Wednesday, September 20, 2017

The Issues of the 2010's.

Donald’s Trump’s speech to the United Nations is bombastic, imperialistic, provocative, extremist, and not surprising. The people, who voted for Trump, should feel shame. Now, the United Nations is located in New York City. It was created after World War II in order to solve global disputes among the nations of the world. Trump openly threatened North Korea with destruction if it doesn’t submit to his demands. That is blatantly wrong. North Korea has 25 million people. North Korea shouldn’t be completely destroyed of its population period. People in the UN refused to massively criticize him while he was speaking or try him for war crimes. “The United States has great strength and patience, but if it is forced to defend itself or its allies, we will have no choice but to totally destroy North Korea,” Trump told the meeting. “Rocket Man [Trump’s imbecilic nickname for North Korean leader Kim Jong-un] is on a suicide mission for himself and for his regime. The United States is ready, willing and able…” He fakes a populist image, but he supports Wall Street and the passage of a $700 billion military budget. He promotes the “America First” view. He wants nationalism to solve every international problem. “The nation-state remains the best vehicle for elevating the human condition,” he proclaimed in a speech in which the words “sovereign” or “sovereignty” were repeated 21 times. He hypocritically claims to be in favor of sovereignty, but he is preparing war against any nation that refuses to support his will. He not only threatened to incinerate North Korea (for testing ballistic missiles and nuclear weapons). He threatened to end the 2015 Iranian nuclear deal. He opposes the deal when that deal is moderate and Iran has no nuclear weapons at all. He also singled out Venezuela, declaring that its internal situation “is completely unacceptable, and we cannot stand by and watch.”

He added: “The United States has taken important steps to hold the regime accountable. We are prepared to take further action if the government of Venezuela persists on its path to impose authoritarian rule on the Venezuelan people.” Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif responded in a tweet, saying that “Trump’s ignorant hate speech belongs in medieval times—not the 21st century UN—unworthy of a reply.” The foreign minister of Venezuela, Jorge Arreaza, charged Trump with seeking “regime change by force,” adding that he “wants to rule the world when he can’t even rule his own country.” Trump can’t promote national sovereignty on one hand and then promote U.S. imperialism’s “right” to bomb, invade, and carry out regime against any nation that he disagrees with. There is no ambiguity about his speech. It is about advancing fascism period. Hitler back during the 1930’s threatened the annihilation of Europe’s Jewish population. Trump is not equivalent to Hitler, but Trump’s words of threats of genocide are blatantly evil. Scholars have documented how extreme nationalism and fascism have similarities. The absence from the UN’s opening session of Russian President Vladimir Putin, Chinese President Xi Jinping and German Chancellor Angela Merkel was significant.  French President Emmanuel Marcon supports the war on terrorism, opposed military escalation to North Korea. He didn’t want to end the Iranian nuclear treaty. The speech included a passage warning the world that the American military is no longer subordinate to civilian control. “From now on,” Trump declared, “our security interests will dictate the length and scope of military operations, not arbitrary benchmarks and timetables set up by politicians.” It is obvious that these wars are used to prop up American capitalism not to maintain harmony in the world. Trump criticized socialism and capitalism, but socialists have been involved in labor rights, workers’ rights, and other social movements that have improved America for decades from the policies of the New Deal to the Great Society. Trump’s extremism represents the ideological bankruptcy of laissez faire capitalism and the extremism of the far right.


Yesterday was the Birthday of Sister Sanaa Lathan. For many years, she has inspired people, and her acting is a representation of the glory of Black Excellence. She has been involved in a diversity of films from comedy to action. She is now 46 years old. She was born in New York City and her father is a famous producer, named Stan Lathan, who has involved in producing shows like Sanford and Sons. Also, her mother was an actress and dancer named Eleanor McCoy. Sanaa Lathan attended the Manhattan School of Science and Mathematics. She graduated from the University of California, Berkeley with a bachelor's degree in English. Lathan then attended Yale University and earned a master's degree in drama. She has performed in Broadway and diverse theatrical plays. She was on many TV shows like Moesha and In the House during the 1990's. She has also been apart of movies like Brown Sugar, Love and Basketball, The Wood, etc. She has spoken out in favor of equality. She is certainly driven to express herself and to advance the cause of freedom. She is a beautiful black woman inside and out. Her talent, her genius, and her creative spirit are all appreciated by us. Sanaa Lathan recently shaved her head for a role and this showed the diversity of beauty and the right of anyone to wear hair in what they desire. She is almost 50 and she has a lot of wisdom. She lives her life in her own terms. I wish Sister Sanaa Lathan more blessings.

Also, it is important to show what is going on in St. Louis. St. Louis is a Midwestern city in Missouri. Missouri has been cited as a warning from the NAACP because of incidents of racial oppression against black America. St. Louis was originally inhabited by Native Americans. French explorers lived there and it is now a multicultural city. Today, the problems of economic oppression, police brutality, and racial oppression (i.e. redlining, etc.) continue to exist in the city. The protesters are continuing, because a black man was shot and killed by a cop named Jason Stockley. The black man, who was killed, was Anthony Lamar Smith. Before the shooting, Stockley bragged in profane terms about wanting to kill the man. After the murder, video recordings show Stockley going into his police car to get a gun, which he then planted in the car of the dead victim. Only Stockley’s DNA was found on the gun. Like usual, the cop was acquitted in a disgraceful fashion. Some cops chanted, "who's streets, our streets," which totally disrespects the aspirations of those who desire justice. This time is less than 5 years after the Ferguson movement. We have video footage of cops using tear gas against mostly peaceful protesters and some cops running over an elderly woman. Many cops are given total immunity in dealing with prosecution. Groups of police officers in riot gear were heard early Monday morning marching through areas forcibly cleared of demonstrators chanting, “Whose streets? Our streets!” mocking protesters with a slogan commonly used at rallies. Protesters criticized the police department for keeping many in jail for over 24 hours, despite them having only been charged with misdemeanor crimes, mainly “failure to disperse.” Undeterred by intermittent rain and a heavy police presence, hundreds gathered outside the St. Louis city jail Monday night to show solidarity with those who remained behind bars. They chanted, “Free our people!” outside the jail. Dozens of social media videos have emerged throughout the week showing police dressed in riot gear attacking crowds of unarmed protesters of all ages, races and ethnicities, with mace, pepper spray balls, and tear gas. . In the three years since the killing of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, more than 3,000 people across the United States have lost their lives to police violence. Not a single officer, including the one who killed Brown, was held accountable by the Obama administration for the thousands of police murders carried out during his presidency, a trend that will continue under Trump. Police officers have been given blanket immunity by the highest levels of the political establishment to terrorize poor and working-class communities for decades. Trump signed an order re-instituting the federal program that supplies military weapons and equipment to local and state police forces.We know that Sessions is pro- so-called "law and order," which is code for mass incarceration and further militarization of the local police which has been going on for over four decades. Therefore, the struggle for justice continues and we are apt to defend honor and truth.

The Graham-Cassidy Bill is one of the worst bills in history. It's that bad. First, it cuts Medicaid expansion and promotes block grants to states, which harms especially rural states. It is draconian to restrict pre-existing conditions funding. This will cause older Americans more difficulty in paying insurance since younger, more healthy people can easily buy any health care that they want without much financial burdens. It will cause many people to be uninsured in the millions. Many seniors, the poor, and some with disabilities will be lacking in health insurance. Many blue states will lose their Medicaid expansion funding. Rural hospitals will be hit hard since many of them are remote and need federal funding to survive. The bill is much more reactionary than the American Health Care Act (AHCA). Even J9immy Kimmel said that the Graham-Cassidy bill is wrong and the bill doesn't protect pre-existing condition. Kimmel said that Cassidy (an U.S. Senator) lied to his face. Kimmel is right to criticize the bill. The truth is that the bill is truly abhorrent.  Under the arcane rules of “budget reconciliation,” the bill needs only a simple majority instead of the usual 60 required for most legislation. It also must be passed by September 30, the end of the fiscal year. Graham is a notorious extremism by supporting the 1996 welfare reform act. According to the CBPP, the cuts would grow dramatically in 2027, when the bill’s temporary block grants (which would replace the ACA’s Medicaid expansion and marketplace subsidies) would expire and its Medicaid per capita cap cuts would become even more severe. CBPP estimates that “in 2027 alone, the bill would cut federal health care funding by $299 billion relative to current law,” with cuts affecting all 50 states. There is no solution without input from the workers and an expansion of health care insurance to people, especially the poor, the working class, and the middle class. Health care is a human right and this is serious. Hopefully, this bill be defeated in Congress.



By Timothy


Monday, September 18, 2017

Dr. Bernice King 1/18/16

Soul Train

https://blackthen.com/music-program-soul-train-brought-awareness-to-black-beauty-and-pride-video/

African-American Women Now Top the List of Most-Educated Group in the Country

http://www.kolumnmagazine.com/2016/06/06/african-american-women-now-top-list-educated-group-country/

A Diversity of Topics.

For thousands of years, art has been part of our consciousness as human beings. Art’s beauty is well known, because of its diversity, its qualities of exquisite form, and its diverse meanings or interpretations. Art encompasses many attributes. A painting of a forest, the sculpture of a great leader, and people performing dance are all examples of art. Architecture is a part of art as well. The large structures of the Great Pyramids of Egypt, the National Museum of African American History and Culture, and the Eiffel Tower make up real artistic expression. Internationally, art ought to be appreciated. In Africa, Asia, and the Americas, elaborate, complex forms of art have existed. For thousands of years and in a wide spectrum of locations, art has flourished in the four corners of the Earth. Since the first humans existed in the Earth, art has captivated the human imagination. The modern age has movies, theater, the Internet, Snapchat, YouTube, Instagram, the IPhone 10, etc. Therefore, these platforms include a wide display of art. Art constantly evolves or changes throughout generations. Yet, it is uniform in its common link of advancing creative, human expression. Debates and controversies are related heavily to art history, but art remains an intrepid, powerful aspect of human civilization. Periods like the Romantic period, the Renaissance, etc. outline how expressive the visual and the decorative arts are. Now, we live in a new era of time and the power of art has continued to shine a great light in the Universe. It will continue to exist forevermore.



One of the most important parts of religious and human history was the Reformation. It was a revolutionary change in Christianity. From the time of the 95 Theses to the beginnings of the 18th century, early Reformation events greatly influence our modern world. The Reformation inspired more inquires or the questioning of the authoritarianism of medieval Roman Catholic ecclesiastical authority. It established the modern existence of Protestant and Baptist religious groups. Also, the Reformation made the Catholic Church to create their Counter-Reformation. Part of the Counter-Reformation was the invention of the Jesuits during the 16th century. The Jesuit founder Ignatius Loyola desired the suppression of the vibrant, growing Protestant movement. The Jesuits had been banned in numerous nations. Not to mention that the corruption and theological errors of the Roman Catholic Church were massive factors on why the Reformation commenced in the first place. The evil practice of indulgences (of the Catholic Church) harmed the poor and exploited human lives. Martin Luther of Germany was one of the many early Reformers who sought not only the promotion of sola fide (or faith alone). Martin Luther, John Calvin, and others wanted the Bible to be translated into their own tongues as the Catholic hierarchy back then forbid Bible translations to be in languages other than Latin. Bloodshed followed the Reformation. This included religious wars among Protestants and Catholics. Independent Anabaptists (who were autonomous in their structures, they believed in the believer’s baptism, and they followed the separation of church and state) existed back then as well. Anabaptists were also persecuted by both Catholics and Protestants. The Greek Textus Receptus (or a Greek translation of the New Testament) were used heavily during the Reformation period. William Tyndale’s translation of the Bible in English relied on the Textus Receptus. William Tyndale would be murdered, because of his support of the Reformation. In fact, many Protestants would be murdered by political and religious authorities because of their faith. The Reformation was facilitated by the printing press (which accelerated pro-Reformers’ literature rapidly). Not to mention that many poor and working class people in Europe agreed with some of the principles of the Reformation. The Waldensians, John Wycliffe, John Huss, Erasmus, and other people were predecessors of the historic Reformation movement. Many people, who claimed to support the Reformation, would be involved in many evils like slavery, racism, and sexism. Others, who supported the teachings of the Reformation (back then and today), would go on to advance religious tolerance, human freedom, the freedom of press, an end to slavery, and justice. So, the Reformation was a world changing event whose legacy is diverse and whose influence is extremely powerful.


W.E.B. DuBois lived for almost one century on this Earth. From the time of his birth to his passing on 1963, he changed the world. He grew up in a middle class, integrated community of Great Barrington, Massachusetts. He had a great intellectual curiosity. His community financially facilitated his educational endeavors. W.E.B. DuBois attended Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee.  At that HBCU location, he encountered a wide spectrum of African American human beings (from the rich to the poor). W.E.B. DuBois became an expert sociologist and an excellent researcher of history. He earned his Ph.D. from Harvard University and he eloquently established sociological studies about the breadth of black life (from the 19th century to the early 20th century). He studied the Maafa and slavery intensively. His works like the Souls of Black Folks and Black Reconstruction crystallized great analytical information on the black American experience. As a lifelong social activist, he opposed racism, lynching, economic oppression, and imperialism. WEB DuBois taught history and economics at Atlanta University. He had ideological disagreements with Booker T. Washington and Marcus Garvey (both Washington and Garvey held similar conservative self-help views). While I disagree with Booker T. Washington on some issues (like his Atlanta Compromise speech and his views on immigration), he wasn’t wrong on everything that he has said. Both DuBois and Washington were right that education is very important for black people to embrace. DuBois promoted Pan-Africanism. He was an early member of the NAACP. I disagree with DuBois on his advocacy of the concept of the Talented Tenth (as I believe in egalitarianism) and his views on eugenics. He was an outspoken critic of capitalism (which I do agree with) and desired socialist principles to be part of American society. Later, he left the NAACP since it (among its leadership back then during the McCarthyite era) embraced the anti-Communist hysteria of the 1950’s among other reasons. By this time, DuBois was harassed by the federal government because of his political views. He was shunned by the establishment and his passport was restricted for a time. Yet, he still courageously promoted peace and an end to imperialism. W.E.B. DuBois later moved into Ghana by the 1960’s. He worked on forming his African encyclopedia to deal with information about Africa including the African Diaspora. He talked about Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. too. In Ghana, DuBois would embrace Communism fully. Ironically, Dr. King would talk about W.E.B. DuBois in celebrating his 100th birthday in a speech from February 23, 1968.  W.E.B. DuBois was a heroic black man. DuBois was representative of the black progressive, radical tradition (using social activism and intellectual discovery) that is still going strong to this very day in our generation. DuBois’ intellectual genius, aptness to defend the rights of humanity, and heroism will always be remembered.


The beginnings of economic history started with the beginning of human history. The economy deals with the production, distribution, and the consumption of goods and services. The first age of the human race starts in the Paleolithic Era (or the Old Stone Age). This was the time when humans worked readily in bands or small kin groups. These bands communicated in order to trade ideas. Some told stories. Others used tools, gathered foods, gathered skins plus other commodities. Flora and Fauna had massive differences back then, competition was unique and the climate was massively different than today. Human beings used various forms of technologies to adjust to the climate and to increase productivity. For example, there were handmade tools and objects like the cudgel, the club, sharpened stone, the chopper, a spear, the hand axe, the harpoon, etc. Many of these objects were used to hunt and gather animals. Humanity lived in caves, huts, and by rivers plus lakes. Some believed in an afterlife. There were burial rituals and ancestor worship too. Priests, shamans, and sanctuary locations did exist during this time period. The global population of humanity grew during this time was from 1 to 15 million people. Some scholars believe that during this period of prehistory, the world average GDP per capita was about $158 per annum (adjusted to 2013 dollars), and did not rise much until the Industrial Revolution. This age lasted form ca. 500,000 B.C. to 10,000 B.C. The Mesolithic Age started with the end of the last glacial period over 10,000 years ago. Human beings domesticated plants and animals. There were many formations of settled communities in various times and places. The Mesolithic era saw tribes and bands flourishing. Economic activities existed in various villages. There were more complex tools like the harpoon, the bow and arrows, etc. Some of them fished, created baskets, and hunted plus gathered wild animals. Many of them used seeds of wild plants for domestic use and planting. Some used extensive hunting. The Neolithic Era represented a revolutionary period of humanity and of technology including the economy. It lasted from ca. 10,000 B.C. to ca. 3,300 B.C. Tons of new inventions, structures, and technologies flourished during the Neolithic period. This was one of the greatest parts of human history. It was the start of the agricultural revolution in the world. People started to live in stationary locations. More animals were bred to be domesticated. People worked in farms. Settled communities and the first cities were created (as hunter gatherers started to settle down in locations permanently). There was agriculture in the modern sense in the Middle East as early as 8,000 B.C. People in India, Africa, the Americas, Southeast Asia, China, Europe, etc. grew villages and other civilizations. Jericho and Catal Huyuk (in Turkey) were some of the earliest modern cities and towns in human history. Human beings used more medal tools. Mud brick houses flourished during this time including ladders and doorways. Cooking tools existed. Within each tribe the activity of individuals was differentiated to specific activities, and the characteristic of some of these activities were limited by the resources naturally present and available from within each tribe's territory, creating specializations of skill. By the "... division of labor and evolution of new crafts ..." (Cameron p. 25) "tribal units became naturally isolated through time from the over-all developments in skill and technique present within their neighboring environment. To utilize artifacts made by tribes specializing in areas of production not present to other tribes, exchange and trade became necessary. Scholars believed that cattle was used as currency back then. Trading in red ochre is attested in Swaziland, shell jewelry in the form of strung beads also dates back to this period, and had the basic attributes needed of commodity money. To organize production and to distribute goods and services among their populations, before market economies existed, people relied on tradition, top-down command, or community cooperation.

St. Louis has a long history. In the beginning, the first people of St. Louis were Native Americans. Native Americans built the complex, highly advanced Mound builder civilization.  The people of the Mississippian culture created more than two dozen burial mounds around the area of the city of St. Louis. These mounds existed in ca. 1050 A.D. Some settlements of early St. Louis are preserved at the Cahokia Mounds site in Illinois. The mounds in St. Louis were almost all demolished. Only one mound remains within the city called Sugarloaf Mound. Although, St. Louis maintained the nickname of “The Mound City” well into the 19th century. Many Native Americans settled along the Mississippi River and its tributaries, especially the Missouri River. Many Native Americans created canoes for transportation out of the large forests in the region. The end of the Mississippian culture by the 14th century resulted in a new era of history in the area. There were French Canadian settlers and Siouan speaking groups like the Missouri and the Osage migrating into the Missouri valley. They lived in villages along the Osage and Missouri rivers. Both groups had conflict with the northeastern tribes like the Sauk and the Fox. All four of these groups confronted the earliest explorers of Missouri. Europeans explored the area almost a century before the city of St. Louis was officially founded. By the early 1670’s, Jean Talon, the went along the Mississippi River after hearing of rumors that it connected to the Pacific Ocean. So, explorer Louis Joliet and Jesuit priest Jacques Marquette came into the Mississippi River on June 1673. They traveled past the confluence of the Missouri and Mississippi to the mouth of the Arkansas River. At this point Joliet returned north after determining the river would not reach the Pacific and fearing attack by Spanish settlers. Nine years later, the French explorer La Salle led an expedition south from the Illinois River to the mouth of the Mississippi. He claimed the entire valley for France. La Salle named the Mississippi river basin Louisiana after King Louis XIV. That region was between and near the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi was named Illinois Country. Many forts existed in the Mississippi valley. In 1699, the French built a settlement on the east bank of the Mississippi at Cahokia, Illinois, near the Cahokia Mounds complex. During the next year, the Kaskaskia tribe formed a village at a small river. It was within the present day area of St. Louis. There were two Jesuit priests, Pierre-Gabriel Marest and Francois Pinet, who built a small mission at the site, naming the river the River Des Peres (River of the Fathers). However, by 1703 the site was abandoned as the Kaskaskia moved to the east bank and further south to a new settlement named Kaskaskia, Illinois. A powerful monopoly involving trade was sent to Antoine Crozat in the Mississippi Valley. He wanted to find and mine precious stones, gold, and silver. Yet, Crozat’s venture failed by 1717, because of Spanish interference. He relinquished his charter. The next company to be granted a trade monopoly for the region was led by John Law. Law was a Scottish financier. In 1717, Law convinced Louis XIV to provide the Company of the West a 25-year monopoly of trade and ownership of all mines, while promising to settle 6,000 whites and 3,000 black slaves (as a way to build churches throughout the region). The company founded New Orleans as the capital of Louisiana in 1718, and merged with other companies in 1719 to form the Company of the Indies. There was a financial crisis. Law was ousted in 1720. The Company of the Indies formed its capital of the Illinois Country (in upper Louisiana) at Fort de Chartres. That location was 15 miles north of Kaskaskia on the east bank of the Mississippi. There was another early settlement. It was near present day St. Louis. It was called Ste. Genevieve, Missouri. It was built in 1732 across from the Kaskaskia village as a convenient port for salt and ore was mined on the western side of the Mississippi. The Company of the Indies began making trade ties with the Missouri River tribes during the early 1720’s and the 1730’s. French economic policy dealt with trade with the Spanish colony of New Mexico to the southwest. Many trade expeditions between New Mexico and the Mississippi valley occurred between 1739 and the Seven Years’ War of 1756-1763. The war destroyed the wealth of many French trading firms and merchants based in New Orleans. The French governor of Louisiana began granting trade monopolies in several areas at the conclusion of the war to stimulate growth.


By Timothy


Saturday, September 16, 2017

Police crackdown on hundreds protesting acquittal of killer cop in St. Louis

http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2017/09/16/poli-s16.html

Scientists told President LBJ about climate change in 1965

http://grist.org/article/scientists-told-president-lbj-about-climate-change-in-1965/


http://www.dailyclimate.org/tdc-newsroom/2015/02/president-johnson-carbon-climate-warning

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/climate-consensus-97-per-cent/2015/nov/05/scientists-warned-the-president-about-global-warming-50-years-ago-today

Dr. King, DuBois, etc.





https://www.carnegiehall.org/BlogPost.aspx?id=4294984027

http://links.org.au/node/3674

http://pmeaye.tripod.com/kingondubois.pdf

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1633173413384108&set=gm.1768014780164706&type=3&theater

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/the-zinn-education-project/web-du-bois-to-malcolm-x_b_7904894.html

https://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-442906438/honoring-dr-du-bois-martin-luther-king-s-most-radical

http://madamenoire.com/841389/how-a-white-man-on-wall-street-ruined-a-black-girl-gathering-with-a-racially-tinged-joke/

Trump and White supremacy

http://www.salon.com/2017/09/15/hey-democrats-remember-that-this-president-thrives-on-white-supremacy/

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/calling-out-white-supremacy-is-a-costly-consequence-for-black-folks_us_59ba9851e4b086432b04e923?ncid=tweetlnkushpmg00000051&ncid=tweetlnkushpmg00000051


Anti-Napalm Protests 1967

200,000 People Downloaded Her App Within Two Weeks, and Forbes Magazine is Calling Her “The Next Steve Jobs

http://www.kolumnmagazine.com/2017/09/11/200000-people-downloaded-app-within-two-weeks-forbes-magazine-calling-next-steve-jobs-business-women/

More News





https://socialistworker.org/2017/09/15/in-defense-of-anti-fascism

https://artandcharisma.wordpress.com/2015/04/22/5-reasons-why-janelle-monae-is-so-amazing-its-terrifying/

https://socialistworker.org/2017/09/12/the-lessons-of-katrina-that-havent-been-learned


Tell Them, We are Rising (A Story of HBCUs)

http://www.hbcurising.com/

http://www.pbs.org/independentlens/films/tell-them-we-are-rising/

Friday, September 15, 2017

Friday Information.





Consistency is always important. Some people will support a person's stance, but refuse to follow up with sacrifice in continuing the policy. That is why some people (who agree with Colin Kaepernick) will continue to watch the NFL while others will sincerely boycott the NFL (as we can understand football without watching the NFL). Also, as for Kaepernick, I agree with his views and the way he went about it via his method. He didn't use profanity, and didn't use slurs. He made a simple knell and that national anthem was created by a racist, slave owner whose lyrics originally condoned slavery. Jemele Hill spoke truth to power and she has my solidarity and support 100%. Also, it is important for people to walk the talk. Freedom isn't won by complacency. It is won by determined action and a mindset of personal determination. One important news is that A Different World is now 30 years old. Time flies. That show was remembered by me. I was in elementary school when it was on the air. It certainly inspired me to understand the diversity of black people being beautiful. Also, it did inspire me to go into college. The show perfectly mixed humor with conscious topics. The actors and actresses on the show were differently brilliant and they pursued other careers as well. Kadeem Hardisson was great his role. His character evolved from a younger person unsure of himself into a more confident man who married a woman who was the opposite of his personality (as opposites can attract at times). The other cast members shined.

For those who desire love, it's never too late. There are people in their 50's who became married for the first time and many people are having children in their 40's and 50's too. Therefore, it is important to never count love out. Love is beautiful, because it is forgiving, it requires no unnecessary limitations, and it is powerful. Love is a creative force that has caused positive change for thousands of years. I also believe in Black Love, because I was born literally as a product of Black Love. Also, I am a black person and anyone can witness that Black Love is beautiful. Love is diverse too. It can deal with friendship, mutual respect, and other components of human expression. Therefore, in our generation, we won't quit since quit is not in our DNA. Our ancestors suffered a whole lot worse than us and they never quit either. We keep the faith and keep on moving forward as Brothers and Sisters.
Bless Black Love.

I read the first 20 pages of the Vietnam War book (by Ken Burns and Geoffrey C. Ward). It certainly gave an outline of the history of Vietnam. It showed that Vietnam for centuries were conquered by the French Empire. Later, World War II came about and the Japanese occupied Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh back then wanted the West to support his independence movement (he even desired the Western countries to recognize Vietnam after the end of WWI). A lot of his views were nationalistic and later he embraced Communism back in the early 20th century. After World War II, French re-conquered Vietnam. The French were very brutal. Many Vietnamese people have said that the French military forces used rape, torture, murder, and other actions. The Vietnamese resistance movement used motorcycles and guerrilla warfare tactics to fight back against their occupation. By the 1950's, the American political leadership supported the French since they falsely believed in the now discredited domino theory (which was about if Vietnam fell to Communists, then the whole of Southeast Asia would be Communist states). Eisenhower gave funding to the French forces, but he later knew that there would be no victory for the French military because of the conditions on the ground. Many French people started to oppose the war because of it toil on people. Ho Chi Minh and other anti-colonial forces consistently and continually fought for the purpose of establishing an independent Vietnam. By the 1950's, they were at odds with Americans (who supported the French). Many factions of the Vietnamese independence movement (of both Communists and non-Communists) fought to defeat the French occupiers by 1954.


I don't know why people are shocked at Kid Rock. This is the same guy who supported George W. Bush as President. This is the same person who disrespected Beyonce in vulgar terms. This is the same person who has always supported the evil Confederate flag for years when he was never born in the South at all. Even if he was born in the South, he's still wrong. He is hanging out with Ted Nugent, who is an overt racist. Nugent have said massively uncalled for, disrespectful comments about President Barack Obama. Kid Rock criticized Colin Kaepernick when Kaepernick is exposing police brutality and opposing racial injustice (not disrespecting the American flag). Kid Rock is very disrespectful in supporting the racist Confederate flag. The Confederacy fought against the United States of America. This is why boycotts have worked. People should not go to his concerts or buy his records. Jemele Hill called Trump a white supremacist and I am in sympathy completely with the views of Jemele Hill. I stand with Sister Jemele Hill.
Black Lives Matter.

The Jemele Hill is part of a large issue. It is part of the issue of black voices being demonized by those who support an overt racist Donald Trump. Trump has mentioned that a Mexican American judge isn't qualified to preside over a case because of his Mexican heritage, which is the textbook definition of racism. He wants the death penalty of the Central Park Five despite the Central Park Five being innocent. He has promoted support of neo-Confederate protesters, he talked about how the police should use police brutality against suspects, and he has glorified sexual assault against women. He has used many vulgar words against women and those who disagree with him. He was sued because of housing discrimination issues. Many current and previous members of his campaign are extremists, alt right members, and others with controversies. Therefore, we live in a time where we have to defend the voices of our community. I stand with Jemele Hill completely. Sister Jemele Hill spoke truth to power and she has my solidarity and support 100%.




By Timothy


Thursday, September 14, 2017

Our resistance in the era of political whiplash

https://socialistworker.org/2017/09/13/our-resistance-in-the-era-of-political-whiplash

Santa Fe brutalizes Native activists

https://socialistworker.org/2017/09/14/santa-fe-brutalizes-native-activists

When the teachers turned Chicago union red

https://socialistworker.org/2017/09/14/when-the-teachers-turned-chicago-union-red

Irma and Harvey

https://socialistworker.org/2017/09/12/the-lessons-of-katrina-that-havent-been-learned

http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2017/09/14/puer-s14.html

http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2017/09/14/harv-s14.html

http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2017/09/11/pers-s11.html

http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2017/09/09/pers-s09.html

http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2017/09/14/irma-s14.html

http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2017/09/13/irma-s13.html

Black Agenda Report (in mid-September 2017)

https://blackagendareport.com/why-i-will-boycott-nfl

https://blackagendareport.com/people-are-radicalizing-bolivarian-revolution-venezuela

https://blackagendareport.com/widening-tent-multiracial-labor-movement

https://blackagendareport.com/palestinian-women-us-connect-communities-struggle

https://blackagendareport.com/index.php/black-panthers-didnt-fight-symbols

https://blackagendareport.com/index.php/united-states-racist-monument-tear-it-down


https://blackagendareport.com/index.php/neil-degrasse-tyson-bill-nye-gmos-its-about-class-rule-not-shiny-tool 

https://blackagendareport.com/blacks-daca-and-immigration

How Women Were at the Helm of the Black Panther Party

https://blackagendareport.com/how-women-were-helm-black-panther-party

Wednesday, September 13, 2017

Peter Tosh - Equal Rights

Hurricane Harvey, Irma Relief Telethon: How to Watch Star-Studded Event

http://www.rollingstone.com/tv/news/hurricane-relief-telethon-how-to-watch-star-studded-event-w502606

More Information

http://clevelandclassical.com/citymusic-cleveland-a-conversation-with-soprano-jeanine-de-bique/

http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2017/09/11/irma-s11.html

http://www.jeaninedebique.com/aboutjeanine/

 http://www.freep.com/story/news/local/michigan/detroit/2016/12/25/city-already-edge-detroit-police-raid-blind-pig-ignites-1967-riot/95608776/


Wednesday News




Yesterday was the Birthday of Sister Jennifer Hudson. She is now 36 years old. She is a singer, an actress, and a spokeswoman. She has a great voice and a great heart. She was born in the great Midwestern city of Chicago. She sang at the church choir at the age of 7 years old. She was inspired by legends like Whitney Houston, Patti Labelle, and Aretha Franklin. Later, she would be a legendary musician in her own right. She worked in theater too. She attended college and signed to Righteous Records in 2002 (which is a Chicago-based independent label). By 2004, she was on American Idol. The judges and the audience were amazed by the power of her voice and her charisma. She was in the role in Dreamgrils, which was a movie that payed homage to the play Dreamgirls back during the 1980's. She performed magnificently in the movie and won an Oscar for Best Supporting Actress. Hudson has won particular praise for her show-stopping onscreen rendition of the hit song, "And I Am Telling You I'm Not Going", the signature song of the role, which had earlier been recorded, and had already reached the status of musical standard, because of the definitive performance of Jennifer Holliday. She was in the Secret Lives of Bees (which I saw before) and a role playing Winnie Mandela. Jennifer Hudson made many classic music albums for years. One of her greatest songs was "Spotlight." Her recent song is Remember Me in 2017. She is constantly active to help the people of her home city of Chicago. Hudson's family announced creation of The Hudson-King Foundation for Families of Slain Victims, in honor of the three victims. Hudson and her sister created the Julian D. King Gift Foundation, in honor of her nephew, it provides Christmas presents and school supplies to needy families in the Chicago area. She is married and has one child. Jennifer Hudson always has a humble personality and she is doing great work in her walk. She is truly one of the greatest singers of our generation.

Yesterday was the Birthday of Brother Ruben Studdard. He is a famous signer. He is now 39 years old. He was born in Frankfurt, Germany, to American parents, while his father was stationed there with the U.S. Army, and grew up in Birmingham, Alabama. He sang at a young age in the Rising Star Baptist Church in his hometown of Birmingham. He continued singing gospel in church, performing solos as a child while his mother sang in the local choir. While at Huffman High School, he played football for which he received a scholarship to Alabama A&M University. After growing up listening to his mother's Donny Hathaway albums, Fred Hammond, and gospel music, he was on American Idol. He also made many albums. He has been in movies and he represents his city of Birmingham. He works in charities and fights against sickle cell anemia. He created the Ruben Studdard Foundation for the Advancement of Children in the Music Arts. This foundation supports the showing of music and the arts in education. Studdard received an honorary Master of Arts degree from his Alma Mater (where he received a Bachelors in Vocal Studies), Alabama A&M, at their December 2015 commencement ceremony. He continues to show his talent.

This is a very sad story. Like other people have said, there is no way that this young Sister would voluntarily come into a freezer and commit suicide. Murder and foul play should be concretely investigated. The relatives of the young Sister are going through a horrendous amount of heartache and pain that can't be defined. Human life is precious and Kenneka Jenkins' family deserves answers. The police officer, who told the mother that story, should be ashamed of himself. There hasn't been a reveal of an autopsy yet and that cop said that cover story to a grieving mother. Our black lives matter and we have every right to demand the truth to be known.
Rest in Power Sister Kenneka Jenkins.

The purpose of government is to promote the general welfare, advance justice, maintain liberty, and to ensure that people can have the pursuit of happiness. Therefore, when we care for the environment, care for civil liberties, promote economic justice, oppose injustice, advance health care, and believe in human compassion, we are advancing the general welfare. Many pro-Confederates are trying to defend a statue of Stonewall Jackson in Richmond, Virginia. My feelings about this issue is well known. 60 percent of Americans believe that Confederate hate statues should remain on public lands. I disagree with 60 percent of all Americans. The progressive people of Richmond are in opposition to bigotry and hate statues.  The Trump Voter Fraud commission is nothing more than a slick means of trying to advance voter suppression. Some in New Hampshire is proposing more voter restrictions. Many protesters in New Hamsphire are legitimately opposing voter restrictions. Voting is a human right and many people are fighting to protect our voting rights.


We haven't forgotten about Irma too. The U.S. Virgin Islands have received huge damage. That is why U.S. Army, the Coast Guard, and U.S. Marines forces are coming into the area in order to rebuild and help people. Many Caribbean islands have been 90 percent destroyed by the Hurricane Irma. People are struggling in St. Croix, St. Thomas, Cuba, and other locations including Puerto Rico. The Florida Keys area has been hit hard and Florida has massive power outages (in the millions). These events show how important human compassion and investments are in our world. We all pray for the people in the regions of the Caribbean, Florida, and Texas. Also, we recognize those suffering in Florida, in Texas, the Caribbean, in Africa (with massive flooding killing people), and in Asia too. Irma has devastated many regions of North America. It has destroyed Caribbean Islands from the U.S. Virgin Islands to Cuba. It has spread into Florida and massively flooded the Florida Keys including Jacksonville. Also, Miami has been damaged by the historic, terrible storm of Irma. About 7 million people are without power in Florida. Thousands of people are in shelters from Tampa Bay to St. Petersburg. The Miami police enforced the reactionary Baker Act. That act allows cops to detain anyone who is posed "a danger." Many homeless people have been detained too. More than half of the homeowners in Hurricane Irma’s direct path lack flood insurance, according to a recent study by the Associated Press. The Hand in Hand telethon on September 12, 2017 raised over 14 million dollars. It raised money for Hurricane Irma and Hurricane Harvey disaster relief. This tragedy of a storm is certainly related to climate change, which is real. This event recognizes once again about how infrastructure should be invested in America and many heroes have used charities and other methods to help the victims of such destructive hurricanes.


By Timothy


Monday, September 11, 2017

Houston

https://socialistworker.org/2017/09/11/no-mr-president-were-not-having-a-good-time

https://socialistworker.org/2017/08/30/how-houston-was-left-to-drown-under-hurricane-harvey

Why was American capitalism unable to prepare for Hurricane Irma?

http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2017/09/11/pers-s11.html

http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2017/09/11/irma-s11.html

The Truth behind 9/11: Who Is Osama Bin Laden?

https://www.globalresearch.ca/the-truth-behind-9-11-who-is-osama-bin-laden-2/3198

https://www.globalresearch.ca/chile-september-11-1973-the-horrors-of-the-first-911-are-routinely-overlooked/5608471

https://www.globalresearch.ca/september-11-2001-questions-to-ask-if-you-still-believe-the-official-narrative/5608520

http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2017/09/12/pers-s12.html

http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2017/09/12/irma-s12.html

9/11

Also, it is important to always remember the events of 9/11. I remember it just like it was yesterday. It was our generation's Pearl Harbor in which a group of murderers used planes as weapons to attack people (in New York City, in Pennsylvania, and in Virginia as the Pentagon is in Virginia). Almost 3,000 people died from the attacks. I was in college as a Freshman when it happened. I was 17 years old. I recalled leaving a math class, visiting a college library, and going home early since it was a Tuesday. Immediately, I saw the carnage on TV. People panicked, schools in many places of America closed early, and tons of people were in a state of shock. Air traffic was later cancelled nationwide. On TV, I saw on Tower fall to the ground. In America, people had a dazed look for days and weeks afterwards. It was a very traumatic, sad time. Also, the heroes of firefighters, other rescuers, and everyday citizens did their duties to save lives and to give comfort to those who suffered during that day. It was a time of the beginning of the 21st century.

It represented the paradox of us experiencing evil terrorism while some in the government using policies to advance Empire and a curtailing of our civil liberties (from the Patriot Act to NSA warrantless spying). So, the bad guys aren't just those who used planes as weapons. The bad guys also include those who used torture, those who enacted racial profiling, those who advanced imperialism, and those who spied on people without warrants too. 9/11 is eternally remembered by me. I think about 9/11 constantly.The lost of life makes us aware about the value of human life. Therefore, we are motivated to not only oppose and denounce terrorism (which we will always do with vigor and zeal), but to advance human understanding, tolerance, and justice. During this time, we work too. We work in figuring the complexities of life out, so our world can be better and our lives can be further enriched. We believe in democratic principles, because those principles are the hallmarks of a progressive society.


RIP to the victims of 9/11
Yes, we never forget.
We always remember.

Monday Information on September 11, 2017



One of the most controversial political scandals in history is the Russian scandal. It involves the allegation that Russian actors interfered with the 2016 elections of the United States of America. There is another allegation that the Trump team colluded with Russians in order to promote an electoral victory. Time will tell the complete truth. In the meantime, it is important to chronologically show information about this scandal. By Spring of 2015, the U.S. intelligence community intercepted conversations of Russian government officials discussing associates of Donald Trump in a high volume. Trump announced his candidacy for President in June 15, 2015. Later, a hack occurred against at least one DNC computer system as exposed by a FBI special agent. On Hugh Hewitt’s radio program, Trump says, “The oligarchs are under [Putin’s] control, to a large extent. I mean, he can destroy them, and he has destroyed some of them… Two years ago, I was in Moscow . . . I was with the top-level people, both oligarchs and generals, and top-of-the-government people. I can’t go further than that, but I will tell you that I met the top people, and the relationship was extraordinary.” Trump wanted to build a Trump branded building in Moscow, but it doesn’t materialize. On November of 2015, Trump associate Felix Sater emails Trump lawyer Michael Cohen: "Michael, I arranged for Ivanka to sit in Putin's private chair at his desk and office in the Kremlin [...] Our boy can become president of the USA and we can engineer it. I will get all of Putin's team to buy in on this.” Michael T. Flynn (who is a retired General) gave a paid speech on world affairs in Moscow. The dinner was created by RT News or an English language Russian network. Flynn was on RT as an analyst. By February 29, 2017, Paul Manafort submits a five-page proposal to Trump outlining his qualifications to help Trump secure enough convention delegates and win the Republican presidential nomination. Manafort describes how he had assisted rich and powerful business and political leaders, including oligarchs and dictators in Russia and Ukraine: “I have managed presidential campaigns around the world." Russian officials and the Trump team contact each other from April 2016 and beyond. Manafort becomes Trump’s campaign manager. Reports surface about his 2007 to 2012 ties to former President of Ukraine Victor Yanukovych, whom Manafort had helped to elect. On June 9, 2016, Jared Kushner, Manafort and Trump Jr. Tower with Goldstone, Natalia Veselnitskaya, a Russian attorney, Rinat Akhmetshin, a Russian-American lobbyist Ike Kaveladze, a representative of the Agalarovs' Crocus Group, and a translator.

Veselnitskaya is best known for lobbying against the Magnitsky Act, an American law that blacklists suspected Russian human rights abusers. Donald Trump Jr. gave conflicting accounts about the meeting to this day. On July 22, 2016,   WikiLeaks publishes 20,000 emails from seven key officials of the Democratic National Committee (DNC). The emails show them disparaging Bernie Sanders and favoring Hillary Clinton in the 2016 presidential primaries. Trump wants Russia to find Clinton’s emails. James Comey of the FBI uses an investigation to find out the truth about allegations of Russian interference by July of 2016.  Brennan calls his Russian counterpart Alexander Bortnikov, head of the Federal Security Service (FSB), to warn him against meddling in the presidential election. Sessions met with Russian official Kislyak at least 2 times. By September 29, 2016, Comey testified before the House Judiciary Committee, confirming that federal investigators have detected suspicious activities in voter registration databases, as stated in the August 18 alert. Putin denied accusations of Russian interference in elections on October 27, 2016.  Through the "red phone", President Obama tells President Putin to stop interfering or face consequences on October 31, 2016. Kislyak denies that Russia was involved in U.S. election hacking on November 2016. On that same day, in a private Oval Office meeting, Obama warns Trump against hiring Flynn. During early December 2016, in Russia, Sergei Mikhailov, FSB cyber chief, Ruslan Stoyanov, senior researcher with Kaspersky Lab, and Dmitry Dokuchayev, a hacker known as “Forb”, are arrested for treason. On December 26, 2016, Oleg Erovinkin, a former KGB official, is found dead in the back seat of his car in Moscow. He was suspected of assisting former MI-6 agent Christopher Steele in compiling a dossier alleging Trump ties to Russia as part of opposition research.

Sanctions come against Russia by Obama by December 29, 2016. In a confirmation hearing before the Senate Judiciary Committee, Sessions denies communicating with the Russian government in the course of Trump's election campaign. Flynn was fired in less than a month in office. By March of 2017, Sessions comes under scrutiny after reports that he had contact with Russian government officials during the election campaign, even though he denied it during his confirmation hearings. Democratic representatives ask Sessions to resign his post as United States Attorney General.  Sessions announces that he will recuse himself from any investigations into Russia's interference in the 2016 presidential election. On May 8, 2017, In an Oval Office meeting, Trump informs Kushner, Pence and McGahn of his intention to remove Comey, and gives them copies of the Miller draft. McGahn objects to the angry tone of this letter and convenes a separate meeting later that day with Sessions and Rosenstein, who had previously considered removing Comey from office. Rosenstein is given a copy of Miller's draft and agrees to write a new memo that would support the dismissal, using Comey's handling of the Hillary Clinton email investigation as the main rationale. Yet, Trump is angry over Comey’s investigation of the Russian scandal. Comey is fired on May 9, 2017. Trump reportedly tells Lavrov and Kislyak that he fired Comey to relieve pressure caused by the investigation. On May 12, 2017, Trump threatens Comey with alleged secret recordings of their conversations. Rosenstein appoints former FBI Director Robert Mueller as special counsel to oversee the investigation into Russian election interference and related matters on that same day.

On July 26, 2017, The FBI conducts a pre-dawn raid on Paul Manafort's home, seizing documents and electronic devices. The raid was on the day Manafort was scheduled to testify before the Senate Judiciary Committee. Mueller investigates Trump’s business actions. House Intelligence Committee issued subpoenas to the FBI and the Department of Justice for documents relating to the Trump dossier. They were not complied with by the September 1 deadline; so the deadline was extended to September 14. The Washington Post and NBC report that Mueller has issued subpoenas to several lobbying firms connected to Flynn and Manafort, including Mercury Public Affairs and SGR LLC. Politico reports that Mueller has teamed up with New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman to set up a separate method of charging people in the case, if Trump tries to use his pardon power to stymie the investigation. On September 7, 2017, in a five hour long questioning with the Senate Judiciary Committee's staff, Donald Trump Jr states that he met with a group of Russians in Trump Tower in June 2016 in order to seek damaging information about Hillary Clinton, but that no such information was forthcoming. The Washington Post reported that Special Council Robert Mueller gave the White House the names of 6 aides he expects to question in Russia probe (Hope Hicks, Sean Spicer, Reince Priebus, Don McGahn, James Burnham and Josh Raffel). The investigation continues. We can handle the truth. Regardless of where this leads into, we have the right to seek answers and anyone who has done wrong (even if the President Trump is involved); they must be held accountable for their actions.


The Midwestern city of St. Louis has a long history and vibrant culture. It is a major port in the state of Missouri and on the western bank of the Mississippi River. It is a city that borders Illinois. It has over 310,000 people and its metropolitan area has almost 3 million people. St. Louis has a diverse history too. Like other Midwestern cities, it has a culture that is diverse filled with immigrants, black people, great art, excellent cuisine, and lively institutions. Like other cities, it was once a depot of segregation and other injustices that courageous people in St. Louis fought to end. It is a city with gorgeous architecture and down to Earth human beings. From 1764 (when it was founded by the French fur traders Pierre Laclède and Auguste Chouteau. The city was named after the King Louis IX of France) to the present, St. Louis is filled with a history of development and growth. St. Louis has the Forest Park Jewel Box, MetroLink, the St. Louis Art Museum, the Gateway Arch, etc. The economy of St. Louis deals with service, manufacturing, trade, transportation of goods, and tourism. Many corporations are in the metro area of St. Louis like Anheuser-Busch, Express Scripts, Boeing Defense, Scottrade, Go Jet, etc. It has a large medical, pharmaceutical, and research presence too. Its current mayor is Lyda Krewson. It is a city of 66 square miles. To the East of St. Louis is found East St. Louis, Illinois. South of St. Louis include Cahokia and Columbia (which are both found in Illinois). North of St. Louis are Castle Point and Jennings (both found in Missouri). Ferguson and Florissant are found northwest of St. Louis. Clayton, Chesterfield, and Richmond Heights are found to the West of St. Louis. It's a home to architects, musicians, social activists, teachers, other scholars, scientists, engineers, doctors, nurses, athletes, lawyers, judges, politicians, and other contributors to society. St. Louis is here to stay and we will always respect the great culture and the great people of St. Louis, Missouri.


By Timothy


Friday, September 08, 2017

More Information

http://digital.wustl.edu/e/eii/eiiweb/you5427.0112.179marc_record_interviewer_process.html

http://www.kolumnmagazine.com/2017/06/29/james-baldwin-fbi-files-authors-fearlessness-toward-fbi-others-led-decade-long-witch-hunt-atlanta-black-star/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vXoZBdWIA9E

https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2017/10/the-first-white-president-ta-nehisi-coates/537909/

Ruby Bridges

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/tavissmiley/tsr/new-orleans-been-in-the-storm-too-long/school-integration-ruby-bridges-in-context/

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2413509/Civil-rights-icon-Ruby-Bridges-thanks-US-Marshal-protected-attend-white-school-1960.html

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/african-americans-many-rivers-to-cross/video/ruby-bridges-goes-to-school/

Words about Culture





Also, it is important to make known information about Sister Michaëlle Jean. She was a journalist. She is a famous Afro-Canadian politician. From 2005 to 2010, Jean was Governor General of Canada, the 27th since Canadian Confederation. She was born in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. She was raised in the town of Thetford Mines, Quebec. After receiving a number of university degrees, Jean worked as a journalist and broadcaster for Radio-Canada and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), as well as undertaking charity work, mostly in the field of assisting victims of domestic violence. Jean was Canada's first governor general of Caribbean heritage. Sister Macy Gray is 50 years old. For decades, she has been a great singer who has expressed herself on her own terms. She is a musician, song writer, producer, and actress. She is a Grammy winner too. She has appeared in a number of films, including Training Day, Spider-Man, Scary Movie 3, Lackawanna Blues, Idlewild and For Colored Girls. One of her most famous songs was "I Try." She was born in Canton, Ohio. She studied script-writing at the University of Southern California. She is a trailblazer by working with artists of many genres. She shows the world that you can be yourself in self-expression and strong at the same time. She has three children that she loves and she is a living legend in our generation. Working hard is part of her forte and we all send congratulations to her contributions in music and in other arenas.


Yesterday was the Birthday of Sister Gloria Gaynor. She is one innovator of disco music. Disco music is part of black culture and American musical culture. I love disco music. It caused an explosion of creativity and inspired people to come out to express themselves without restrictions of their rights. Disco was powerful. Gloria Gaynor was born in the North at Newark, New Jersey. Music was readily shown in her house when she was a child. She loved the music from Nat King Cole and from Sarah Vaughan (who was a great jazz musician). She recorded music during the 1960's. She earned massive success by 1975 with her debut album called, "Experience Gloria Gaynor." Her signature song was "I Will Survive" which was released on October 1978. It was an anthem to so many people. She continued to make disco music in 1980 and in 1981. She became a born again Christian by 1982. She made religious songs as well about the Lord. She continued to make music. By the early to mid 1990's, there was disco revival. I remembered that as a kid. She was on many 1990's shows from The Wayans Brothers to Ally McBeal. On May 6, 2017, Gloria Gaynor performed with her band at the Library of Congress' celebration of disco music at Bibliodiscotheque, a disco dance party in the Great Hall of the Thomas Jefferson building. Recently, she sang the song "Texas Will Survive" in expressing solidarity with the victims of Harvey on August of 2017. She has a powerful spirit.

Yesterday was the Birthday of Sister Leslie Jones. She is now 50 years old. She is a famous comedian and satirist of today's affairs. She was born in Memphis, Tennessee. She later moved into Los Angeles. She attended high school in Lynwood, California. She played basketball and she was a radio DJ. She started stand up comedy in college in 1987. Leslie Jones has been on television and movies for years. She also was a victim of cyber attacks, racism, sexism, slander, colorism, and other evils. Yet, Leslie Jones is a strong, honest black woman who doesn't back down. It is also clear that a person's human dignity remains while we are always in opposition to unwarranted hatreds and bigotry. She has stood up for her humanity and against the evil shown by the naysayers. Leslie Jones has shown great strength and many people are in solidarity with her. Her talent and beauty is glorious and her resiliency has shown a great light in the world. Her courage is amazing and she has inspired countless people to continue forth in the world. Transparent commentaries about life exemplify her legacy. Leslie Jones continues to display humor that makes us think, because in the midst of an imperfect world, comedy can make wit a key element in analyzing the world (so more people can change the world in positive ways). She has been on Ghostbusters and Saturday Night Live. Leslie Jones continues to amaze us with her humor and wisdom.

Whitlock has no shame in selling out. He always spews far right wing talking points in claiming to be cutting edge. Yet, his views are part of the same old propaganda that extremists have used for years and decades. His disrespect of Kaepenrick and anyone dedicated to social justice blatantly defines his insecurities about himself. He has a long legacy of disrespecting black people like Serena Williams too. Whitlock and Kid being part of a skit which was used to mock a social movement represents both of their ignorance of true revolutionary change. Haters will be haters. As other great people have mentioned here, we (as black people) are always lectured about inclusiveness when we are historically known for including all of humanity (and I do mean all) in many endeavors from fashion to politics. The hate against Rihanna on this issue is jealousy and pettiness period. It's a shame that Rihanna has to deal with this nonsense when many complexions are already represented in her project. Many of the same ones lecturing Rihanna in an arrogant, dubious fashion are silent on black victims of police brutality and racial discrimination against black people in America (and in other countries as anti-black racism is not limited to the States). Rihanna should keep doing her thing and ignore the petty haters. Not to mention that the same one hating on Rihanna ignore Afro-Latinas. (who are black people).

Certainly, Sanaa Lathan is a gorgeous black woman and her movie outlines a very accurate point. The point is that black women have the right to wear their hair in any fashion as they desire. They also have the right to cut or shave their hair off too. Bald black women have shown strength, and determination just like black women will full set of hair. Reactionaries, Hoteps, and far right people readily slander black women because of their hair choices, but black women's hair belong only to black women. In other words, a black women who is bald, have short hair, have weaves, and have a large amount of hair are equal. Therefore, Sanaa Lathan is sending a wonderful statement about not only beauty, but human autonomy. We know of her acting genius and her great work ethic spanning decades of her life. We know about her intellectual strength in the roles that she has and in her insights about black acting in general. Therefore, we all wish her the best in this endeavor and in future others succinctly.


By Timothy

Wednesday, September 06, 2017

Important Information on early September 2017





Yesterday was the Birthday of Sister Claudette Clovin. She is now 78 years old. She was born in Montgomery, Alabama. She is an active supporter of the Civil Rights Movement. She was a pioneer in many ways. On March 2, 1955 (at the age of 15 years old), she was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a bus in segregated Montgomery, Alabama, nine months prior to Rosa Parks. Back then, she was a teenager. She was among five plaintiffs who tired to eliminate segregation on public buses. She was part of the case of Browder v. Gayle. Fred Gray was a member of the local NAACP branch who served as legal counsel for the Montgomery Improvement Association. The case went into the U.S. Supreme Court to officially eliminate segregation on public buses. Rosa Parks called her calm, studious, and well mannered. Back then, she was a student at Booker T. Washington high school in Montgomery, Alabama. Together with Aurelia S. Browder, Susie McDonald, Mary Louise Smith, and Jeanette Reese, Colvin was also one of the five plaintiffs in the court case of Browder v. Gayle. After the successful Montgomery bus boycott, Claudette Clovin moved into New York City to be a nurse's aide for more than three decades. She retired in 2004. "Claudette Colvin Twice Toward Justice" by Phillip Hoose is a book that details the life of the unsung hero of Claudette Clovin. She still lives in the Bronx, NYC.

Labor Day was created federally in 1894. One of the events that inspired this day was the Haymarket strike during the 19th century which desired labor rights. It is important to note that our ancestors labored in this land of America without wages (and in indescribable, horrible conditions) in slavery. Also, the labor unions has a mixed history involving African Americans. I have no problem with the concept of labor unions, but some people (not all) in labor unions were in fact very racist against black people. That is a historical fact. That is why many African Americans back then formed their own labor unions (like the Colored National Labor Union from the 19th century) in order to promote labor rights, great working conditions, and anti-discrimination policies. Workers' rights are part of human rights and this day certainly makes us aware that we must advance labor rights unconditionally. The CNLU and other groups inspired A. Philip Randolph labor activism as he was involved in the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (who got a charter). Randolph promoted civil rights and worked in the AFL-CIO. By the 1960's, some people in the AFL-CIO were progressive (like Walter Reuther, who supported civil rights and he publicly opposed the Vietnam War) and others were reactionary (like the extremist George Meany). Also, there was the Detroit based League of Revolutionary Black Workers, who fought for workers' rights. Cleveland Robinson was one of the greatest black labor leaders. He supported labor and civil rights. In fact, he was one organizer of the historic 1963 March on Washington. In September 1972, he helped to found the Coalition of Black Trade Unionists (CBTU), successor organization to the Negro American Labor Council (NALC), and served as its first vice-president. Many of us are blessed to work and have labor. Therefore, it is important to give praise, honor, and respect to all sincere, hardworking people who are involved in labor.

Days ago was the Birthday of the legendary opera singer Sister Dorothy Maynor. She was born in Norfolk, Virginia (which is my hometown) and she lived for 85 years old. She founded the Harlem School of the Arts. She attended the Hampton Institute where she studied under R. Nathaniel Dett. After her graduation from the Institute in 1933 she received a four-year scholarship to the Westminster Choir School in Princeton, New Jersey. She is noted as the first African American to sing at a presidential inauguration, performing at President Harry S. Truman's inaugural gala in 1949 and at President Dwight D. Eisenhower's 1953 presidential inauguration at Constitution Hall, where the Daughters of the American Revolution famously refused to let Marian Anderson sing in 1939. She expressed music globally and she contributed so much in helping to educate students in Harlem about music. In 1975, she became the first African-American on the Board of Directors of the Metropolitan Opera. She passed away in 1996.
Rest in Power Sister Dorothy Maynor.

Some great news today is the following. The capital of Georgia in Atlanta unveiled their new 8 feet statue of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Dr. King was born and raised in Georgia and changed the world in many positive ways. He was a speech maker and he was a heroic man who desired human justice and social justice to be made into a reality. He not only protested in the South and in the North. He organized organizations, he opposed the Vietnam War, and he supported the Poor People's Campaign in order for the federal government to address poverty in America. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. followed a compassionate ethos. It is located outside of the Georgia Capitol building. One of the great, late legends of our time was Sister Altovise Davis. She was the last wife of Sammy Davis Jr. She was born in Charlotte, North Carolina. She was raised in Brooklyn, NYC. She became a great entertainer in her own right. She was involved in musical shows in NYC and in London. She married Sammy Davis Jr. in Philadelphia on May 11, 1970. She was on many shows like Charlie's Angels and Chips during the 1970's. She continued to show her gifts and express undying love for her husband. She passed away at the age of 65 in the year of 2009 in Los Angeles, California. Now, she is in Paradise. Her life certainly represents the power of love and the contributions of a very talented black woman.
Rest in Power Sister Altovise Davis.


Today is some bad news revolving around Donald Trump. Trump has rescinded Trump. I'm not surprised. Trump has a callous attitude about immigration in general. For centuries, immigrants have been inventors, teachers, scholars, and other heroes who sacrifice their time and effort to make America better. They include people of every color and of every sex. They include people of every age and of every creed. DACA recipients (among about 800,000 people) were in America by no fault of their own. They contribute billions of dollars to our GDP and they contribute heavily in the cultural mosaic of American society. DACA recipients or Dreamers work very hard. This ending of the Dreamers' program is cruel. That "resident" of the White House said that he wants to give Congress 6 months to find a fix, but the policy needs to not be eliminated in the first place. It's a policy filled with compassion and respect. It is filled with the promotion of the creed that we are our Brothers' and Sister's keepers. Hispanic Chamber CEO Javier Palomarez said that ending the Dreamers program is inhumane and economically harmful. He has resigned from the Trump administration. Trump's policy makes no sense morally or economically. Today, protests have existed in New York City, Philadelphia, Denver, etc. in favor of immigrant rights. 91% of the Dreamers are employed. Most of them have a spouse of child or sibling who is a U.S. citizen. After DACA status being gone, all DACA members now risk deportation. These young people are owed more than that. That is why many Congress people are bravely trying to use legislation to make the Dream Act the federal law of the land. Trump has expressed a contradiction by once claiming that he would take care of the Dreamers and then he made this policies. For the record, immigrants include black people too. Xenophobia is not only evil, but it's immoral. We are always called to help the migrant in our land and we will continue to advance immigrant rights as immigrant rights are part of human rights.


By Timothy

Monday, September 04, 2017

Malcolm X Debates Gordon Hall. Feb 18, 1965.

The National Museum of African American History and Culture

In terms of architecture and its breadth of history plus culture, it is a location filled with excellence and beauty. It has been visited by thousands and millions of people worldwide. It has been the dream of our ancestors. It has been planned since the early 20th century and now the National Museum of African American History and Culture has been opened to the general public on September 24, 2016.  This museum is not just an ordinary museum. It is a museum that is a tribute to the courage, strength, beauty, excellence, and perseverance of African Americans. The National Museum of African American History and Culture (NMAAHC) is part of a Smithsonian Institution, but black people have led the way in creating it. It was designed by many people in a collaborative effort like Freelon Group, Adjaye Associates, and Davis Brody Bond. It is located very close to the National Mall in Washington, D.C. It has over 30,000 objects that relates to black history and black culture (from the arts, family, civil rights, slavery, segregation, Black Power, community, and the modern age). Today, the Director of the museum is Lonnie Bunch and the Curator is Jacquelyn Serwer. In order to get an understanding about the historic museum, we have to comprehend information about how the National Museum of African American History and Culture was created in its history. As early as 1915, African American veterans of the Union Army met at the Nineteenth Street Baptist Church in Washington, D.C. These human beings suffered discrimination. They formed a committee to build a memorial to various African American achievements.

By 1929, President Herbert Hoover appointed Mary Church Terrell, Mary McLeod Bethune, and 10 other human beings to a commission charged with building a "National Memorial Building" showcasing African-American achievements in the arts and sciences. Yet, back then, Congress didn’t support the project. Private fundraising wasn’t enough. By the 1970’s, a movement started to promote a national museum again. In 1981, Congress approved a federal charter for a National African-American Museum in Wilberforce, Ohio. It was built and funded by private money. It was opened in 1987. Tom Mack promoted economic development and education in the black community. He was the chairman of the tourist bus company named Tourmobile. He created the NCEED or the National Council of Education and Economic Development. Mack used the NCEED as a way to promote a national African American museum in Washington, D.C. in 1985. He won federal support. He worked with Representative Mickey Leland to sponsor a non-binding resolution (H.R. 666) advocating an African-American museum on the National Mall, which passed the House of Representatives in 1986. The congressional attention motivated the Smithsonian to improve its presentation of African-American history. In 1987, the National Museum of American History sponsored a major exhibit, "Field to Factory," which focused on the black diaspora out of the Deep South in the 1950's. Mack spent his life to promote such a museum. This plan wasn’t without opposition. Some from the African American Museum Association (AAMA) felt that the museum would strip money from local black museums and end jobs that were went for those in local and state black museums. Kinard and the AAMA wanted money from Congress to fund local black history museums in solving problems.  Some questioned whether the Smithsonian should be part of an effort of a national African American museum in the first place. Some wanted total independence. By 1988, Rep. John R. Lewis and Rep. Leland (both are African Americans) introduced legislation for a stand-alone national African American history museum within the Smithsonian Institution. It faced opposition. It was opposed because of its cost. Some wanted a compromise, but it failed during that time. Lewis and Leland introduced another bill in 1989. It failed again, but the Smithsonian institution supported such a museum. Leland died in 1989. By 1991, after debate, the Smithsonian support a national museum dedicated to African American history and culture (via a vote from its Board of Regents). There are funding issues and disputes of a location during the 1990’s. Some Smithsonian members backtracked. This was criticized by Mary Campbell Schmidt, saw this as a step backward, a characterization Smithsonian officials strongly disputed. During the 1990's, other cities had new African American great museums. The city of Detroit opened a $38.4 million, 120,000-square-foot (11,000 m2) Museum of African-American History in 1997, and the city of Cincinnati was raising funds for a $90 million, 157,000-square-foot (14,600 m2) National Underground Railroad Freedom Center (which broke ground in 2002).

By 2001, John Lewis and Representative J. C. Watts re-introduced legislation for a museum in the House. There was a new leader and Secretary Lawrence Small of the Smithsonian Board of Regents. Small wanted a stand-alone national museum detailing African American history. The Smithsonian asked Congress for a study which was federally funded. Congress agreed. President George W. Bush was one of the leading supporters of this project. On December 29, 2001, President George W. Bush signed legislation establishing a 23-member commission to study the need for a museum, how to raise the funds to build and support it, and where it should be located. At the signing ceremony, the president expressed his opinion that the museum should be located on the National Mall. The study concluded that the museum was a necessity and it must be constructed. The National Museum of African American History and Culture Council (the museum's board of trustees) sponsored a competition in 2008 to design a 350,000-square-foot (33,000 m2) building with three stories below-ground and five stories above-ground. The building was limited to the 5-acre (20,000 m2) site chosen by the site selection committee, had to be LEED Gold certified, and had to meet stringent federal security standards. The cost of construction was limited to $500 million ($556,182,380 in 2016 dollars). The design submitted by the Freelon Group/Adjaye Associates/Davis Brody Bond won the design competition. The above-ground floors featured an inverted step pyramid surrounded by a bronze architectural scrim, which reflected a crown used in Yoruban culture. The government approved the plan.  Added to the entrance on Constitution Avenue were a pond, garden, and bridge, so that visitors would have to "cross over the water" like slaves did when they came to America against their wills. Oprah Winfrey on June 10, 2013 donated $12 million to the NMAAHC. She donated $1 million to the museum in 2007. The Smithsonian said it would name the NMAAHC's 350-seat theater after her. The GM Foundation announced a $1 million donation to the museum on January 22, 2014, to fund construction of the building and design and install permanent exhibits.

The groundbreaking took place on February 22, 2012. President Barack Obama and museum director Bunch were among the speakers at the ceremony. Actress Phylicia Rashad was the Master of Ceremonies for the event. Poetry and music was performed by Denyce Graves, Thomas Hampson, and the Heritage Signature Chorale. Clark Construction Group, Smoot Construction, and H.J. Russell & Company won the contract to build the museum. The architectural firm of McKissack & McKissack (which was the first African American-owned architectural firm in the United States) provided project management services on behalf of the Smithsonian, and acted as liaison between the Smithsonian and public utilities and D.C. government agencies. A worker was severely injured at the construction site on June 3, 2015, when scaffolding on the roof collapsed on top of him. 35-year-old Ivan Smyntyna was rushed to a local hospital, where he later died. The 350,000 square feet (33,000 m2) building has a total of 10 stories (five above and five below ground). The construction was done in a serious fashion. Commemorative copies of the 13th Amendment and the Emancipation Proclamation were sent to the museum. The grand opening of the National Museum of African American history and Culture existed on September 24, 2016. President Barack Obama opened the new museum along with four generations of the Bonner family (from 99 year old Ruth Bonner, who is the daughter of Elijah B. Odom of Mississippi, an escaped slave down to Ruth’s great granddaughter Christine). I saw the opening ceremony on television too. The Obamas and Ruth along with her family rang the historic bell to officially open the museum. The bell was from the first Baptist church organized by and for African Americans (which was founded in Williamsburg, Virginia. Back then laws made it unlawful for black people to congregate or preach. Now, things are different). The museum is extremely popular today. In its first three months alone, more than 600,000 people visited the museum. In November 2016, NBA player LeBron James donated $2.5 million to support the museum's exhibit on the accomplishments of boxer Muhammad Ali. All visitors must have a ticket to enter. After six months, about 1.2 million people visited the NMAAHC. It is now one of the four most visited Smithsonian museums. Patrons spend an average of six hours at the museum, which was twice as long as had been estimated before the museum’s opening. In 2007, the NMAAHC became the first major museum to open on the Web before completing a physical structure.

The web site included the museum's first exhibit, mounted in New York City. The site was also designed to encourage collaboration between scholars and the public. The main feature of the web-based initiative was the Memory Book application, which allowed individuals to contribute to the web site pictures, a story, or an audio application to spotlight unique experiences in African-American culture. Collections number in the thousands.  Renée Anderson, the NMAAHC's head of collections, oversaw the effort.  The museum has items owned by Harriet Tubman, the sunken slave ship from the Sao Jose Paquete Africa (it was evacuated from the coast of South Africa), the jacket and skirt worn by Marian Anderson at her 1939 Lincoln Memorial concert, a Tuskegee Airman flight jacket, and photographs from hip hop artists are found in the museum too. There is also a letter by Toussaint L'Ouverture, leader of the Haitian Revolution slave revolt in 1791. There is the Sweet home Café, which is a 400 seat luncheon only restaurant. Jerome Grant is the executive chef, and the restaurant is managed by Restaurant Associates in association with Thompson Hospitality. Joanne Hyppolite, NMAAHC curator for cultural expressions, oversees the restaurant as well as the museum's exhibits on food ways and cuisine. The cafeteria opened on September 24, 2016. It was named a 2017 semifinalist by the James Beard Award for Best New Restaurant. People from the New York Times to the Wall Street Journal have praised the museum. The National Museum of African American History and Culture outlines the representation of black life in concrete, great terms. It inspires us, speaks to us, and motivates us in this long journey for human justice. We, as black people, still rise.

By Timothy


Friday, September 01, 2017

MARY BURNETT TALBERT: CIVIL RIGHTS ADVOCATE

https://blackthen.com/mary-burnett-talbert-civil-rights-advocate-called-best-known-colored-woman-united-states/

Every Cop Involved in the Arrest of This Utah Nurse for Refusing to (Illegally) Draw a Patient’s Blood Needs to Be Fired

http://reason.com/blog/2017/09/01/every-cop-involved-in-the-arrest-of-this

"Dream to a Nightmare" MLK full interview with Sander Vancour (NBC) 1968

Classic Clips: Phylicia Rashad (2004)

The Fall of 2017 Part 5



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Survival and Preparation

We live in a dangerous world. Therefore, we have to use strategies, discernment, and awareness on how we should act. We reject bigotry of any kind, but we do believe in social justice. That is why we want preparation and survival for our communities. I was inspired to write about this issue recently. Now, it it’s time to make mention on many strategies on survival and preparation in such an imperfect world. There is a growing movement of people in communities having community farming, and storing foods plus other resources. I have no problem with this. There are many people who have stored firearms. I have no problem with this as long as those firearms (for self-protection) are stored and used in the right way. I don’t believe in criminals having guns. Another great advice is to end all unnecessary infighting. We have serious issues in the world and we always should reject distractions that prevent anyone from using activism into the next level. Preparation also entails storing can foods just in case and making sure that evacuations plans are available if something tragic happens. Other people are right to advocate for Black Love to be shown in private and in public openly. This is normal, because Black Love is one force that has stabilized families, grown communities, and inspired the youth for decades and centuries. We have to realize that we don’t have a perfect society. When there is police brutality, poverty, sexism, xenophobia, and other injustices, then we realize that we have to fight evils in our world. We are basically at war against evil. Understanding the system of racism/white supremacy is very key in forming solutions since an end of an evil system must come by understanding what that evil system entails.

A great sense of unity and solidarity is important to advance. In other words, if someone attacks a Black Woman, it is an attack on all of us since we all came from a Black Woman literally. The Black Woman is the mother of the human race. An attack on a Black Man is also an attack on all us since the Black Man is the father of the human race. Also, youth need mentors, so being a mentor can save a child’s live literally. Children and adults need not only STEM skills. Both need economic understanding since regardless of what economic philosophy that we embrace, economic literacy is very important in growing communities, expanding ownership, and improving rural plus urban areas. Also, it is important to grow political and social consciousness since money alone will never save us. A plan or a strategy to use politics, economic justice, and progressive policies will help tons of black people. Also, it is important to use activism to end all forms of oppression too.


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Economics Part 1

One of the most debated and important issues of humankind is economics. The economy governs so much of human activities and governmental policies. We are influenced by economics constantly. It relates to the taxes that we pay, the food eat, and the type of civilization in which we live. From capitalists to socialists, economics are diverse in their personal philosophies. What is true is that reasonable people desire an economy that enriches society and helps humanity in altruistic ways. We do live in a society where some want to exploit economics as a means to promote exploitation and oppression, which is wrong. So, this is a new series on economics. The first part (which is here right now) shows an overview of economics. The second part will show economic history from the beginning of human history to 1500 A.D. The third part will show economic history from 1500 A.D. to the present. The fourth or last part will show economic solutions and a call for economic justice in the world. The second to fourth parts will be shown in the future. I wanted to show this information as a means for people (regardless of age, nationality, or background) to have the opportunities to learn more information about economics.

First, money is important to define. Money is anything that is accepted as a method of payment. For example, thousands of years ago, ancient humanity used cattle, beads, and coins as a form of money. Today, most people use paper money, digital entities, or coins as a means of payment. Today, the United States government issues coins and currency, so people can accept it in exchange for goods and services. Some people have confidence in the government. Now, we see new currencies like bitcoms and electronic currencies being spread globally. In America, there are coins, Federal Reserve notes (as used in currency), and deposits in bank accounts that can be accessed by checks and debit cards. Historically, the United States government has passed laws and created agencies to protect consumer rights and property rights. It is important to have these rights protected, so they are exercised to oppose fraud and abuse. Individuals have private ownership in America. This is protected by negotiated contracts that are enforceable by law. Government agencies can establish legitimate guidelines that protect public health and safety. Consumers can take legal action against violations of consumer rights. That is why consumer rights advocates for decades and centuries have fought against corruption in society. I will outline information about the components of economics, the types of economic philosophies, the history of economics, and solutions. Life is a life long journey. I certainly enjoy studying about economics and other subjects as well.

  
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Microeconomics

To understand economics, people should know what microeconomics is and what macroeconomics is. Microeconomics deals with the part of economics that is related to single factors and the effects of individuals from supply and demand to products. So, it’s is a branch of economics that studies the behavior of individuals and firms in making decisions regarding the allocation of scarce resources and the interactions among these individuals and firms. Macroeconomics is part of the economic that deals with large scale or general economic factors like interest rates, unemployment, and national productivity. Macroeconomics covers the economy as a whole. Microeconomics definitely focuses on graphical images and charts in order for people to understand the key components of economic principles. First, it is important to elaborate on the parts of microeconomics. In real life, people decide on how to use limited resources, on how people own these resources, and the type of markets for the distributions of goods and services. This is the world in which we live in. The following concepts deal with how economic decisions are made in the marketplace. Products and services are key in any economy. A product can be apples and a service can be repair services, legal counsel, or entertainment. Scarcity is the inability to satisfy the all wants at the same time. This is when resources and goods are limited. Choices must be made to deal with scarcity.

Resources are factors of productions used in the production of goods and services. Resources can be natural, human, capital, and entrepreneurship. Choice is the selection of an item of action from a set of possible alternatives. Individuals must choose or make decisions about the desired goods and services, because goods and services are limited. Opportunity cost is what is given up when a choice is made. That means that the highest valued alternative is forgone. Individuals have to consider the value of what is given up when making a choice. Price is the amount of money exchanged for a good or service. The interaction of supply and demand determined price. Price determines who acquires goods and services.  Incentives are things that incite or motivate. Incentives are used to change economic behavior like subsidies or tax cuts. Supply and Demand is the interaction of supply and demand that determines price. Demand is the amount of a good or service that consumers are willing and able to buy at a certain price.

Supply is the amount of a good or service that producers are willing and able to sell at a certain price. In theory, in a free market, the aggregates (or sum of) of quantity demanded by buyers and quantity supplied by sellers will be equal and reach economic equilibrium over time in reaction of price changes. In real life, many issues can prevent equilibrium and any equilibrium reached may not necessarily be morally equitable.  For example, if the supply of healthcare services is limited by external factors, the equilibrium price may be unaffordable for many who desire it but cannot pay for it. In the real world, markets readily experience imperfect completion. So, a monopoly is about when there is only one seller of a good. Duopoly is when there are only two sellers of a good. Oligopoly is when there are a few sellers of a good. Monopolistic competition is when there are many sellers producing highly differentiated goods. Monopsony is when there is only one buyer of a good. Oligopsony is when there are few buyers of a good.  Unlike perfect competition, imperfect competition invariably means market power is unequally distributed. Firms under imperfect competition have the potential to be "price makers", which means that, by holding a disproportionately high share of market power, they can influence the prices of their products. It is an economic process that uses inputs to create a commodity or a service for exchange or direct use. Production is a flow and thus a rate of output per period of time. Distinctions include such production alternatives as for consumption (food, haircuts, etc.) vs. investment goods (new tractors, buildings, roads, etc.), public goods (national defense, smallpox vaccinations, etc.) or private goods (new computers, bananas, etc.), and "guns" vs "butter".

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The law of demand states that, in general, price and quantity demanded in a given market are inversely related. That is, the higher the price of a product, the less of it people would be prepared to buy (other things unchanged). As the price of a commodity falls, consumers move toward it from relatively more expensive goods (the substitution effect). In addition, purchasing power from the price decline increases ability to buy (the income effect). Other factors can change demand; for example an increase in income will shift the demand curve for a normal good outward relative to the origin, as in the figure. All determinants are predominantly taken as constant factors of demand and supply. Market equilibrium occurs where quantity supplied equals quantity demanded, the intersection of the supply and demand curves in a supply and demand graph. At a price below equilibrium, there is a shortage of quantity supplied compared to quantity demanded. This is posited to bid the price up. At a price above equilibrium, there is a surplus of quantity supplied compared to quantity demanded. This pushes the price down. The model of supply and demand predicts that for given supply and demand curves, price and quantity will stabilize at the price that makes quantity supplied equal to quantity demanded. Similarly, demand-and-supply theory predicts a new price-quantity combination from a shift in demand (as to the figure), or in supply.

Production is the combining of human, natural, capital, and entrepreneurship resources used to make goods or provide services. Production also relates to the conversion of inputs and outputs. Resources available and consumer preferences determine what is produced. Consumption is the using of goods and services. Consumer preferences and price determine what is purchased and consumed. Therefore, the market system in the world is diverse. Some markets have great government interference and some don't. Prices are determined by supply and demand as buyers and sellers interact in the marketplace. In a private market system, private property is abundant. Profit is made up of earnings after all the expenses have been paid. In a capitalist economy, there is competition (which is a rivalry between producers and/or sellers of a good or service. This can result in better quality of goods and services at lower prices).

Consumer sovereignty is about consumers determining through purchases what goods and services will be produced. Government involvement can be limited in an economy at times. In a capitalist system, most decisions regarding the production of goods and services are made in the private sectors. Workers or folks in the public sector in a socialist economy will determine decision on the production of goods and services.

Entrepreneurship is important in any economy. An entrepreneur is a person who takes a risk to produce and sell goods and services in search of profit. He or she may form a business. There are many different types of businesses. One is called the proprietorship or a business organization with one owner who takes all of the risks and the profits. A partnership is a form of business organization with 2 or more owners. They share the risk and the profits. A corporation is a large form of business that is authorized by the law to act as a legal entity. It doesn’t matter how many owners there is. Owners share the profits. Owner liability is limited to the amount of their investment.  Public finance is the field of economics that deals with budgeting the revenues and expenditures of a public sector entity, usually government.

There are trusts too. A trust is a three-party fiduciary relationship in which the first party, the trustor or settlor; transfers ("settles") a property (often but not necessarily a sum of money) upon the second party, the trustee; for the benefit of the third party, the beneficiary.  At least two of the three parties must be different individuals or business entities. That is, one person can be trustor and trustee, and another can be beneficiary; or one can be trustor and beneficiary, and another is a trustee; or one person can be trustor and another can be trustee and beneficiary.

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Resources, goods, and services including money flow in America exist among households, businesses, and markets in the American economy. Individual business saving and investment can provide financial capital that can be borrowed for business expansion and increased consumption. Individuals in households can own the resources used in production, sell the resource, and use the income to purchase profits. The business producers can buy resources to make products. Later, those products are sold to individuals, other businesses, the government, and they (or business producers) can use the profits to buy more resources. The governments of the world historically have used tax revenue from individuals and businesses to provide public goods and services. Financial institutions globally also channel funds form savers to borrowers. Private financial institutions do act as intermediaries between savers and borrowers which include households and business investors. These private financial institutions include banks, savings and loans, and credit unions. These institutions receive deposits and make loans. They also encourage saving and investing by paying interests on deposits.

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Macroeconomics


Macroeconomics deals with researching the economy as a whole. It deals with general equilibrium theory, national income, output, the unemployment rate, inflation (which are aggregates), and sub aggregates like consumption, investment spending, etc. It also studies the effects of monetary policy and fiscal policy. In macroeconomic analysis, people research the growth of national income. There are investigations on technological change and labor force growth. Economic growth deals with the increase in output per capita of a country over a long period of time. There are many factors that tell the differences in the level of output per capita between nations (in why some countries grow faster than others and whether countries converge at the same rates of growth).

These factors include the rate of investment, population growth, and technological change. These are represented in theoretical and empirical forms (as in the neoclassical and endogenous growth models) and in growth accounting. In macroeconomics, there is the study of the business cycle. There are many theories on whether to do something or nothing in dealing with the business cycle. John Maynard Keynes wrote a book during the 1930’s called, “The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money.” This book came out during the Great Depression. In the book, he believed that the aggregate demand for goods might not be sufficient during economic downturns. This caused high unemployment and losses of potential output. He wanted the public sector like monetary policy actions by the central bank and fiscal policy actions by the government to stabilize output over the business cycle. This is Keynesian economics in wanting the government to move forward (via strong intervention in the market) towards full employment. The business cycle involves the different stages of an economy. There is the expansion, then the boom, the recession, and the depression. Later, the business cycle comes about back again with expansion.

Friedman’s permanent income hypothesis dealt with this issue too. The neoclassical synthesis refers to the reconciliation of Keynesian economics with neoclassical economics, stating that Keynesianism is correct in the short run but qualified by neoclassical-like considerations in the intermediate and long run. There are the new classicals assume that prices and wages adjust automatically to attain full employment, whereas the new Keynesians see full employment as being automatically achieved only in the long run, and hence government and central-bank policies are needed because the "long run" may be very long. To find the amount of unemployment in an economy is about measuring the unemployment rate, and the percentage of workers without jobs in the labor force. The labor force includes only people actively looking for jobs.

People who are retired, pursuing education, or discouraged from seeking work by a lack of job prospects are excluded from the labor force. Unemployment can be generally broken down into several types that are related to different causes. Unemployment can happen when wages are too high for employers to be willing to hire more workers. Structural unemployment deals with skills, etc. While some types of unemployment may occur regardless of the condition of the economy, cyclical unemployment occurs when growth stagnates. Okun's law represents the empirical relationship between unemployment and economic growth. The original version of Okun's law states that a 3% increase in output would lead to a 1% decrease in unemployment. Government using fiscal policies definitely deals with macroeconomics. Some fiscal policies involve adjusting spending and taxation policies to change aggregate demand. When aggregate demand falls below the potential output of the economy, there is an output gap where some productive capacity is left unemployed. Governments increase spending and cut taxes to boost aggregate demand. Resources that have been idled can be used by the government.

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For example, unemployed home builders can be hired to expand highways. Tax cuts allow consumers to increase their spending, which boosts aggregate demand. Both tax cuts and spending have multiplier effects where the initial increase in demand from the policy percolates through the economy and generates additional economic activity. Some fiscal policy can be limited by crowding out when the economy is producing at full capacity. That is when there are no excess productive resources. Some people believe in a Ricardian equivalence (which is a hypothesis) or people must save money, reduce consumption, and future tax increases must exist in order for an increase in debt to be paid for. Chris Carroll, James Poetrba, and Lawrence Summers disagree with the Ricardian equivalence hypothesis. The government readily provides certain goods and services that individuals and businesses acting alone can’t provide efficiently. The government provides these benefits to many simultaneously. They wouldn’t be in massive supply if individuals had to provide them.

These services include interstate highways, postal service, and national defense. The government pays for public and services by tax revenues, borrowed funds, and by fees (like tolls and park entrance fees). The government taxes, borrows, and spends its influence to promote economic activity. The government tax increases can reduce the funds available for individuals and business spending. Tax decreases increase funds for some corporate businesses. The government can reduce or increase funds available for borrowing by individuals or businesses. More government spending can increase demand which can increase employment and production. The decrease of government spending can have the opposite effect or a slowing of the economy. Increasing government spending can increase taxes while decreased government spending may result in lower taxes. The 16th Amendment of the Constitution authorizes Congress to tax personal and business incomes. The Federal Reserve Bank maintains the value of the national currency or the dollar. It regulates banks, and manages the money in the economy in dealing with inflation. Some have called it the nation’s central bank.

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International Economics

International Economics deals with studying trade and other economic situations that cross national boundaries. Therefore, debates about globalization and international trade policies deal with international economics. Gains and losses from trade also deals with international economics too. For decades and centuries nations have discusses about trade tariffs and trade quotas.  International finance is a macroeconomic field which examines the flow of capital across international borders, and the effects of these movements on exchange rates. Increased trade in goods, services and capital between countries is a major effect of contemporary globalization. Globalization has many definitions among many different people.

Globalization is the free flow of capital and resources across national boundaries with as little restrictions as possible. Globalization is the total economic integration of the world's economy plainly speaking. Many people support it and many people oppose globalization via protests and activism. Globalization is controversial and it's part of the 21st century debate about economics. The distinct field of development economics examines economic aspects of the economic development process in relatively low-income countries focusing on structural change, poverty, and economic growth. Approaches in development economics frequently incorporate social and political factors. The U.S. Export-Import Bank defines a Marxist-Lenninist state as having a centrally planned economy. They are now rare, examples can still be seen in Cuba, North Korea and Laos.  Increased globalization has also made it easier for recessions to spread from country to country. A reduction in economic activity in one country can lead to a reduction in activity in its trading partners as a result of its consequent reduction in demand for their exports, which is one of the mechanisms by which the business cycle is transmitted from country to country.

Empirical research confirms that the greater the trade linkage between countries the more coordinated are their business cycles. Globalization can also have a significant influence upon the conduct of macroeconomic policy. The Mundell–Fleming model and its extensions are often used to analyse the role of capital mobility (and it was also used by Paul Krugman to give a simple account of the Asian financial crisis). Part of the increase in income inequality that has taken place within countries is attributable - in some cases - to globalization. A recent IMF report demonstrates that the increase in inequality in the developing countries in the period 1981 to 2004 was due entirely to technological change, with globalization making a partially offsetting negative contribution, and that in the developed countries globalization and technological change were equally responsible. Professor Joseph Stiglitz  of the School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University has advanced the infant industry case for protection in developing countries and criticized the conditions imposed for help by the International Monetary Fund. Professor Dani Rodrik of Harvard has noted that the benefits of globalization are unevenly spread, and that it has led to income inequalities, and to damaging losses of social capital in the parent countries and to social stresses resulting from immigration in the receiving countries. An extensive critical analysis of these contentions has been made by Martin Wolf, and a lecture by Professor Jagdish Bhagwati has surveyed the debate that has taken place among economists.



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Various economic philosophies

There are many different types of economies in the world. The four major types of economics system in our age include the traditional, command, market, and mixed. Each of these economic systems are not perfect. They have strengthens and weaknesses as these systems are man-made. Human beings aren’t perfect, but we know that certain economic systems have worked wonders for humanity. A traditional economy has existed for thousands of years. A traditional economic system is one in which each new generation retains the economic position of its parents and grandparents. Traditional economies rely on the historic success of social customs. They are heavily rural and they are found in the Second or Third World. They use the land via farming as well. They produce products and services as a result of their beliefs, customs, traditions, religions, etc. They usually don’t produce massive surpluses. The command economy is about a large part of the economic system being ruled by a centralized power. It can be the federal government and other public entities. There are resources used by the government and it regulates it. The government can own everything in the industrial process from the equipment to the facilities in a command economy. Command economies are less flexible than market economies and react slower to changes in consumer purchasing patterns and fluctuations in supply and demand. A market economy involves the market controlling supply and demand. The government doesn’t control vital resources, valuable goods, or any segment of the economy. Private organizations and private entities determine how the economy runs, how supply is generated, and what demands should exist. Capitalism is an economic system and an ideology based on the private ownership of the means of production. For a long time, people have exposed the imperfections of capitalism since capitalism (with little to no restraints) has historically centralized wealth into a few hands (and increased income inequality). For example, the policies of neoliberalism, Reaganomics, and other actions never radically declined economic inequality. Wealth today has been sent even more to the super wealthy than 30 years ago. Therefore, many scholars desire a radical redistribution of wealth, so poor, homeless, and working class people can have not only wealth, but resources to achieve their own lives more productively.  Laissez Faire Capitalism has not only been criticized by Karl Marx. It has been criticized by Dr. King, Malcolm X, Fred Hampton, Assata Shakur, and other heroes.

Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterized by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production, as well as the political theories, and movements associated with them. Social ownership may refer to forms of public, collective, or cooperative ownership, or to citizen ownership of equity. There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them. Social ownership is the common element shared by its various forms. There is no truly free market then or now. In America, there are capitalist enterprises, but the government regulates the economy involving trade, government programs, business, etc. Market economies separate the market and the government. A mixed economy system is a combination of a market and command economies. There are many variations of this. One example deals with American educational, transportation, and postal system. These industries exist in the private sector, but they readily use public resources. America itself, in essence, has a mixed economic system.

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Economic Definitions

The following are important Economic terms that relate to the subject of economics:

*GDP-This is the gross domestic product.   It is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (in quarterly or a year) or income.

*Nominal GDP-This measures the economic performance of a whole country or region. Nominal GDP per capita doesn’t not reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries.

*PPP-This is the purchasing power parity. This is the value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year. In 2015, the average GDP per capita (or PPP) of all the countries of the world is $15,800. The United States of America as of 2016 has the PPP of $18.75 trillion USD (or U.S. dollars)

*Per Capita GDP-This is the nation’s GDP divided by the country’s population. The GDP per capita of America is $57,466.79 USD ‎(2016).

*Federal Surplus-This is when we take in more than we spend.

*Stock-It is a certificate of ownership in a corporation

*Bonds-This involve a special loan or a formal contract to repay borrowed money with interest.

*Mutual Funds-It is diversity in stock or a pond portfolio. In other words, it is a professionally managed investment fund that pools money from many investors to purchases securities. A security is a tradable financial asset. They can be debt securities (like banknotes, bonds, and dentures), equity securities (common stocks), and derivatives (like forwards, futures, options, and swaps). NYSE is the New York Stock Exchange. NASDAQ is the second largest stock exchange in the world. DJIA (or the Dow Jones Industrial Average) is an index to inform people of how the market is going. The S&P500 is the index of the 500 largest companies.

*Interest rate-This is the amount of interest due per period as a proportion of the amount lend, deposited, or borrowed (called the principal sum). It is defined as the proportion of an amount loaned which a lender charges as interest to the borrower, normally expressed as an annual percentage. It is the rate a bank or other lender charges to borrow its money, or the rate a bank pays its savers for keeping money in an account. Annual interest rate is the rate over a period of one year. Other interest rates apply over different periods, such as a month or a day, but they are usually annualized. Interest is the money paid regularly at a particular rate for the use of money lent, or for delaying the repayment of a debt. APR is the annual percentage rate (It tells you how much it costs to borrow for one year, including interest costs and additional fees related to a loan. APR is the “price” of a loan quoted in terms of an interest rate).

Knowing APR is key in understanding on how to pay for credit cards more effectiveness since credit cards readily use APR rates on them. APR is an annualized rate of how much you have to pay if you borrow for one full year. If the APR is 10 percent, the daily rate would be 0.0274 percent (0.10 divided by 365 = .000274).  0% APR rates are short term rates since sooner or later, charges on interest will exist. So, interest is about the cost of using somebody else’s money. When you borrow money, you pay interest. When you lend money, you earn interest.  An interest rate of five percent per year and a balance of $100 results in interest charges of $5 per year in using simple interest. In Simple Interest, one formula is I=P X R X T. I is Interest, r is rate, P is principle, and T is time. Rate is used in percent, so 5% is equaled to 0.05. Therefore, the principal is the amount of money you borrowed and have to pay back and the interests is what the lender charges for lending you the money.

*Deflation-That is the general decrease in price (of goods and services during a period of time). Deflation can happen when the interest rate falls below 0%.

*Inflation-That is the general increase in price (of goods and services during a period of time).

*CPI-This is the consumer price index. The CPI measures the changes of the price level of market basket of consumer goods and services which are purchased by household. CPI is measured in economics and statistics. CPI can be measured when the “updated cost" (i.e. the price of an item at a given year, e.g.: the price of bread in 2010) is divided by that of the initial year (the price of bread in 1970), then multiplied by one hundred. Another example is   if a box of cereal once cost $2.50 but now costs $2.75, the result should be 1.1. 100 X 1.1 would be the CPI of that cereal or 110. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a measure of changes in product costs over a specific time period, and it is used as both an indicator of the cost of living and economic growth.

*Unemployment rate-The percent of people who are actively looking for jobs, but don’t have one.

*Recession-Two consecutive quarters of economic decline.

*Depression-This is a severe recession, usually 18 months. It is filled with high unemployment and low production.

*Prime rate-the lowest interest rate that banks give their valued customers (usually those with good credit. Some variable interest rates may be expressed as a percentage above or below the prime rate).

*Import-Bringing goods into a country

*Export-Taking good out of the country. A trade surplus is when a nation exports more than it inputs. A trade deficit is when a nation imports more than a nation exports. A tariff is a tax on imported goods.

*Exchange rate-That is the value of money in relation to other nations. In finance, an exchange rate of two currencies is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another. It is also regarded as the value of one country’s currency in relation to another currency. For example, an interbank exchange rate of 114 Japanese yen to the United States dollar means that ¥114 will be exchanged for each US$1 or that US$1 will be exchanged for each ¥114. In this case it is said that the price of a dollar in relation to yen is ¥114, or equivalently that the price of a yen in relation to dollars is $1/114.

*Globalization-the concept of a global marketplace used for economic trade, little restrictions, etc. In essence, globalization is about the free movement of goods, capital, and services including people technology, and information with little regulation as possible. It deals with international integration.

*Opportunity cost- When economists refer to the “opportunity cost” of a resource, they mean the value of the next-highest-valued alternative use of that resource. If, for example, you spend time and money going to a movie, you cannot spend that time at home reading a book, and you cannot spend the money on something else. In other words, you are trying to make the best decision. It deals with scarcity and choice.

*Positive economics (as opposed to normative economics) is the branch of economics that concerns the description and explanation of economic phenomena. It focuses on facts and cause-and-effect behavioral relationships and includes the development and testing of economics theories. A time series is a series of data points indexed (or listed or graphed) in time order. Most commonly, a time series is a sequence taken at successive equally spaced points in time.

*Retail Price- The price of a good or product when it is sold to the end user for consumption, not for resale through a third-party distribution channel.

*In economics, a real value of a good or other entity has been adjusted for inflation, enabling comparison of quantities as if prices had not changed. In contrast with a real value, a nominal value has not been adjusted for inflation, and so changes in nominal value reflect at least in part the effect of inflation

*Index Numbers- In economics and finance, an index is a statistical measure of changes in a representative group of individual data points. These data may be derived from any number of sources, including company performance, prices, productivity, and employment. An index number is an economic data figure reflecting price or quantity compared with a standard or base value. The base usually equals 100 and the index number is usually expressed as 100 times the ratio to the base value. For example, if a commodity costs twice as much in 1970 as it did in 1960, its index number would be 200 relative to 1960. Index numbers are used especially to compare business activity, the cost of living, and employment. They enable economists to reduce unwieldy business data into easily understood terms.

*Normative economics (as opposed to positive economics) is a part of economics that expresses value or normative judgments about economic fairness or what the outcome of the economy or goals of public policy ought to be.

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Occupations involving Economics

Throughout human history, economics has been key in a diversity of human endeavors. Therefore, there is a wide spectrum of occupations that deal with economics. Economics deals with numbers, analyzing information, and making predictions based on the best available data too. Many people, who are experts in economics, study industry trends, labor markets, and other components of an economic system. There is the career of the economist. He or she (who is an economist) regularly organize, gather, and interpret economic data. He or she uses statistics and mathematical formulas to make predictions. They can be involved in demographics, policy decisions, industry trends, climate change, etc. A great economist used teamwork, communication abilities, and a way to create solutions. A market research analyst researches market trends all of the time. They research data and economic conditions. An economic consultant helps organizations, deal with businesses, and they carry out studies to research economic scenarios.

Some economic consultants can act as expert witnesses in legal cases to assess economic damages, analyze intellectual property, antitrust issues, and address regulatory violations. An actuary uses mathematics in order to find the possibility of fires, deaths, illnesses, and business failures. They use computer software to deal with analyses too. They crate graphs and charters and work with a management team. Credit analysis use microeconomics to help their clients about funds and businesses. Financial analysts research companies, industries, stocks, bonds, etc. for finance departments. A lawyer deals with economics like corporate law, tax law, antitrust law, personal injury, medical malpractice. An owner of a business certain deals with economics and it does require patience, determination, serious planning, collaboration, and a great amount of financial knowledge. Business reporters are readily abundant too in America and throughout the world. An economist, chartered accountant, data analyst, and forensic accountant are other occupations related to economics.


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Conclusion (for the fall of 2017)

Our eyes are open and we are woke. The Trump regime is still in existence. The Trump administration revealed its Afghanistan war plan. The speech was filled with the goal of stop the Taliban from ruling Afghanistan. He talked about ISIS, but it didn't give an explicit piece of information of how to achieve his goals. The problem with his speech is that localized wars of attrition usually at times can cause a defeat. He wants real results and the only solution is a long term diplomatic, political solution where the diverse ethnic groups have some sense of political stability. U.S. forces have been in Afghanistan for almost 16 years. Trump didn't want to reveal the number of extra U.S. troops that he desires to send into Afghanistan. We have been through this situation with Vietnam (with Nixon's Vietnamization, which was about Nixon allowing troops in Vietnam and gradually sending them home and replacing them with South Vietnamese troops in order for an American victory to exist). Trump gave no timetable of withdrawal since he refuses to advocate a hasty withdrawal. Trump wants to send more military forces for the purpose of fighting the Taliban and ISIS. Trump also made a provocative statement bout Pakistan, which has been accused of harboring Haqqani forces. So, Trump will continue the War in Afghanistan, but he lacked an explicit plan of how can he achieve plans. The Afghanistan war is a very complex war and there no solution without a reasonable, negotiated resolution that requires input from the diverse ethnic groups of Afghanistan.

Also, I have to mention information on this issue. DACA (many of whom are educated, are veterans, and have experienced an extensive background check already. The majority of people in DACA are employed or are students) will be decided on its future by Trump on Tuesday. The Dreamers are undocumented immigrants (many of whom came into America as children) who have received economic and educational opportunities. DACA is constitutional and has been done in a similar fashion by previous Presidents as well. Over 800,000 people are included in the DACA program. The previous President supported the policy in order to show compassion to fellow human beings. There is a possibility that Trump may end the program. I don't believe that the program should end since it has helped the lives of so many people and immigrant rights are human rights. Just because an undocumented immigrant exists in America doesn't mean that this person isn't an American. They are Americans. Xenophobia has no place anywhere in the world. Also, Trump has made it clear that he opposes even some legal immigration. Therefore, we will wait and see what he does. We know that the first Americans didn't speak English or sang the U.S. anthem. We know that immigrants of diverse backgrounds (many immigrants are from Africa, Mexico, Finland, Nicaragua, the Caribbean, etc.) make America better (they have paid taxes and build up our GDP) and they contributed heavily to American history and culture. One poll says recently that 64 percent of all Americans support the DACA program. Most Americans are right on this issue. We desire true liberation among the human family.

We have seen some news media people being restrict to come to the President's press conferences. We have seen a rise of hate crimes against Muslims in America. We have witnessed murderous cops getting away with murdering innocent black human lives. Also, we have seen the massive militarism worldwide. Even the New York Times have documented Donald Trump's continued lies throughout his Presidency. From health care to environmental issues, our lives definitely revolve around these important issues. There are those who believe in the myth that the free market can solve all problems and we should have no government regulation at any circumstances. That's ludicrous, because the private market is never perfect and public resources have helped humanity for generations. There are those (like me) who believe that the free market is not infallible and that legitimate regulations and public resources are necessary to improve the lives of humanity. This is the progressive credo. We will fight for our rights.

By Timothy