about majority countries of black African descent, and his views on the Central Park Five), and his xenophobia. Trump used Kanye as a prop to advance his cause. We don't believe in torture and stripping net neutrality. So, we desire the general welfare to be advanced.

Legend is an apt description to describe her. For decades, she has not only performed in crowds internationally. She is a constant advocate for helping others and building communities. Her name is Lana Michelle Moorer or MC Lyte, and it was her birthday yesterday. She is 48 years old, and she was born in Brooklyn, NYC. At the age of 12, she started to rap involving hip-hop. She made classic records found in albums like Lyte as a Rock. She worked in the new jack swing genre with music as well. She is the first soloist woman rapper to be nominated for a Grammy. Cold Rock a Party was a song shown by her including Missy Elliot (she is from my state of Virginia) back in late 1996 when I was in middle school at the eighth grade. MC Lyte is an actress too. She has been on Moesha, Cousin Skeeter, New York Undercover, My Wife and My Kids, and other shows. Lana Michelle Moorer appeared in the films of Train Ride, Civil Brand, and other movies. She donated a turntable, records, and her diary to the Smithsonian Institution. MC Lyte opened Shaitel or a Los Angeles boutique that sells accessories from belts to sunglasses. She has spoken in colleges and wrote a book too. MC Lyte is a leader in building up great skills for future generations. She recently married Marine Corps veteran and entrepreneur John Wyche in August of 2017. Bless their Union. Exquisite talent, personal excellence, and golden, charismatic swagger relate to her life. I wish Sister MC Lyte more Blessings.

By Timothy

Wednesday, October 10, 2018


Some view Trump and Trumpism as an aberration of what America is. Yet, nothing can be further from the truth. Trump's agenda is not new. Trump is evil, but he is the product of the corruption found in America spanning centuries. During the early history of America, the Constitution designed my people as 3/5s of a person and women didn't have the right to vote. Even as late as the 1960's, in some states, a woman couldn't own a bank account (or get a loan) without a man's permission. That's illogical and wrong, but that was the law in many states back then. America itself was established on the enslavement of black Africans and the genocide of indigenous peoples. Again before 1965, many people restricted non-whites from coming to America. During the late 19th century and early 20th century, Chinese people weren't allowed to go into America. Even the Supreme Court once condoned Jim Crow apartheid, racial slavery, and Japanese American internment. During this year alone, the Supreme Court has once again endorse evil policies like upholding the Muslim ban, harming unionism, etc.

Today, Trump has banned certainly majority Muslim nations from sending its citizens into America for immigration. Back then,  internment camps housed Japanese Americans including some German plus Italian Americans. Today, many undocumented immigrants, including children, have been detained at internment camps, which is cruel. Back in the 1920's, Klanspeople marched in the thousands in Washington, D.C. Black people experienced lynchings and police brutality back then, and today, many black people still, unfortunately, experience brutality and racism. Recently, in 2017, neo-Nazis and neo-Confederates marched in Charlottesville, Virginia to spread racism, anti-Semitism, and bigotry. Not only has Trump praised these racists, but he has called on the police to be abusive against suspects. From Trump's disgraceful response to Puerto Rico (during the aftermath of Hurricane Maria) to his support of the liar Kavanaugh, we face a continuation of the reactionary threat to our human liberties. We have to be focused and vote. We are concerned about real issues like education, healthcare, our civil liberties, our communities, and the preservation plus the strengthening of our social safety net. Therefore, this is our land too, and we have the right to have justice and freedom.

Today is undoubtedly a unique day. While many people on this day praise a war criminal, others appreciate the heroic resistance of the indigenous peoples of the Americas against imperialism. Christopher Columbus was an imperialist, a supporter of racism, a supporter of rape, and he allowed his vindictive allies to murder innocent Native American human beings. He worked under the Spanish monarchy to organize a trade route in expanding European colonialism and imperialism worldwide. He used religious deception plus lies as a way for him to advance his goals too. Columbus was born in Italy. He established four voyages to go to the Caribbean. Christopher Columbus never traveled into the continental United States of America. During his first trip, he came into the Bahamas and then Cuba where he found the Lucayan, Taíno, and Arawak Native Americans human beings.

Michele de Cuneo, who was part of the 2nd voyage, admitted in a letter that Christopher Columbus kidnapped a Native American Carib woman and his crew raped the woman with a rope, etc. After an attack by more than 2,000 Native Americans, Columbus had an underling, Alonso de Ojeda, bring him three Native Americans. Columbus ordered the Native Americans to be publicly beheaded. Ojeda also ordered his men to grab another Native American, bring him to the middle of his village, and "cut off his ears." Columbus enslaved more than one thousand human beings from Hispaniola. Columbus lusted for gold and threatened the indigenous people about it.

By 1548, only about 5000 Native peoples lived in Hispaniola (which was a result of warfare against them, harsh enslavement, diseases like smallpox, etc.). Caribs and Taino peoples suffered tyranny as a result of European imperialism. Columbus also ordered the whipping of even Spanish people including women in graphic terms. Many of them were lashed with whips too. Many returning settlers and sailors lobbied against Columbus at the Spanish court, accusing him and his brothers of gross mismanagement. Columbus had some of his crew hanged for disobedience. He wanted to enslave Hispaniola indigenous peoples for economic purposes. Other reports show Columbus doing other grotesque actions against women and men that I can't mention here. It's that graphic. Christopher Columbus was a known slave owner. In just two years under Columbus's governorship more than half of the 250,000 Arawaks in Haiti were dead. Therefore, Christopher Columbus was no hero. We shouldn't celebrate this wicked abuser of humankind.

We should celebrate the courage of the indigenous peoples instead on this day. That is why many American cities have renamed this day from Columbus Day to Indigenous Peoples Day. It isn't surprising that Trump has praised Columbus (who allowed his soldiers to murder, rape, and harm Arawak, Taino, and other indigenous human beings. The Arawak resisted occupation too courageously) since Trump is in league with authoritarianism and xenophobic far-right nationalism instead of progressive human liberation. Columbus was a notorious terrorist and a disgraceful person. On the date of October 8, 2018, we express our further commitment to freedom and justice.

By Timothy

Monday, October 08, 2018

Carter G. Woodson - African American Trailblazers

Carter G. Woodson - African American Trailblazers

The 81-year-old Bodybuilder Who Inspires Others To Get Fit

9 reasons Christopher Columbus was a murderer, tyrant, and scoundrel



WWII Information

LBJ and Vietnam (in a Summary)

President Lyndon Baines Johnson became President after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. Many of LBJ’s policies came from the Kennedy administration from civil rights legislation to anti-poverty measures. Also, LBJ signed laws more progressive than JFK on domestic issues and he executed a foreign policy which was obviously much more reactionary than John F. Kennedy. Lyndon Johnson had a dual legacy which encompasses both the good things that he did in terms of civil rights and the environment along with the bad policies that he made in terms of escalating the Vietnam War, etc. By November 27, 1963, LBJ addressed a joint session of Congress to call for the fulfillment of John F. Kennedy’s legacy by passing civil rights and tax legislation. The Clean Air Act was signed on December 17, 1963. By January of 1964, LBJ talked about the Soviets. January 2, 1964 was when President Johnson held a budget conference with United States Postmaster General John Gronouski. Gronouski said after the meeting that the plan designed to save money for the upcoming fiscal year of 1965 will not cut back on the utilities of the mailing service. The US received a note from the Soviet Union calling for the denunciation of force in disputes of territory ownership. President Johnson released a statement on labor-management relations. The next day, President Johnson released a statement on the attempted assassination of President Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana. Nkrumah fought against colonialism and saw his nation achieve independence after much struggle. Lyndon Baines Johnson also signed the Executive Order 11136, which formed the President’s Committee on Consumer Interests and it formed the Consumer Advisory Council. He released the Task Force on Manpower Conservation report on January 5. United States Secretary of Labor W. Willard Wirtz announced that the federal government will step in to mediate the railroad work rules disputes. On January 8, 1964, President Lyndon Baines Johnson gave a historic speech.

It was the 1964 State of the Union Address to a joint session of Congress. He gave his speech to focus on the War on Poverty. He wanted government investments on all levels of government to eradicate poverty in America. The War on Poverty cut poverty in America in half from 1960 to 1970 and we still have a long way to go today in ending income inequality too. In January 1964, LBJ also met with business leaders on tax reduction and he focused on solving political issues with Panama. January 17, 1964 was when President Johnson released a statement to comment on a report by the Immigration and Naturalization Service which advocated legislation to abolish the discriminatory national origins system. The Twenty Fourth Amendment to the Constitution was passed in early 1964 which abolished the poll tax. LBJ also attended the 12th Annual Presidential Prayer Breakfast at the Mayflower Hotel at Washington. He constantly supported the tax bill during February of 1964. He also signed Proclamation 3573 calling the week National Poison Prevention Week starting on March 15, 1964. He also promoted Medicare for elderly Americans. On February 11, 1964, President Johnson signed a bill amending the Library Services Act in the Cabinet Room. President Johnson said that the legislation "expands a program which helps make library services available to 38 million Americans in rural areas" and "authorizes efforts to strengthen inadequate urban libraries. This act authorizes for the first time grants for the construction and renovation of library buildings." On March of 1964, LBJ sent condolences to Alaskans in the aftermath of the earthquake harming their state and he sent help to Governor Egan. By July 2, 1964, Lyndon Baines Johnson signed the historic Civil Rights Act of 1964. It extended rights to African Americans, women, and other Americans in opposition to racism and discrimination.

American involvement in the Vietnam War has existed long before 1960. Communist activist Ho Chi Minh was once not a Communist and he wanted Woodrow Wilson to support his independence movement after the end of World War One. Wilson refused to do. So, Ho Chi Minh continued in his activism. By the time of World War II, Japanese forces occupied Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh was a part of the pro-Allied forces who wanted to end Japanese occupation. During World War II, Minh formed the Viet Minh group or the Vietnam Independence league. The American OSS or the Office of Strategic Services allied with Ho Chi Minh and his Viet Minh guerrillas to fight the Japanese plus help downed American pilots. By 1945, the French colonial government was ousted by the Japanese and the puppet leader Bao Dai was its puppet ruler. Ho Chi Minh spread his movement in the midst of famine and starvation in Hanoi by the summer of 1945. The Allied Potsdam conference wanted non-Vietnamese people to control the Indochina peninsula. Japan surrendered on August of 1945. Ho Chi Minh occupied Hanoi and proclaimed a provisional government. He quoted the Declaration of Independence and wanted America to support him. Truman ignored his calls and British troops arrived at Saigon on September 13, 1945. In North Vietnam, 150,000 Chinese Nationalist soldiers looted Hanoi and other Vietnamese villages. In South Vietnam, the British forces allowed 1400 French soldiers to go on a rampage against the Viet Minh on September 22, 1945. The French mob killed innocent children too which was supported by many French civilians who joined in the rampage. Viet Minh used a strike and fought back. The Binh Xuyen killed people too and they were a Vietnamese criminal organization. An American OSS officer was killed. His name was Dewey and he was mistaken for a French soldier. He wanted America to leave Southeast Asia. The French, led by World War II General Jacques Philippe Leclerc, seized South Vietnam. The Viet Minh was expelled from Saigon. Ho Chi Minh wanted total independent of Vietnam from the French. Yet, the French refused to do so. So, in 1946, the French continued to occupy Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh had no choice, but to fight back. By December 19, 1946, Viet Minh started their large scale attack against French occupation. This was the First Indochina War. "The resistance will be long and arduous, but our cause is just and we will surely triumph," declares Viet Minh military commander Vo Nguyen Giap. "If these [people] want a fight, they'll get it," French military commander Gen. Etrienne Valluy states.

The French used Operation Lea in order for them to fight Viet Minh guerrilla positions in North Vietnam. The Viet Minh fought back. The puppet leader Bao Dai ruled South Vietnam during the early 1950's and he is recognized by the U.S. and the British. China recognized Ho Chi Minh’s Democratic Republic of Vietnam. General Giap of Vietnam organized fortifications to fight back against the French. During his term, Eisenhower will greatly increase U.S. military aid to the French in Vietnam to prevent a Communist victory. U.S. military advisors would continue to accompany American supplies sent to Vietnam. To justify America's financial commitment, Eisenhower will cite a 'Domino Theory' in which a Communist victory in Vietnam would result in surrounding countries falling one after another like a "falling row of dominoes." The Domino Theory will be used by a succession of Presidents and their advisors to justify ever-deepening U.S. involvement in Vietnam. We know that the domino theory is false. The French were finally defeated by the forces of Ho Chi Minh after the  siege at Dien Bein Phu when almost 10,000 French soldiers were trapped by 45,000 Viet Minh troops. Some including some French leaders wanted Eisenhower to send nuclear weapons or a ground force to protect the French, but Eisenhower refused to do so. The French surrendered by May 7, 1954. After 8 years, the French enacted withdrawal from Vietnam. On May 8, 1954, The Geneva Conference on Indochina begins, attended by the U.S., Britain, China, the Soviet Union, France, Vietnam (Viet Minh and representatives of Bao Dai), Cambodia and Laos, all meeting to negotiate a solution for Southeast Asia. By July 21, 1954, the Geneva Accords divide Vietnam in half at the 17th parallel, with Ho Chi Minh's Communists ceded the North, while Bao Dai's regime is granted the South. The accords also provide for elections to be held in all of Vietnam within two years to reunify the country.

The U.S. opposed the unifying elections, fearing a likely victory by Ho Chi Minh. Bao Dai installed Ngo Dinh Diem as his prime minister in South Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh controlled North Vietnam. Diem wanted Catholic Vietnamese people to come into the South to grow political power, so nearly 1,000,000 Vietnamese people came to the south and thousands of Communists from the south traveled to North Vietnam. The organized crime group of Binh Xuyen was cracked down by Prime Minister Diem. Ho Chi Minh recieved Soviet aid. Diem takes power completely by October 23, 1955. CIA-connected U.S. Air Force Col. Edward G. Lansdalte advised Diem. The election that caused Diem to have power has been said by historians to being rigged. Diem refused to do radical land reform. In 1957, the Soviet Union wanted a permanent division among North and South Vietnam, but the U.S. rejected this plan by not wanting to recognize North Vietnam. While Diem used persecution against his opponents with brutal force, the Viet Minh guerillas do use a campaign of terror in South Vietnam where over 400 South Vietnamese officials are killed in October 1957. By March of 1959, the call by Ho Chi Minh to unite all of Vietnam starts. This is the start of the Second Indochina War. The Ho Chi Minh trial was constructed starting on May 1959. On July 8, 1959,  two U.S. military advisors, Maj. Dale Buis and Sgt. Chester Ovnand, were killed by Viet Minh guerrillas at Bien Hoa, South Vietnam. They are the first American deaths during the Second Indochina War. Americans have called this war the Vietnam War. President Diem experienced a failed coup on November 20, 1960. He and his brother Nhu caused over 50,000 people to be arrested by the police and many civilians were tortured and executed also on November of 1960. Support for Diem continued to decline. Many fled to North Vietnam and sent back to infiltrate South Vietnam as part of the People’s Liberation Armed Forces. On December 20, 1960, the National Liberation Front was created by Hanoi and they acted as a political organization in South Vietnam. When John F. Kennedy was President, he had criticisms for Diem, but he didn’t want South Vietnam to fall to the Communists. JFK wanted a military intervention to provoke a political settlement in Vietnam just like he did with Laos.

LBJ called Diem the Winston Churchill of Asia when Kennedy was in office. By May of 1961, President Kennedy sent 400 U.S. Green Beret “advisors” to South Vietnam. They trained South Vietnamese soldiers to use counter insurgency against Vietnamese pro-North Vietnam forces. JFK expanded military advisors. Helicopter units came into Vietnam. On January 15, 1962, during a press conference, President Kennedy is asked if any Americans in Vietnam are engaged in the fighting. "No," the President responds without further comment. One of the most evil parts of the Vietnam War was Operation Sunrise. This was the Strategic Hamlet program that Vietnamese people were uprooted from their ancestral farmlands and resettled into fortified villages defended by local militias. Many Viet Cong killed or intimidated village leaders. Diem ordered bombing raids on Viet Cong controlled hamlets. Some U.S. pilots along with the South Vietnamese Air Force ware involved in the bombings. Many civilians died. The North Vietnamese victory in the Battle of Ap Bac on January 3, 1963 send shock waves worldwide. Three American helicopter members were killed. Diem (in 1963) continued to persecute the Buddhists by suppressing their religious liberty rights. On June and August of 1963, many Buddhists burn themselves to death to protest the mistreatment of Buddhists. JFK was shocked. Ambassador Lodge met with Diem. On September 2, 1963, during a TV news interview with Walter Cronkite, President Kennedy describes Diem as "out of touch with the people" and adds that South Vietnam's government might regain popular support "with changes in policy and perhaps in personnel." Also during the interview, Kennedy commented on America's commitment to Vietnam "If we withdrew from Vietnam, the Communists would control Vietnam. Pretty soon, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Malaya, would go..."

Generals from South Vietnam like Dương Văn Minh organized the coup. JFK in his diary said that his administration bear some responsibility for it. President John F. Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963. Debates continue on what JFK would have done as it related to Vietnam if he had lived. In 1964, more generals in South Vietnam ruled like General Minh and General Nguyen Khanh. Johnson continued the policy of militarily being involved in Vietnam. LBJ allowed the CIA to back South Vietnamese commandos to use speed boats to harass radar sites along the coastline of North Vietnam. The raids were supported by U.S. Navy warships in the Gulf of Tonkin including the destroyer U.S.S. Maddox which conducted electronic surveillance to pinpoint the radar locations.  The Gulf of Tonkin incident of August of 1964 expanded U.S. military involvement in Vietnam into another level. The first attack on August 2, 1964 was real with little damage to American ships. The second attack on August 4, 1964 was proven to be not real as said by former United States Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara in the 2003 documentary The Fog of War. This deception of the second attack was exploited by LBJ in order for him to escalate the Vietnam war with the Gulf of Tonkin resolution which was passed by Congress. LBJ used his incident to win the 1964 election against a fellow anti-Communist Barry Goldwater (Yet, Goldwater was much more reactionary than Johnson on domestic issues). The Vietnam War would never be the same again.

By Timothy