Monday, April 24, 2017

A crumbling political order in France's election

https://socialistworker.org/2017/04/24/crumbling-political-order-in-frances-election

Rise! The Road to Civil Rights (1940-1968). Full Episode

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/african-americans-many-rivers-to-cross/video/rise-the-road-to-civil-rights-1940-1968/

Macron and neo-fascist Le Pen advance to run-off in French presidential elections

http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2017/04/24/macr-a24.html

Emmanuel Macron And Marine Le Pen Set To Win First Round Of France’s Presidential Election

 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/france-election-first-round_us_58f4bef5e4b0da2ff861c205

The Current Events of 2017




Right now, tensions between America and North Korea are high. North Korea, years ago, (according to the Guardian) has received investments from the ABB (which is a Western company). Later, North Korea has further developed its nuclear program. North Korea has tested many missiles across the region of East Asia. This is a new era too. The Secretary of State Tillerson and Vice President Mike Pence said that all options are on the table involving North Korea. There are accusations of the U.S. using hacking to stop the recent North Korean missile test. Tillerson also said that he wants to explore diplomatic, security, and economic measures to handle the situation. Right now, China has blocked some of the coal imports into North Korea.   In the Sea of Japan, the USS Carl Vinson aircraft carrier is soon to come there. China wants cooperation in the solution making process since a war will cause tons of North Korean refugees to come into china, a destabilization of the region, and economic problems in China. China rejects any U.S. military response against Pyongyang, but they don’t want extreme tensions in the region either. Russia is allied politically with China, so Russia has similar views as China has on the North Korean issue. Trump wants North Korea to dismantle its nuclear and ballistic missile programs. This just isn’t going to happen anytime soon if at all. The U.S. and South Korea has been involved in war games. Russian aircraft has been flying near Alaska recently. South Korea’s Unification Ministry spokesman Lee Duk-haeng indicated that US and South Korean forces were on heightened alert. “We are closely watching the situation and will not be letting our guards down,” he said. America wants Chinese President Xi Jinping to put more pressure on North Korea to comply with their goals. Japan is an ally of America, so meetings will occur among American, South Korean, and Japanese officials. The reason why the U.S. military hasn’t executed military attacks in North Korea is because South Korea would be devastated in artillery strikes (even if North Korea doesn’t use nuclear weapons). U.S. military troops are stationed in South Korea too. Such an unwise conflict will be harmful for the whole region and the world at large. So, the most peaceful solution to this problem is a total diplomatic solution.  

This year’s French elections are one of the most important elections in the world. Many people are exploiting the violent incident on the Champs Elysees (which was done by a gunman who is alleged to have been acting on behalf of ISIS) as an excuse to promote xenophobia and extreme nationalism. There are more than 50,000 soldiers and policemen in France being deployed to polling stations. The elections will change Europe forever. Karim Cheurfi, a French citizen and career criminal, who was sentenced to 15 years in prison in 2003 for shooting and nearly killing two policemen, but later released on appeal, was last arrested in February after demanding weapons and stating he wanted to kill policemen. He was released supposedly because the “level of danger” he posed was not at the priority level. Though he was an Islamic State (IS) sympathizer who was being followed by French domestic intelligence at least since March, his case was treated as a common law, not terrorist, case. France has strict gun control laws, but Cheufi amassed an arsenal of weapons. Conservative candidate François Fillon demanded the eradication of “Islamist totalitarianism” and called for the “suspension” of the campaign. Le Pen denounced the “incredible laxity of the courts” and demanded the expulsion of all foreigners with intelligence files. Fillon, Le Pen and Emmanuel Macron, the candidate of the On the March movement, backed by France’s Socialist Party (PS) government, all canceled their campaign events recently. The police confronted the Anti-capitalist Party (NPA) candidate Philippe Poutou who wanted the police to be unarmed. The police called him a slur and said that they would keep their weapons. Anti-Muslim propaganda is common in America and in France. The Socialist Party (which is center left) faces issues since they have promoted austerity, a state of emergency (which ended basic democratic rights), anti-labor policies, etc. which are against real, progressive principles. There is a rising anti-war movement in the world too.  Macron, Le Pen, Fillon and Mélenchon are now in a virtual tie, and over one-third of voters are still undecided. Emmanuel Macron is a center right neoliberal. France is in a crossroads in its history. France could leave the EU. Most French people want jobs, fair wages, and improved social conditions. The issue is that many of the major candidates have advocated for mass job cuts, tens of billions of euros have been cut in austerity measures, etc. There has been increases in military spending, and a return to the draft. Mélenchon (who is the left of the Socialist Party) himself reacted by declaring on Twitter his “personal solidarity” with Le Pen (who leads the right wing National Front. The NF claims to be anti-globalism, but anti-globalism to the far right is about the nefarious philosophies of anti-international solidarity, anti-immigrant, and anti-multiculturalism. We need international cooperation not corporate globalism), Fillon (who is center right) and Macron on issue of terror. So, imperialism and austerity are real threats in France. The whole world is watching France to see the results of the elections.

Xenophobia is a key part of the supporters of Trump. Attorney General Jeff Sessions and Homeland Security Secretary John Kelly defended the deportation of the Dreamer Juan Manuel Montes. He is a 23 year old Mexican citizen who was expelled from America in February of 2017. This comes despite of the fact that he was actively enrolled in the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program or DACA. DACA is meant to protect undocumented immigrants who were brought to the U.S. as children from being deported. This is the first case of a Dreamer being deported. Lawyers for Montes filed suit in federal court in Southern California. They are demanding that the Trump administration to release documents relating to his case. Montes lived in America since he was 9. He was arrested, interrogated, and walked across the border from Calexico to Mexicali on February 17, 2017 despite being covered by the DACA program through 2018. In the program, enrollees are required to reapply every 2 years. Montes’ lawyers said in court filings that their client was assaulted and beaten in Mexicali. He was desperate to return to his home and family. He tried to scale a border wall 2 days later and he was caught by U.S. border police and deported once again to Mexico. The DHS or the Department of Homeland Security oversees the Customs and Border Protection. It has thousands of border police. The DHS has refused all requests from Montes’ defense team for documents on the case.  In response to the lawsuit, it claims that Montes was not deported on February 17, but voluntarily crossed into Mexico without obtaining prior permission from US Citizenship and Immigration Services, the federal agency that approves DACA applications. This is proven to be false. That, according to DHS, along with four prior convictions for petty offenses—one for shoplifting and three for driving without a license—invalidated his DACA status. However, US Citizenship and Immigration Services had ruled that these offenses were not sufficiently serious to vacate Montes’ DACA status, extending it through 2018. Kelly has shown half-truths and lies about Montes’ deportation. He said Montes had been an active DACA enrollee but had ceased to be one when he supposedly chose to cross into Mexico. In addition, Kelly maintained, Montes’ own behavior—meaning his prior convictions—had deprived him of DACA protection. Trump said that he won’t target DACA enrollees for deportation. Yet, one DACA member was deported. There are almost 800,000 people in the DACA program. Members of DACA submit to background checks. They report to immigration authorities. Authorities know who they are. Sessions wants to deport millions of undocumented workers including DACA enrollees. Sessions wants to withdraw federal funds from cities who are sanctuary cities. Sanctuary cities are found in New York City, Seattle, Chicago, El Paso, etc. In another interview recently, Sessions denounced Hawaii-based federal judge Derrick Watson for holding up Trump’s travel ban on six Muslim-majority countries.  The enemies are immigration are clear in their intentions. We are clear in promoting immigrant rights now and forever.

The Syrian civil war continues. American forces accuse Syria of using chemical weapons against civilians. This comes about in a complex civil war. On April 7, 2017, the U.S. executed an unprovoked air strike against Syrian territories. There is no conclusive evidence that Syria executed a chemical attack in the village of Khan Sheikhun in Syria’s Idlib province, which reportedly killed scores of people. Since then, the US has systematically blocked demands by Syria and its two principal allies, Russia and Iran, for an objective investigation of the alleged chemical attack by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). There should be a conclusive, independent investigation to find the criminals who has done the evil chemical attack in Syria. The West wants regime change in Syria. The chemical disarmament of Syria was carried out under a deal brokered by Moscow in 2013 when the Obama administration backed down from a threat to launch airstrikes against Syria over another alleged chemical weapons incident in the Damascus suburb of Ghouta. That incident was also exposed as a deliberate provocation staged by Turkish intelligence in league with Islamist “rebels” for the express purpose of provoking a US attack. The US participated directly in the destruction of Syria’s chemical stockpiles, and the OCPW certified that all of the country’s chemical weapons had been destroyed in January 2016. Mattis wants more militarism by the U.S. too. Trump is a hypocrite by claiming to support the children of Syria, but denying Syrian refugees from coming into America. In six years, roughly half of Syria's population, some 11 million people, has been forced to flee their homes to escape the violence--6 million are internally displaced, and 5 million are refugees. The death count in Syria since the war began is almost half a million people. Of those killed, 24,000 have been children. I don’t agree with imperialism in Syria, but Assad is not hero either. ISIS is wrong including the al-Qaeda forces there. Also, Assad is wrong to promote neoliberal policies, his violent repression of dissenters, etc. So, Syria must not be govern by U.S., Saudi, Gulf States-backed puppet leaders neither by Assad. They should be ruled by the working class and revolutionary Syrian people. The Syrian people must govern their own land in an independent fashion.

By the late 20th and early 21st centuries, Seattle grew in the high tech boom. In 1979, Bill Gates, Paul Allen (founders of Microsoft) moved their company from New Mexico to the suburbs of their native Seattle. By 1985, sales (of Microsoft) were over $140 million, by 1990, $1.18 billion, and by 1995, Microsoft was the world's most profitable corporation. Allen and Gates were billionaires, and literally thousands of their past and present employees were millionaires. Microsoft spawned a host of other companies in the Seattle area. Millionaire employees of Microsoft found their own companies. Allen left Microsoft and became a major investor in new companies. Seattle is home to many technological companies like InforSpace, RealNetworks, etc.  Quite unlike Boeing, Microsoft has served as a catalyst for the creation of a whole realm of industry. Microsoft has also taken a much more active hand than Boeing in public works in the area, donating software to many schools (including the University of Washington). Biotechnology and coffee sectors are readily found in Seattle too. The international coffee shop chain Starbucks originated from Seattle. The Seattle based Nordstrom today is a national brand. Paul Allen is a political person too. He started a voter initiative to build the Seattle Commons, which is a huge park in South Lake Union and the Cascade District. He even offered to put up his own money to endow a security force for the park. It was defeated in the polls. He is now a leader of the movement to redevelop the same areas as a biotech center.  He did get a football stadium for the Seattle Seahawks through a successful statewide ballot initiative, and founded the Experience Music Project (originally intended as a Jimi Hendrix museum) on the grounds of Seattle Center. Seattle’s bid for the world stage by hosting the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 1999 didn’t played as planned. Many protests existed back then. There was a large anti-globalization movement (which opposed corporate exploitation, environmental degradation, and anti-labor oppression) that came into the streets of Seattle to oppose the WTO. Many protesters came in November 30, 1999. While many of those in the streets, most of those in the streets, were from out of town or even out of country. Much of the groundwork of Seattle hosting both the event and the protests against it can be attributed to local forces. In 2001, the central city was the site of violence in the Mardi Gras riot. Seattle along with other west coast cities experienced politically inspired confrontations and violence during the May Day marches in 2015. Today, the demographics of Seattle is similar to what it was during the 1960’s. Most of Seattle is white. There are many people who are African Americans and Asian-Americans. Progressives do live in Seattle. Suburbs have grown. Seattle’s economy is diverse and richer than decades ago. Great cultural activity is found in Seattle. Racism and economic inequality are serious problems in Seattle like in places worldwide. Boeing is the larger employer of workers. Yet, its new headquarters are in Chicago. Microsoft remains and now supplemented by Amazon; the high tech leaders have spawned many startups. Pioneer Square still retains some of the ambiance of Skid Road. Seattle is a strong, beautiful city.



By Timothy

Friday, April 21, 2017

Syracuse, N.Y., BLM rallies for justice

http://www.workers.org/2017/04/14/syracuse-n-y-blm-rallies-for-justice/#.WPpoymnyvIU

Lenin’s April Theses

http://www.workers.org/2017/04/19/lenins-april-theses/#.WPpooGnyvIU

Early History of the Haitian Revolution

There was great social stratification in Haiti before the Haitian Revolution. In 1789, Haiti produced 60% of the world’s coffee, and 40% of the world’s sugar (which was imported by the French and the British). It was the most profitable possession of the French empire. Saint-Domingue was also the wealthiest and most financially prosperous colony for the imperialists. The plantation owners were very brutal. In 1789, there were 40,000 white people in Haiti, there were 28,000 free black people and biracial people, and black slaves numbered in an estimated 425,000 people. Two thirds of the slaves were African born and they readily rebelled against tyranny. The death rate in the Caribbean exceeded the birth rate. So, many Africans were passing away via diseases, etc. in Haiti, so more numbers to work the plantations could exist.  The slave population declined at an annual rate of two to five percent, due to overwork, inadequate food and shelter, insufficient clothing and medical care, and an imbalance between the sexes, with more men than women. Some slaves were of a creole elite class of urban slaves and domestics, who worked as cooks, personal servants and artisans around the plantation house. This relatively privileged class was chiefly born in the Americas, while the under-class born in Africa labored hard, and more often than not, under abusive and brutal conditions. Among Saint Domingue’s 40,000 white colonials in 1789, European born French people monopolized administrative posts.  The sugar planters, the grands blancs, were chiefly minor aristocrats. Most returned to France as soon as possible, hoping to avoid the dreaded yellow fever, which regularly swept the colony. The lower-class whites, petits blancs, included artisans, shopkeepers, slave dealers, overseers, and day laborers. Around that time, colonial legislations, concerned with this growing and strengthening population, passed discriminatory laws that visibly differentiated these freedmen by dictating their clothing and where they could live. These laws also barred them from occupying many public offices. Many of these freedmen were also artisans and overseers, or domestic servants in the plantation houses. Le Cap Français, a northern port, had a large population of freed slaves, and these men would later become important leaders in the 1791 slave rebellion and later revolution. There were racial conflicts among whites, free people of color, and enslaved black people.

There were also regional rivalries among the North, South, and the West of Haiti. There were class and racial tensions. Regionals tensions grew. The North was the center of shipping and trading. So, it had the largest French elite population. The Plaine du Nord on the northern shore of Saint-Domingue was the most fertile area with the largest sugar plantation. It was economically productive. Most of the colony’s trade went through these ports. The largest and busiest port was Le Cap Francais (or modern day Le Cap Haitien) or the capital of French Saint-Domingue until 1751. By 1751, Port-au-Prince was the capital. In the northern area, enslaved Africans lived in large groups of workers in relative isolation, separated from the rest of the colony by the high mountain range known as the Massif du Nord. These slaves would join with urban slaves from LeCap to lead the 1791 rebellion. It was started in the Northern region.  This area was the seat of power of the grands blancs, the rich white colonists who wanted greater autonomy for the colony, especially economically. The Western Province grew after the capital was moved to Port-au-Prince in 1751. The region became more and wealthier in the second half of the 18th century when irrigation projects allowed significant sugar plantation growth. The Southern Province lagged in population and wealth because it was geographically separated from the rest of the colony. However, this isolation allowed freed slaves to find profit in trade with British Jamaica, and they gained power and wealth here. In addition to these interregional tensions, there were conflicts between proponents of independence, those loyal to France, allies of Spain, and allies of Great Britain – who coveted control of the valuable colony.

The French Revolution changed the landscape of the history of Haiti. In France, the National Assembly made radical changes in French laws. On August 26, 1789, French people published the Declaration of the Rights of Man. It declared all men free and equal. The French Revolution existed during the time of the Haitian Revolution. Many wealthy whites viewed the French Revolution as an opportunity to gain independence from France. They wanted elite plantation owners to take control of the island and create trade regulations that would further their own wealth and power. Many twists and turns existed during the French Revolution in France. Many complex events occurred in Saint-Domingue. So, many various classes and parties changed their alignments numerous times. The Haitian Revolution soon was a test of the ideology of the French Revolution. It radicalized the slavery question and forced French leaders to recognize the full meaning of their revolution. The African population in the island began to heart the agitation for independence by the rich European planters (the grands blancs) who had resented France’s limitations on the island’s foreign trade. The Africans mostly allied with the royalists and the British, as they understood that if Saint-Domingue's independence were to be led by white slave owners, it would probably mean even harsher treatment and increased injustice for the African population. The plantation owners would be free to operate slavery as they pleased without the existing minimal accountability to their French peers.  Saint-Domingue’s free people of color (like Julien Raimond) had been actively appealing to France for civil equality with whites since the 1780’s. Raimond used the French Revolution to make this the major colonial issue before the National Assembly of France. In October 1790, Vincent Ogé, another wealthy free man of color from the colony, returned home from Paris, where he had been working with Raimond. Convinced that a law passed by the French Constituent Assembly gave full civil rights to wealthy men of color, Ogé demanded the right to vote. When the colonial governor refused, Ogé led a brief insurgency in the area around Cap Français. He and an army of around three hundred free blacks fought to end racial discrimination in the area. He was captured in early 1791, and brutally executed by being "broken on the wheel" before being beheaded. Ogé was not fighting against slavery, but his treatment was cited by later slave rebels as one of the factors in their decision to rise up in August 1791 and resist treaties with the colonists. The conflict up to this point was between factions of whites, and between whites and free blacks. Enslaved blacks watched from the sidelines. Leading 18th-century French writer Count Mirabeau had once said the Saint-Domingue whites "slept at the foot of Vesuvius", an indication of the grave threat they faced should the majority of slaves launch a sustained major uprising.

There are similarities between the Haitian Revolution and the French Revolution. The Haitian Revolution started from below among the majority of the population. Many supporters of the Haitian revolution were slaves and freed Africans who were treated unequally by society and unjust laws. Both revolutions involved massive violence since the oppressors refused to willingly give liberation to people. The Reign of Terror, during the French Revolution, was bloody. Many people in that time were killed via the guillotine and other machines. The Reign of Terror caused 18,000 to 40,000 to die. In the Caribbean, total casualties were about 162,000 people during the Haitian Revolution. Violence in Haiti was executed by military excursions, riots, the killing of people, and guerilla warfare. The Haitian Revolution didn’t wait on the revolution in France. Haitians fought for their own freedom. The Enlightenment ideals and the initiation of the French Revolution inspired many in the Haitian Revolution. Yet, the people of Haiti completed the most successful and comprehensive slave rebellion via their own black power. Just as the French were successful in transforming their society, so were the Haitians. On April 4, 1792, The French National Assembly granted freedom to slaves in Haiti and the revolution culminated in 1804; Haiti was an independent nation solely of freed peoples. The activities of the revolutions sparked change across the world. France’s transformation was most influential in Europe, and Haiti’s influence spanned across every location that continued to practice slavery. John E. Baur honors Haiti as home of the most influential Revolution in history.

The influence of Enlightenment thought existed in the Caribbean region. The French writer Guillaume Raynal attacked slavery in his history of European colonization. Raynal’s Enlightenment philosophy went deeper than a prediction and reflected many French Enlightenment philosophies including those of Rousseau and Diderot, even though it was written thirteen years before the “Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.” The declaration, in contrast, highlighted freedom and liberty but still allowed slaves to be characterized as property. Toussaint Louverture was a key man who was influenced by the Enlightenment. He was a leader in the Haitian Revolution.  Louverture attempted to bridge this divide between the popular masses and the enlightened few. Louverture was familiar with Enlightenment ideas within the context of European imperialism. He attempted to strike a balance between Western Enlightenment thought as a necessary means of winning liberation, and not propagating the notion that it was morally superior to the experiences and knowledge of people of color on Saint Domingue. As an extension of himself and his enlightenment education, Louverture wrote a Constitution for a new society in Saint-Domingue that abolished slavery. The existence of slavery in society was an incongruity that had been left unaddressed by numerous European scholars. Louverture took on this inconsistency directly in his constitution. In addition, Louverture exhibited a connection to Enlightenment scholars through the style, language and accent of this text. Like Louverture, Jean-Baptiste Belley was also an active participant in the colony’s insurrection. Belley was a native of Senegal and a former slave from Saint-Domingue. He lived to 1805 and was a member of the National Convention and the Council of Five Hundred of France.

By Timothy



Information.



https://www.facebook.com/groups/413245328868264/permalink/641960649330063/

https://www.facebook.com/BkAmericans/photos/a.1955792191312782.1073741828.1955759327982735/2319227714969226/?type=3&theater

https://www.facebook.com/BlackCoupleRevolution/photos/a.1783770478524358.1073741828.1783767541857985/1923623447872393/?type=3&theater

Baltimore

http://atlantablackstar.com/2017/03/31/baltimore-case-study-black-cities-not-served-black-leadership/

Bill O'Reilly Accuser Perquita Burgess Speaks Out | The View

Thursday, April 20, 2017

Laura Fitzpatrick

http://blackgirllonghair.com/2017/03/pics-11-year-old-laura-fitzpatrick-kept-a-detailed-photo-diary-of-her-life-in-1938-brooklyn/

Kru People: The Africans Who Vigilantly Refused to Be Captured into Slavery

http://blackgirllonghair.com/2015/08/kru-people-the-african-tribe-that-vigilantly-refused-to-be-captured-into-slavery/#slavery/

Black Agenda Report News


 https://www.blackagendareport.com/imperialism_in_us_left

https://www.blackagendareport.com/mit_prof_no_syrian_chem_attack

https://www.blackagendareport.com/reparations_for_slavery_and_capitalism

https://www.blackagendareport.com/eritrea_boundary_15_years_later

https://www.blackagendareport.com/obama_brought_slavery_to_libya

US vice president warns North Korea “the sword is ready”

http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2017/04/20/nkor-a20.html

Where will France end up after the election?

https://socialistworker.org/2017/04/20/where-will-france-end-up-after-the-election

News


https://www.youtube.com/user/LibraryofVa/videos


http://www.thesleuthjournal.com/america-welcome-fourth-reich/

http://afreshword.org/post/159737809628/the-strategy-the-video-above-has-crude-language

ICE grabs another victim in Maine

https://socialistworker.org/2017/04/20/ice-grabs-another-victim-in-maine

Wednesday, April 19, 2017

Astronaut Jeanette J. Epps: Sisters Empowering Sisters

Bill O'Reilly is out of FOX News

http://www.reuters.com/article/us-fox-oreilly-idUSKBN17L25V

Another victim of sexual harassment comes forward against the extremist Bill O'Reilly.

https://www.aol.com/article/entertainment/2017/04/18/bill-oreilly-new-accuser-shares-details/22044929/

http://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/new-bill-o-reilly-accuser-street-protests-hit-fox-news-n747966

Haitian Revolution and other Information.

Before the Haitian Revolution, black people in Haiti were suffering tons of injustices. European imperialists demanded sugar. Plantation owners in Haiti traded sugar for European and North American manufactured goods. Back then, Haiti was called Saint Domingue by the French. Haiti had extensive coffee, cocoa, and indigo plantations. Yet, these were less profitable than wealthy sugar plantations. By the 1730’s, French engineers created complex irrigation system to grow sugarcane production. By the 1740’s, Saint-Domingue together with Jamaica, had become the main supplier of the world’s sugar. More African slaves were used to produce sugar and slaves were heavily brutalized in the Haitian colonial plantation economy. Haiti was the most profitable French colony in the world. There was an average of 600 ships engaged every year in shipping products from Saint-Domingue to Bordeaux (in France). The value of Saint-Domingue’s goods almost equal in value to all of the products shipped from the British 13 colonies to Great Britain. France depended heavily on the crops of coffee, indigo, and sugar from Saint Domingue. 1 million people lived in Haiti back then and 25 million people lived in the Kingdom of France in 1789. Many people died of malaria and yellow fever. The French in 1787 imported 38,000 slaves to all of their Caribbean colonies. The death rate from yellow fever was such that at least 50% of the slaves imported from Africa died within a year of arriving, and as such the slave owners preferred to work theslaves as hard as possible while providing with them with the barest minimum of food and shelter, calculating that it was better to get the most work out of their slaves with lowest possible expense possible since they were probably going to die of yellow fever anyway. Many slaves did polyandry (or one woman married to many men) because the death rate of slaves were so high. Slaves were denied human rights. Slave owners regularly raped black women in Haiti back then. That was evil and wrong. Africans outnumbered white planters more than ten to one. The planters feared slave rebellion.

The French slave owners were very cruel against slaves. White slave owners used physical violence. Slaves were whipped for resisting. Some were burned and castrated. They did these things to warn other slaves too.  Louis XIV, the French King, passed the Code Noir in 1685 in an attempt to regulate such violence and the treatment of the enslaved person in general in the colony, but slave-owners openly and consistently broke the code, and local legislation reversed parts of it throughout the 18th century. Coir Noir is a disgrace since slavery should be banned outright not regulated. In 1758, white landowners passed legislation to restrict the rights of other people until a rigid caste system was instituted. Most historians defined the caste system into 3 groups. One was the white colonists (blancs). This group was subdivided into plantation owners and a lower class of whites, who were overseers or day laborers. The second group was the free black people (usually biracial or multiracial. They were the gens de couleur libres, free people of color). The gens de couleur had education experience, were literate, and many were in the army. Some were even administrators on plantations. Many of them were children of white planters and enslaved mothers (so, these mothers were raped) while others had purchased their freedom from slave owners (from the sale of their own produce or artistic works). Many of them had artisan training. Some of them inherited freedom or property from their fathers. Some gens de couleur even operated their own plantations and were slave owners. The third group was the largest group in Haiti. They were the mostly black African born slaves.

A high rate of mortality among them meant that planters continually had to import new slaves. This kept their culture (of the Africans) more African and separate from other people on the island. Many plantations had large concentrations of slaves from a particular region of Africa, and it was therefore somewhat easier for these groups to maintain elements of their culture, religion, and language. This also separated new slaves from Africa from creoles (slaves born in the colony), who already had kin networks and often had more prestigious roles on plantations and more opportunities for emancipation. Most slaves spoke a patois of the French language known as Creole, which was also used by native biracial people and whites for communication with the workers. The majority of the slaves were Yoruba from what is now modern Nigeria, Fon from what is now Benin and from the Kingdom of Kongo in what now modern northern Angola and the western Congo. The Kongolese at 40% were the largest of the African ethnic groups represented amongst the slaves. The slaves developed their own religion, a synesthetic mixture of Roman Catholicism and West African religions known as Vodou, usually called voodoo in English, which provided the slaves with their own belief system that implicitly rejected their status as slaves. There were conflicts violently between white colonists and black slaves. There was hatred around, because black people were very much brutally oppressed by criminals.   The French historian Paul Fregosi wrote: "Whites, mulattos and blacks loathed each other. The poor whites couldn't stand the rich whites, the rich whites despised the poor whites, the middle class whites were jealous of the aristocratic whites, the whites born in France looked down upon the locally born whites, mulattoes envied the whites, despised the blacks and were despised by the whites; free Negroes brutalized those who were still slaves, Haitian born blacks regarded those from Africa as savages. Everyone-quite rightly-lived in terror of everyone else...Haiti was hell, but Haiti was rich." To correct Paul, not every Haitian born black person regarded those from Africa as savages. Many Africans worked together to fight tyranny.

So, I want to make that perfectly clear. Africans are the first humans on this Earth. African peoples are strong and Africa is Beautiful as Black is Beautiful. Many of these conflicts involved slaves who had escaped the plantations. Many runaway slaves—called Maroons—hid on the margins of large plantations, living off the land and what they could get from their former slave owners. Others fled to towns, to blend in with urban slaves and freed slaves who often concentrated in those areas. If caught, these runaway slaves would be severely and violently punished. However, some brutal owners tolerated petit marronages, or short-term absences from plantations. Larger groups of runaway slaves lived in the woods away from control. They often used violent raids on the island’s sugar and coffee plantation. There were thousands of these groups. One maroon leader who was effect was the charismatic François Mackandal, who succeeded in unifying the black resistance. A Haitian Vodou priest, Mackandal inspired his people by drawing on African traditions and religions. He united the maroon bands and also established a network of secret organizations among plantation slaves, leading a rebellion from 1751 through 1757. Although Mackandal was captured by the French and burned at the stake in 1758, large armed maroon bands persisted in raids and harassment after his death.

Virginia is home to a lot of civil rights history. I was born and raised in Virginia. I'm a black Southerner and my parents experienced Jim Crow oppression for real. So, I know a lot of the Civil War history and the history of the civil rights movement in America. One civil rights hero from Virginia was Dorothy Hamm. Dorothy Hamm was a civil rights and community activist in Arlington and Caroline Counties. Those areas are in Northern Virginia. She and her son, Edward Leslie Hamm Jr., joined a civil action case in 1956 that sought to end segregation in Arlington schools. She and her husband challenged the evil poll tax too back during the 1960's. Hamm was politically active, serving as delegate to Arlington County and state conventions in 1964. She worked with CORE and she was part of the Poor People's Campaign in 1968. The Poor People's Campaign was about demanding that the federal government address poverty in American society. Her legacy is etched in stone as part of the long human rights movement for social change. There is a director (John Ridley) who intentionally erased the role of black women in the Black freedom struggle in the UK. I have no respect for that. Also, it is also important to show the truth about the many black women and black men involved in the UK black freedom struggle too. This is a perfect time to show that information. In the near future, I'm going to research more history about the UK and I'm going to show more information about this subject. Olive Morris was a black woman who worked in the Black Power movement and she defended housing rights (in the UK). Claudia Jones in the 1950’s and in the 1960’s fought for the human rights of black people. She was a friend of Paul Robeson and she knew Dr. King. Claudia Jones was ahead of her time and Malcolm X praised her too. Claudia Jones believed in racial justice, economic justice, and gender equality. Beverley Brown and Janet Davis worked in Black Power and Black Panther organizations in the UK. Jacqueline Nassy Brown, Tanisha Ford and Kennetta Perry are Black women scholars who lived in that time period too. Althea Jones Lecointe and Barbara Beese were black women leaders back then too. So, we will always honor black women.


By Timothy


Trump pushes reactionary “Buy American, Hire American” plan

http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2017/04/19/visa-a19.html

Monday, April 17, 2017

A return to repression in Durban: activist shot in the back

https://libcom.org/news/return-repression-durban-activist-shot-back-31032017

Einstein on capitalism

https://libcom.org/library/einstein-capitalism

Media, Clinton supporters offer frenzied support for Syria intervention, refuse to learn from Libyan disaster

https://libcom.org/blog/media-clinton-supporters-offer-frenzied-support-syria-intervention-refuse-learn-libyan-disa

Historical Notes

World War one lasted from 1914 to 1918. Tons of African Americans had crucial roles in the war militarily, socially, and economically. Like most Americans, most African Americans initially opposed American military involvement in World War One. WWI was a war among imperial powers over the resources of the Earth. Colonial forces forced black people and other people of color (from other nations) in the frontlines of battles in numerous circumstances. Later, after the Lusitania was hit by a German U-Boat, America soon was involved in WWI. African Americans were divided. Some opposed the war out of moral, anti-war reasons. Some opposed the war because it was hypocritical to fight for democracy overseas when black people were denied fundamental human rights at home. Many black Americans supported the war for democratic reasons. We know that Woodrow Wilson (who was President during WWI) was a racist and never would desire true democracy to spread for all ethnicities on Earth. Also, Wilson hypocritically passed anti-civil liberty laws like the 1917 Espionage Act and the 1918 Sedition Act, which suppressed dissent. A. Philip Randolph and Chandler (who were editors of the socialist newspaper “The Messenger”) opposed the war. They wanted African Americans to resist military service. Both men were monitored by the federal government. Ironically, WEB DuBois supported the war as a way for black people to gain freedoms denied in America. About 370,000 black men were inducted in the Army. Black soldiers were forced to serve in many menial jobs and they faced racism and discrimination. So, black people were fighting overseas and home against discrimination and injustice. Emmett J. Scott was a private secretary to Booker T. Washington. He was the Special Assistant to Secretary of War Newton Baker during World War I in order to oversee the recruitment, training, and morale of the African American soldiers. Only a small percentage of black Americans were in combat. Yet, many African Americans joined the French military forces in combat. African Americans introduced the French to jazz, blues, and other cultural representations. Many black people said that the French were less prejudice against them than white Americans. Units were segregated. Over 2 million black men were registered for the draft. One of the most distinguished units was the 369th Infantry Regiment, known as the "Harlem Hellfighters", which was on the front lines for six months, longer than any other American unit in the war. 171 members of the 369th were awarded the Legion of Merit. On February 18, 1919, the 3,000 veterans of the 369th Infantry were in a parade on Fifth Avenue at 23rd Street to 145th and Lenox (in NYC). The French Army awarded them the prestigious Croix de Guerre. In their ranks was one of the Great War’s greatest heroes, Pvt. Henry Johnson of Albany, N.Y., who, though riding in a car for the wounded, was so moved by the outpouring he stood up waving the bouquet of flowers he’d been handed during the February parade. It would take another 77 years for Johnson to receive an official Purple Heart from his own government.

Eugene Bullard was one of the greatest black soldiers in WWI. He was the first African American military pilot. He flew for France. He was born in Columbus, Georgia. His ancestors came from Haiti from the days of the Haitian Revolution. World War I began in August 1914, and on October 19, 1914, Bullard enlisted and was assigned to the third Marching Regiment of the Foreign Legion. He was awarded by the French. He stood up for civil rights and he was beaten by racists (including the police) in the Peekskill Riots. Bullard wanted to defend Paul Robeson’s right to perform in a benefit concert for the Civil Rights Congress. Black soldiers on August 23, 1917 resisted racism and many of these soldiers were kicked out of the military in Houston. The military created two combat divisions for African Americans. One, the 92nd Division, was composed of draftees and officers. The second, the 93rd Division, was made up of mostly National Guard units from New York, Chicago, Washington, D.C., Cleveland, and Massachusetts. The army, however, assigned the vast majority of soldiers to service units, reflecting a racist belief that black men were more suited for manual labor than combat duty. From May 1918 to November 1918, the 371st and 372nd African American Regiments were integrated under the 157th Red Hand Division commanded by the French General Mariano Goybet. They earned glory in the decisive final offensive in Champagne region of France. The two Regiments were decorated by the French Croix de Guerre for their gallantry in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. Corporal Freddie Stowers of the 371st Infantry Regiment was posthumously awarded a Medal of Honor—the only African American to be so honored for actions in World War I. During action in France, Stowers had led an assault on German trenches, continuing to lead and encourage his men even after being wounded twice. Stowers died from his wounds, but his men continued the fight on a German machine gun nest near Bussy farm in Champagne, and eventually defeated the German troops. Stowers was recommended for the Medal of Honor shortly after his death, but according to the Army, the nomination was misplaced. Many believed the recommendation had been intentionally ignored due to institutional racism in the Armed Forces. In 1990, under pressure from Congress, the Defense Department launched an investigation. Based on findings from this investigation, the Army Decorations Board approved the award of the Medal of Honor to Stowers. On April 24, 1991 – 73 years after he was killed in action — Stowers' two surviving sisters received the Medal of Honor from President George H. W. Bush at the White House. After WWI, DuBois and others promoted Pan-African Congresses to advance freedom for black people worldwide. They wanted independence for colonized areas, but this would be a long process. Black women sacrificed in World War I as well. The National Association of Cored Women (NACW) and various clubs supported black troops. Many black women were nurses and met the needs of black soldiers. Many black women worked outside of the home in various jobs. They fought for greater pay and equitable working conditions. Black women fought against lynching and many were involved in strikes for better treatment (like in Mobile, Alabama).

Seattle grew fast in the 19th century. By July 14, 1873, the Northern Pacific Railway said that they chose the village of Tacoma over Seattle as the Western terminus of their transcontinental railroad. The railroad barons wanted to be take advantage of buying up land around the terminus cheaply not bringing the railroad into a more established Pacific port town. Seattle tried to create a railroad of its own. The Great Northern Railway came about in 1884 in Seattle. This caused Seattle to compete for freight. It would be until 1906 before Seattle had a major rail passenger terminal. Back then, problems existed in Seattle. It had newspapers and telephones. Yet, many people were lynched with the lynch law. Schools struggled and indoor plumbing was rare. That is why changes came about. Union organizing arrived first in the form of a skilled craft union. In 1882, Seattle printers formed the Seattle Typographical Union Local 202. Dockworkers followed in 1886, cigar makers in 1887, tailors in 1889, and both brewers and musicians in 1890. Even the newsboys unionized in 1892, followed by more organizing, mostly of craft unions. There was also anti-Chinese vigilantism or violent racism against Chinese people in Seattle.  In 1883, Chinese laborers played a key role in the first effort at digging the Montlake Cut to connect Lake Union's Portage Bay to Lake Washington's Union Bay. In 1885-1886, whites—sometimes in combination with some Native Americans—complaining of overly cheap labor competition, drove the Chinese settlers from Seattle, Tacoma, and other Northwest cities. Washington Territory back then was one of the first places of America to briefly allow women’s suffrage (or giving women the right to vote). Women had a strong history in early Seattle. The first bathtub with plumbing was in 1870. In the 1880's, Seattle got its first streetcar and cable car, ferry service, a YMCA gymnasium, and the exclusive Rainier Club. Seattle passed an ordinance requiring attached sewer lines for all new residences. It also began to develop a road system. The relative fortunes of Seattle and Tacoma clearly show the nature of Seattle's growth. Though both Seattle and Tacoma grew at a rapid rate from 1880 to 1890, based on the strength of their timber industries, Seattle's growth as an exporter of services and manufactured goods continued for another two decades, while Tacoma's growth dropped almost to zero. The reason for this lies in Tacoma's nature as a company town and Seattle's successful avoidance of that condition. The great fire came into Seattle in June 6, 1889. It was started by a glue pot. It burned 29 city blocks (almost all of them were filled with wooden buildings and about 10 brick buildings were burned too). It destroyed almost the entire business district. All railroad terminals and all but four of the wharves were burned. Major fires like this were common in Washington that summer: the center of Ellensburg was destroyed by fire on July 4 and downtown Spokane burned on August 4. Thanks in part to credit arranged by Jacob Furth, Seattle rebuilt from the ashes with astounding rapidity. A new zoning code resulted in a downtown of brick and stone buildings, rather than wood. In the single year after the fire, the city grew from 25,000 to 40,000 inhabitants, largely because of the enormous number of construction jobs suddenly created.  Still, south of Yesler Way, the open city atmosphere remained. The greatest boom period for Seattle occurred during the Klondike gold rush. Seattle, as well as the rest of the nation, was suffering from the economic panic of 1893, and to a lesser extent, the panic of 1896. Gold was discovered in August 1896 in the Klondike region of Canada. Almost one year later, on July 17, 1897, the steamer Portland arrived at Schwabacher's Wharf in Seattle. A publicity campaign engineered largely by Erastus Brainerd told the world of the Portland's "ton of gold," started the Klondike gold rush, and established Seattle as its supply center and the jumping-off point for transportation to and from Alaska and the gold fields of the Yukon. The rush ended the depression overnight for Seattle. The miners mined the gold. Seattle mined the miners



The leader of the antilynching movement during the late 19th and early 20th centuries was a black woman named Ida B. Wells. She wrote newspapers, was involved in protests, and used other forms of activism to fight lynching. In her May 21, 1892 editorial, she defended the dignity of black people and exposed racism. Her best known work called “Southern Horrors” made known to the world that black people were being killed, lynched, and abused by racist terrorists. She also advocated self-defense. She wrote that: “…The lesson this teaches…which every Afro-American should ponder well, is that a Winchester rifle should have a place of honor in every black home and it should be used for that protection which the law refuses to give…” WEB DuBois, Walter White, and other early NAACP members fought against lynching. According to the NAACP, from 1889-1918, about 2,522 black men, women, and children were lynched or violently executed by racist mobs. Lynchers slandered black people in order to promote the system of white supremacy. Many of the dead bodies from lynching were displayed in public. Many non-black people fought against lynching, but the anti-lynching movement in America was headed by black Americans (especially black women). The Southeastern Federation of Colored Women’s Clubs adopted a 1921 statement condemning lynching as a threat in society. The ASWPL or the Southern women for the Prevention of lynching existed in November of 1930. The NAACP fought to get anti-lynching legislation passed in Congress like the Dyer bill during the 1920’s and the Wagner-Costigan bill in 1933. Both bills wanted lynching to be a federal crime. These bills failed in part because of southern segregationist Democrats who opposed such legislation. Organizations fought hard (like Young Women’s Christian Association, Women’s Christian Missionary Society including Eleanor Roosevelt) and lynching declined by the 1940’s, but racism persists to this very day.

After the Great Migration of 1910, more black people lived in Northern cities. The religious landscape of the black American community evolved. Most black Americans back then and today are Christians, but alternative religious movements existed too. Black Hebrew Israelites grew from the late 19th century. Many of them follow Judaism and others follow a Messianic Judaism (in viewing Jesus Christ as the Messiah). One of the first groups of Black Hebrews, the Church of God and Saints of Christ, was founded in 1896 in Kansas, but it retained elements of a messianic connection to Jesus. They believe that black people are descendants from the ancient Israelites and that we must follow the commandments of Moses. After World War I, for example, Wentworth Arthur Matthew, an immigrant from Saint Kitts, founded a Black Hebrew congregation in Harlem, claiming descent from the ancient Israelites. He called it the Commandment Keepers of the Living God. He followed a form of Judaism. Black Israelites are diverse. Some are more tolerable and others are outrageous, misogynistic, and xenophobic. The Moorish Science Temple existed from Noble Drew Ali. This group believed that African Americans are descendants of the Moors of Northwest Africa and Islamic by faith. The Moors teach about racial pride, historical education, and spirituality. They have grown since the 1920’s.  In religious texts, adherents refer to themselves racially as "Asiatics," as the Middle East is also western Asia. Adherents of this movement are known as Moorish-American Moslems and are called "Moorish Scientists" in some circles. One cousin of the Moorish Science Temple is the Nation of Islam. The Nation of Islam was created by Wallace Fard Muhammad in the 1930’s. It was based originally in Detroit by July 4, 1930. The Nation of Islam believes in using action to build the spiritual, mental, social, and economic condition of African Americans and black people in general. The Nation of Islam is globally and it has been controversial since its inception. Elijah Muhammad is its famous leader. Malcolm X was once part of the NOI until he left it in 1964 to form the MMI & OAAU. Its membership (of the NOI) is estimated to be between 20,000 and 50,000 people today.  

From 1896 to 1954, massive civil rights organizations existed in America. The NAACP back then was the most powerful black civil rights organization numerically. It had local leaders, religious leaders, professionals, business people, working class people, etc. in its ranks. They worked against the lynching of black people. They also protested anti-black race riots. They fought for voting rights and defended workers’ rights too. From 1940 to 1946, NAACP membership increased from 50,000 to 450,000 members. Communists were involved in civil rights. Most black people weren’t Communists since Communists embraced atheism and the stigma many people placed on Communists. Communists had many successes, but the problem was that many of them supported the Hitler-Stalin pact, which was wrong. This caused Communist support in America to decline because of that blunder (as Hitler broke promises and was a racist liar). With the McCarthyism era, the NAACP made the mistake of kicking out any black person who was a Communist even sincere Communists desiring social change. Paul Robeson was an overt, sincere Communist who believed in freedom and justice. He was an anti-imperialist like WEB DuBois. The NAACP's legal department, headed by Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall, undertook a litigation campaign spanning several decades to bring about the reversal of the "separate but equal" doctrine established in the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). The NAACP was heavily involved in the courts to fight for change. The Regional Council of Negro Leadership was created in 1951 by T.R.M. Howard and their famous member was Medgar Evers. The RCNL wanted to end segregation and promote voting rights for black people. Many Jewish people and organizations were involved in the civil rights movement.  Many co-founders of the NAACP were Jewish. Jewish philanthropists supported the NAACP, civil rights groups, and schools for African Americans (like Julius Rosenwald. Rosenwald worked with Booker T. Washington in funding his Tuskegee University). Rosenwald also contributed to HBCUs such as Howard, Dillard and Fisk universities. The PBS television show From Swastika to Jim Crow discussed Jewish involvement in the civil rights movement. It recounted that Jewish scholars fleeing from or surviving the Holocaust of World War II came to teach at many Southern schools, where they reached out to black students. After World War II, the American Jewish Committee, American Jewish Congress, and the ADL were active in promoting civil rights. Also, black women had a big role in the civil rights movement. Dorothy Height, Diane Nash, Fannie Lou Hamer, Septima Clark, Jo Ann Robison, and other black women fought for freedom courageously. The National Association of Colored Women Clubs (NACWC) is an American organization that was formed in July 1896 at the First Annual Convention of the National Federation of Afro-American Women in Washington, D.C. That the National Association of Colored Women was the most prominent organization formed during the African-American Woman Suffrage Movement was due chiefly to the efforts of Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin and Mary Church Terrell. Both women were educated and had economically successful parents. Mary Church Terrell was a black woman who fought against segregation in Washington, D.C. Finally, on June 8, 1953, the court ruled that segregated eating places in Washington, DC, were unconstitutional.  After the age of 80, Terrell continued to participate in picket lines, protesting the segregation of restaurants and theaters In D.C. During her senior years, she also succeeded in persuading the local chapter of the American Association of University Women to admit black members. She lived to see the Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education, holding unconstitutional the racial segregation of public schools. The Urban League wanted economic opportunities for African Americans.


By Timothy

The roots of an attack in Stockholm

https://socialistworker.org/2017/04/17/the-roots-of-an-attack-in-stockholm

We'll stand together on May Day

https://socialistworker.org/2017/04/17/well-stand-together-on-may-day

Democrats push anti-Russian campaign at “tax day” protests

http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2017/04/17/dems-a17.html

Syrian rebels massacre at least 126 civilians in suicide bomb blast

http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2017/04/17/syri-a17.html

April 17-23: Lenin issues April Theses

http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2017/04/17/twrr-a17.html

More Research

https://www.durham-nc.com/maps-info/black-history/

http://kwanzaaguide.com/2010/04/freedom-songs-and-the-civil-rights-movement-2/

http://www.biblehistory.net/newsletter/aquila_priscilla.htm

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xvFk7PRgHYA

Friday, April 14, 2017

More Information

http://therealnews.com/t2/story:18860:The-Russia-Maddow-Show%3A-MSNBC-Host-Puts-Hawkish-Conspiracies-above-Trump%27s-Policies

http://www.globalresearch.ca/when-americas-progressives-pay-lip-service-to-imperialism-the-anti-war-movement-is-dead/5584150


http://isreview.org/issue/85/memoirs-seattle-black-panther 

http://quatr.us/africa/religion/

Aisha Hinds on Playing Harriet Tubman in a Remarkable ‘Underground’ Episode

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/12/arts/television/underground-harriet-tubman-aisha-hinds-interview.html?_r=0

Culture and History in Friday





Some people are intrinsically born to play a role. Aisha Hinds was born to play Harriet Tubman on the show of Underground. Her message to her cast mates and to the audience (or people watching) in general makes home the accurate point that Harriet Tubman saved lives and has inspired generations past the 19th century in the cause of liberty. Liberty or freedom is beyond just an ideal. Freedom is part of courageous actions too which relates to our aspirations and the same goal (which is the total liberation of black people in the world). We are all in awe of Sister Aisha Hinds' amazing talent and her wisdom. One of the greatest heroes of our time is Sister Ernestine Shepherd. She is almost 80 years old. She is involved in helping her community in Baltimore, Maryland. She helps people constantly. She is involved in spiritual matters. She is constantly involved in fitness and she is a very nice black woman. Her goal has been to help others and she is fulfilling her goal constantly. She loves her husband and her children. Bless Sister Ernestine Shepherd. Yesterday was the Birthday of Brother Al Green. He is now 71 years old. He is a legendary singer and a person with great talent plus compassion for humanity. He was born in Forrest City, Arkansas. His parents were sharecroppers and he was part of musical group in the age of 10. He has developed great success. One of his great early songs was the song "Tired of Being Alone" from 1971. That single alone sold about 1 million copies. He was full of soul in his music. His album "Let's Stay Together" is another classic and he performed greatly. "I'm Still in Love with You" is a classic R&B record about romance. Later in his life, he has expressed gospel music, which he does to this very day. He is a spiritual man and there is nothing wrong with showing spirituality without apology. His talent is eternal and his legacy is totally etched as a man who not only loves music, but loves the people too. I wish Brother Al Green more blessings.



This is a very sad story of the recent passing of Associate Judge Sheila Abdus-Salaam, the first African-American woman to be appointed to New York’s Court of Appeals, She was a Muslim and her body was found in a river. She was the first Muslim female judge in America. I send condolences to her family and friends. She had a love for the law in not only studying it and analyzing it. She had a love to enforce the law, so all citizens in New York State and throughout America would have their rights preserved. We want the truth to be known. Rest in Power Sister Judge Sheila Abdus-Salaam. As for political news, Trump allowed the usage of the MOAB bomb in Afghanistan in claiming to target ISIS targets. Neil Gorsuch (who has ties to the agenda of big corporations) is the new Supreme Court Justice. Relations between America and Russia are in its lowest levels since the Cold War. The civil war in Syria continues to go on. The bigot Steve Bannon is still part of the White House team. War mongering continues and members from the political establishment among both major parties agree with this sick, evil militarism in the world. That is why we have to use discernment, gather facts, and act accordingly.


I want to show this good news. Sister Genet Lakew, a Howard University and New York University graduate, formed a scholarship to help black immigrants. She is part of the Urban League. The Urban League is an organization that helps people to get economic opportunities and it fights for social justice. Her scholarship is called the Mekonnen Family Scholarship. Genet Lakew is from an Ethiopian immigrant family. The xenophobes will hate this policy, so I love this policy. We are one people regardless of our nationality or place of origin. I want black people to succeed whether they are African Americans or black immigrants. Also, the xenophobes omit that non-American born black people had a crucial role in the black American freedom struggle. For example, Hubert Harrison, Cyril Briggs, and other Brothers and Sisters were not originally born in America, but they influenced the black American movement for freedom in immeasurable ways. Also, scholarships to help African Americans should exist as well. That's great as I am an African American. In the final analysis, black people globally have cultural differences (which is fine as diversity is beautiful), but we want the goal of freedom and justice for all black people regardless of nationality.
I do believe in pan-African unity.
Bless Sister Genet Lakew.

After the death of George Washington in 1799 (and after the unpopularity of then President John Adams who advanced the anti-civil liberty Sedition Act), there was the election of 1800. The Election was close and Thomas Jefferson won the 1800 election. Aaron Burr was the Vice President. Burr is famous for killing Alexander Hamilton in a duel. Jefferson was an anti-Federalist. He opposed the Sedition Acts. He was a Democratic Republican. He was a person filled with contradictions. He wrote the words of “all men are created equal,” but he owned slaves and he believed in the myth of black racial inferiority. The truth is that black people are human and made great contributions throughout human history. Jefferson cut taxes and cut resources from the navy and army. He promoted westward expansion too. His advocacy of farm ownership and gaining more lands for America contradicted his streamlining government message. He wanted this expansion to benefit white Americans primarily. We have to keep it real and that documents Jefferson's racism and hypocrisy. He wanted America to go into the Pacific. Back in 1801, the dictator Napoleon Bonaparte forced Spain to give him the Louisiana Territory including the city of New Orleans (which was a very strategic port city). By 1803, France gave Jefferson the Louisiana Purchase. It cost $15 million or about $0.04 per acre ($240 million in 2016 dollars, less than 42 cents per acre). Federalists opposed the expansion, but Jeffersonians hailed the opportunity to create millions of new farms to expand the domain of land-owning yeomen; the ownership would strengthen the ideal republican society, based on agriculture (not commerce), governed lightly. The supporters of the deal claimed that it promoted self-reliance and virtue, as well as form the political base for Jeffersonian Democracy.



This land was acquired without much discussion with the Native Americans who lived in that territory for centuries and thousands of years. Many people paid Native American money for lands to the east of the Mississippi and in parts of west outside of the Louisiana Purchase later on. Jefferson wanted exploration of these lands before the purchase. Thomas Jefferson, in 1804, sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the Louisiana Territory and beyond to the Pacific Ocean. These men received help from a Native American woman named Sacajawea (who was a Shoshone woman) and her husband. They traveled in the Missouri River. They came into Colorado and Oregon. Jefferson told Lewis and Clark to research the native tribes (including their morals, language, and culture), weather, soil, rivers, commercial trading, and animal and plant life. Lewis and Clark discovered new species. They found 15 mammals, 16 birds, 7 fish, and 7 reptiles. They met Black Moccasin (or a Minitari chef). They left St. Louis in 1803 and returned in 1806.  John Jacob Astor (who was a wealthy entrepreneur) expanded fur trading operations into the Pacific Northwest too. He made the American Fur Company to break up the Hudson’s Bay Company monopoly in the region. Astor was a multi-millionaire by 1834 with a strong fur trade enterprise.


By Timothy

Thursday, April 13, 2017

A xenophobe gets a house call

https://socialistworker.org/2017/04/12/a-xenophobe-gets-a-house-call

#BlackLivesMatter Introduces a New Visa Debit Card, and Revives the Toxic Old Myths of Black Capitalism

https://blackagendareport.com/BlackLivesMatter-revives-toxic-black-capitalisim-myths

Trump’s attorney general threatens immigrants in speech at US-Mexico border

http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2017/04/13/immi-a13.html

Trump takes aim at libraries

https://socialistworker.org/2017/04/13/trump-takes-aim-at-libraries

Public Slave Auctions are Regular Occurrence in Libya, West African Survivors Say

http://atlantablackstar.com/2017/04/11/public-slave-auctions-regular-occurrence-libya-west-african-survivors-say/

Political News

http://therealnews.com/t2/story:18840:Trump-Lifts-Moratorium-on-Coal-Mining-and-Eliminates-Regulations

http://politicaldig.com/revealed-trump-immigration-advisers-linked-hate-groups/

http://www.pbs.org/education/blog/what-is-the-lasting-impact-of-world-war-1

https://globalgrind.com/4222894/an-open-letter-to-tyrese-from-overly-aggressive-promiscuous-women-everywhere/#.WO5zcj5bbxc.facebook


More News


http://www.discoveringbristol.org.uk/slavery/after-slavery/wider-world/african-diaspora/black-politcal-movements/

http://www.newsamericasnow.com/8-largely-forgotten-west-indians-in-us-black-history/



http://www.ebony.com/entertainment-culture/detroit-trailer-erases-black-women#axzz4e4VmbBc5

Wednesday, April 12, 2017

Charlie Murphy passed away at the age of 57 years old (July 12, 1959 – April 12, 2017)

Today, there is sad and shocking news. Brother Charlie Murphy has passed away today at the age of 57 years old. He was born in Brooklyn, NYC. He was gifted to express comedy and he loved his family. He had great children and he was in TV and movies for decades. He had a wife as well. He passed away from leukemia. His brother is Eddie Murphy. Charlie Murphy lived his life as a man on a mission to entertain humanity and care for his family.

Rest in Power Brother Charlie Murphy.

https://www.usatoday.com/story/life/tv/2017/04/12/stars-remember-charlie-murphy-and-his-true-hollywood-stories/100379296/

http://www.nbcnews.com/pop-culture/tv/charlie-murphy-chappelle-s-show-star-eddie-murphy-s-brother-n745686

Deportation of African and Other Black Immigrants Is Quietly Increasing And No One Is Taking Note

https://blackagendareport.com/trump_deportations_of_blacks

Chris Hani and South African History

https://blackagendareport.com/remembering_chris_hani

https://blackagendareport.com/capitalism_racism_south_africa

https://blackagendareport.com/mlk_obama_opposed_legacies

https://blackagendareport.com/africans_civilized_spain

https://blackagendareport.com/Trump-attacks-syria

https://blackagendareport.com/black_misleaders_like_gop

https://blackagendareport.com/brazil-cuts-programs-for-black-and-poor

The Community Had a Duty to Shut Down the Montgomery County Hearing on the Bethesda African Burial Ground

https://blackagendareport.com/shut_down_hearing_burial_ground

Anti-Russia Madness Attempts to Suppress the Bi-Partisan Triple Evils of Capitalism, Racism, and War

https://blackagendareport.com/anti-russian_madness_bomb_syria

Freedom Rider: Trump Joins Democrats in the War Party

https://blackagendareport.com/trump_joins_war_party

Revolutionary War History in the Midwest, etc.


In late 1778, George Rogers Clark, or a young Virginia militia officer, launched a campaign to get the sparsely garrisoned Illinois County from the British. He had a company of volunteers. Clark captured Kaskaskia or the chief post in the Illinois Country, on July 4, 1778. It was later secured the submission of Vincennes. Vincennes was recaptured by General Henry Hamilton or the British commander of Detroit.  In February 1779, Clark marched to Vincennes in a surprise winter march and captured Hamilton himself. To American frontiersmen, Hamilton was known as "the Hair-buyer General" because, they believed, he encouraged Native Americans to kill and scalp American civilians. For this reason, Governor Thomas Jefferson brought Hamilton to Williamsburg, Virginia, to be tried as a war criminal. After British officials threatened to retaliate against American prisoners of war, Jefferson relented, and Hamilton was exchanged for an American prisoner in 1781. By 1780, there was a major British and Native American offensive. During the next years of the war, both sides launched raids against each other. They usually targeted settlements. In 1780, hundreds of Kentucky settlers were killed or captured in a British-Native American expedition into Kentucky.  George Rogers Clark responded by leading an expedition in August 1780 which destroyed two Shawnee towns along the Mad River, but doing little damage to the Indian war effort. In late May Spanish-held St. Louis was attacked by a British force mostly made up of Native Americans and was successfully defended by the mixed Spanish and French creole force. Fort San Carlos, a stone tower in modern downtown St Louis, was the center of this defense. In the Illinois territory, French officer Augustin de La Balme assembled a militia force of French residents in an effort to take Fort Detroit. The force was destroyed in November by the Miami under Chief Little Turtle. At the same time, the nearly abandoned Fort St. Joseph was raided by Americans from Cahokia. On their return trip, however, they were overtaken by British loyalists and Native Americans near Petit fort.


During the Revolutionary War, the Spanish Governor Francisco Cruzat in St. Louis sent a force of about 140 Spanish soldiers and Native Americans under Captain Eugenio Pourre to capture Fort St. Joseph. It was captured and plundered on February 12, 1781. In late 1780, George Rogers Clark traveled east to consult with Thomas Jefferson (who was the governor of Virginia back then) about an expedition in 1781. Jefferson created a plan. This plan wanted Clark to lead 2,000 men against Detroit. Recruiting enough men was a problem. The reason was that during a time of war, most militiamen preferred to stay close to their homes instead of going on extended campaigns. Furthermore, Colonel Daniel Brodhead refused to detach the men because he was staging his own expedition against the Delawares, who had recently entered the war against the Americans. Broadhead marched into the Ohio Country and destroyed the Delaware Native American capital of Coshocton in April 1781. This only made the Delawares more determined enemies and deprived Clark of badly needed men and supplies for the Detroit campaign. Most of the Delawares fled to the militant towns on the Sandusky River. When Clark finally left Fort Pitt in August 1781, he was accompanied by only 400 men. On August 24, 1781, a detachment of one hundred of his men was ambushed near the Ohio River by Native Americans led by Joseph Brant, a Mohawk leader temporarily in the west. Brant's victory ended Clark's efforts to move against Detroit. Between the combatants on the Sandusky River and the Americans at Fort Pitt were several villages of Christian Delawares. The villages were administered by the Moravian missionaries David Zeisberger and John Heckewelder. Although non-combatants, the missionaries favored the American cause and kept American officials at Fort Pitt informed about hostile British and Indian activity. In response, in September 1781, Wyandots and Delawares from Sandusky forcibly removed the Christian Delawares and the missionaries to a new village (Captive Town) on the Sandusky River.

The year of 1782 of the Western theater of the American Revolutionary War was very bloody. In March of 1782, 160 Pennsylvania militiamen under Lieutenant Colonel David Williamson rode into Ohio County. He wanted to find the Native Americans who were responsible for ongoing raids against Pennsylvania settlers. Williamson accused some Native Americans of murdering a white woman and a baby. Williamson’s men detained about 100 Christian Delaware Native Americans at the village of  Gnadenhütten. The Christian Delawares had returned to Gnadenhütten from Captive Town in order to harvest the crops that they had been forced to leave behind. Accusing the Christian Native Americans of having aided Native American raiding parties, the Pennsylvanians murdered the 100 Christian Native Americans—mostly women and children—with hammer blows to the head. Colonel William Crawford of the Continental Army came out of retirement. He led 480 volunteer militiamen (mostly from Pennsylvania) deep into American Native American territory. He wanted to surprise the Native Americans. The Native Americans and their British allies from Detroit had learned about the expedition in advance. They brought about 440 men to the Sandusky to oppose the Americans. There was a day of indecisive fighting. The Americans found themselves surrounded and tried to retreat. The retreat turned into a rout, but most of the Americans managed to find their way back to Pennsylvania. About 70 Americans were killed; Native American and British losses were minimal. During the retreat, Colonel Crawford and an unknown number of his men were captured. The Native Americans executed many of these captives in retaliation for the Gnadenhütten massacre earlier in the year, in which about 100 Native American civilians were murdered by Pennsylvania militiamen. Crawford's execution was particularly brutal: he was tortured for at least two hours before being burned at the stake. The failure of the Crawford expedition caused alarmed among the settlers along the American frontier. Many Americans feared that Native Americans would be emboldened by their victory and launch a new series of raids. There would be more defeats for the Americans. This year was bloody. On July 13, 1782, the Mingo leader Guyasuta led about 100 Native Americans and several British volunteers into Pennsylvania, destroying Hannastown and killing nine and capturing twelve settlers. It was the hardest blow dealt by Native Americans in Western Pennsylvania during the war.

In Kentucky, the Americans went on the defensive while Caldwell, Elliot, and McKee with their Native American allies prepared a major offensive. In March of 1782, Fort Estill was attacked by Wyandot Native Americans. Colonel Benjamin Logan, commanding officer of the region and stationed at Logan’s Station learned that the Wyandot warriors were in the area on the warpath. The Native Americans, aided by the British in Detroit, had raided from Boonsborough past Estill’s Station along the Kentucky River. Logan dispatched 15 men to Captain Estill at Estill’s Station with orders to increase his force by 25 more men and reconnoiter the country to the north and east. Captain Estill followed orders and reached the Kentucky River a few miles below the mouth of Station Camp Creek. He camped that night at Sweet Lick or known as Estill Springs. On that day after they left Estill’s Station, a group of Native Americans appeared there at dawn on March 20. They raided the fort, scalped and killed a Miss Innes in sight of the fortification and took Monk (a slave of Captain Estill) and killed all the cattle. When the Native Americans retreated, Samuel South and Peter Hackett, both young men, were dispatched to take the trail of the men and inform them of the news. The boys found them near the mouth of Drowning Creek and Red River early on the morning of March 21. Of the 40 men, approximately 20 had left families within the fort. They returned with the boys to Estill's Station. The remainder crossed the Kentucky River and found the Native American trail. Captain Estill organized a company of 25 men, followed the Native Americans, and suffered what is known as Estill's Defeat, later known as the Battle of Little Mountain (March 22, 1782) in Montgomery Co. In July 1782, more than 1,000 Native Americans gathered at Wapatomica, but the expedition was called off after scouts reported that George Rogers Clark was preparing to invade the Ohio Country from Kentucky. The reports turned out to be false, but Caldwell still managed to lead 300 Native Americans into Kentucky and deliver a devastating blow at the Battle of Blue Licks in August. With peace negotiations between the United States and Great Britain making progress, Caldwell was ordered to cease further operations. Similarly, General Irvine had gotten permission for a Continental Army expedition into the Ohio Country, but this was cancelled. In November, George Rogers Clark delivered the final blow in the Ohio Country, destroying several Shawnee towns, but inflicting little damage on the inhabitants.

The war in the Northwest, in the words of historian David Curtis Scaggs, Jr. "ended in a stalemate.” In the war's final years, each side could destroy enemy settlements, but could not stay and hold the territory. For the Shawnees, the war was a loss: the Americans had successfully defended Kentucky and increased settlement there, so that prime hunting ground was now lost. Although the Native Americans had been pushed back from the Ohio River and were now settled primarily in the Lake Erie basin, the Americans could not occupy the abandoned lands for fear of Native American raids. News of the pending peace treaty arrived late in 1782. In the final treaty, the Ohio Country was signed away by Great Britain to the United States, even though "not a single American soldier was north of the Ohio River when the treaty was signed.” Great Britain had not consulted the Native Americans in the peace process, and the Native Americans were nowhere mentioned in treaty's terms. For the Native Americans, the struggle would soon continue as the Northwest Indian War, though this time without the explicit support of the British.

BY Timothy

Monday, April 10, 2017

Syria and Imperialism

http://www.globalresearch.ca/when-americas-progressives-pay-lip-service-to-imperialism-the-anti-war-movement-is-dead/5584150

http://www.globalresearch.ca/russia-baiting-pushed-trump-to-attack-syria-and-increases-the-risks-of-nuclear-annihilation/5584323

http://www.globalresearch.ca/trumps-wag-the-dog-moment/5584271

http://www.globalresearch.ca/the-us-missile-attack-against-syrian-targets-statement-of-the-world-peace-council/5584275

http://www.globalresearch.ca/h-r-mcmaster-manipulating-intelligence-reports-to-trump-wants-150000-ground-soldiers-in-syria/5584189

http://www.workers.org/2017/04/07/stop-the-u-s-war-on-the-syrian-people/#.WOwd0WnyvIU

African American History Part 3



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African American History Part 3

African Americans continued to live their lives. After the Civil War, the evil Confederacy was defeated. Traitors (who believed in the evil of slavery) were not showing the rebel flag anymore. This was the time of Reconstruction. Reconstruction was an era of monumental changes in American history. It gave to life much progressive legislation. Reconstruction was one of the greatest experiments in the fight for democratic change in human history. For the first time in American history, black people were elected to state and national offices in a massive scale. Still, white racists in the Ku Klux Klan, the Red Shirts, etc. continued to terrorize black people and their supporters throughout the South, etc. With the 13th, 14, and 15th Amendments, legalized slavery would be eliminated. The Freedmen Bureau gave black people educational opportunities. The Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871 or the Civil Rights Act of 1871 allowed the federal government to use federal troops if necessary to protect the human rights of Black Americans. HBCUs grew during Reconstruction from Fisk to Howard University. Black people migrated to other parts of the nation in order to achieve a better life. Robert Smalls, Hiram Revels, Blanche Bruce and other heroic black leaders were in the political realm to fight for social change. Many black people organized more institutions and businesses. Yet, black people still didn’t have total equality in America. Women were deprived of the right to vote until the 1920’s. After the 1877 Compromise (which was the end of Reconstruction), Jim Crow grew into the next level in the South and the Midwest. The Era of Jim Crow was an era of terror, murder, lynching, and other atrocities. Pregnant black women were murdered by brutish bigots. Children were murdered by racists as well. Lynch mobs would terrorize black people in pogroms (from the Massacre in Memphis in 1866 to the Tulsa murder of black people in the 1920’s. Black Wall Street was a prosperous community and it was destroyed by racist terrorists). Many black people were forced in de facto slavery in the peonage system until the 20th century.

The May 12, 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court decision legalized Jim Crow nationwide under the nefarious guise of “separate but equal.” Also, during the late 19th century and early 20th century, black people resisted evil. They formed groups like the NAACP, the UNIA, the African Black Brotherhood, etc. in order to fight for black liberation. During this time, many black people have shown music, artistic expression, and ideological diversity. Not every black person back then or today agreed on everything. Leaders like WEB DuBois, Marcus Garvey, Booker T. Washington, Mary McLeod Bethune, Ella Baker, and other black people would voice their views in public. A Philip Randolph advanced labor rights. That era from 1865 to 1954 included turmoil and courage. It included defeats and triumphs and it presented the world the great courage, the strength, and the resiliency of black Americans. It was a time where many black people formed many organizations and institutions that desired black self-determination and a growth of power. Black people also opposed colonialism overseas during this time period. Ida B. Wells was a great black woman who fought lynching and defended black human rights throughout her life. Unsung heroes like Charles Hamilton Houston (who was a magnificent lawyer) helped to end Jim Crow apartheid once and for all. Jim Crow wasn’t just about a violation of human rights and the freedom of association. Jim Crow involved lynching, the deprivation of voting rights, rapes, the denial of democratic freedoms, and terrorism. Black folks experienced terror under Jim Crow. From Reconstruction to the Board V. Board of Education decision (of 1954 which banned segregation in public schools), we see unique changes going on in Black America.

Still, we rise.

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Reconstruction

Reconstruction lasted for over 10 years, but it had a very far reaching impact in American history and especially involving the lives of black Americans. It lasted from 1865 to 1877. Some scholars believe that Reconstruction began as early as January 1, 1863 (or the time of Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation, which classified black human beings in most Confederate territories as free) as many people planned Reconstruction like policies before the Civil War ended. By January 31, 1865, Congress passed the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution. This abolished slavery and submitted this policy to the states for ratification. In March 3, 1865, Congress passed a bill that formed the Freedman’s Bureau, which helped ex-slaves to survive during the Reconstruction era.  The Freedmen’s Bureau provided food, clothing, fuel, and advice on negotiating labor contracts. It helped many black people to vote, form political parties, and the control of labor. Later, the Freedman bank would existed to help the economics of black people. The Klan still attacked black people and the Bureau. Reports from the Freedmen’s Bureau documented the racist pogroms against black people. The report included sworn testimony from soldiers and officials of the Freedmen's Bureau. In Selma, Alabama, Major J.P. Houston noted that whites, who killed twelve African Americans in his district, never came to trial. Many more killings never became official cases. Captain Poillon described white patrols in southwestern Alabama brutalized black people. Black women were raped too by criminals during Reconstruction.

Reconstruction was a transformation of Southern life. It revolutionized America and many African Americans received many blessings. Likewise, terrorism against black people didn’t end with Reconstruction. White racists used old and new tactics in trying to deprive black people of inalienable human rights.

Three major factions were involved in Reconstruction. One faction was the group who wanted total political and economic plus social equality for black people. The second faction wanted total reconciliation between the North and the South immediately. The other faction was made up of overt white supremacist racists who used terror and violence to try to end the fight for equality for black Americans.

Black Codes as early as before 1865 existed in the South in order to deprive black people of human rights. To understand Reconstruction, we must go chronologically as it pertains to history. First, the Civil War ended by 1865. The South was heavily destroyed of much of its infrastructure from homes to railroads. Cities like Richmond, Virginia, Charleston, South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, and Atlanta, Georgia lay in ruins. Illiteracy rates among black and white people in the South were high. Farms were in disrepair. Mules and cattle were depleted. 40 percent of the South’s livestock had been killed. High inflation was in the South causing economic turmoil. Sharecropping existed where many black families worked with low wages and experienced brutal conditions at the hands of corporate exploiters. More African Americans traveled into urban communities of the South, the Midwest, the West Coast, and the North. Black men worked as rail workers, rolling and lumber mills workers, and hotel workers. The large population of slave artisans during the antebellum period had not been translated into a large number of freemen artisans during Reconstruction. Black women were largely confined to domestic work employed as cooks, maids, and child nurses. Others worked in hotels or became teachers. A large number became laundresses. Other legislation was signed that broadened equality and rights for African Americans. Lincoln outlawed discrimination on account of color, in carrying U.S. mail, in riding on public street cars in Washington D.C., and in pay for soldiers. Black people celebrated their freedom from racial tyranny and slavery.

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Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson knew that the South would be defeated by the end of the Civil War. They would likewise take a moderate position of allowing future ex-Confederates to be assimilated to the Union as soon as possible without much recriminations sent to them. This policy is a policy that I course disagree with. Criminals, who oppressed black people, must be punished. Lincoln wanted his Ten percent plan to be executed in many states to speed up Reconstruction. The Radical Republicans did the right thing and oppose such moderate policies. They wanted to punish harshly ex-Confederates since they were involved in splitting up the Union and oppressing the lives of black people overtly. Radical Republicans like Congressman Thaddeus Stevens of Pennsylvania and Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts were leaders in that movement. They wanted harsh terms and promoted the rights of the freedmen (or black people). Many Native American tribes supported the Union. Other Native American tribes supported the Confederacy and had black slaves too. The Five Tribes of Oklahoma supported the Confederacy. Before Abraham Lincoln was killed, Lincoln spoke wanted to enfranchisement a certain number of black human beings and leniency to ex-Confederates. Johnson agreed with leniency, but he opposed giving voting rights to black people.

President Abraham Lincoln set up reconstructed governments in Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana during the Civil War. Lincoln also gave land to former slaves in South Carolina in an experiment. Lincoln wanted some black people to vote, especially black Union military veterans (not universal suffrage. I believe in total universal suffrage). Abraham Lincoln was assassinated by that murderer and coward John Wilkes Booth in April of 1865. Therefore, Andrew Johnson was the new President during the beginning of Reconstruction. Johnson was not only one of the worst Presidents in history. He was also one of the most racist Presidents in American history. He overtly didn’t agree with racial equality. Andrew Johnson by the fall of 1865, viewed Reconstruction as over and the ending of slavery completed. Yet, Reconstruction was not over.  Thaddeus Stevens vehemently opposed President Johnson's plans for an abrupt end to Reconstruction, insisting that Reconstruction must "revolutionize Southern institutions, habits, and manners...The foundations of their institutions...must be broken up and relaid, or all our blood and treasure have been spent in vain." Andrew Johnson opposed an attempt to expand rights for black Americans. The good news is that the Congressional elections of 1866 in the North caused the Radical Republicans to take control of political policy. Former Confederates were not in power. Therefore, the Radical Republicans in many cases overrode Johnson’s vetoes in order to enfranchise the freedmen.

A Republican coalition came to power by 1866 in nearly all the southern states and set out to transform the society by setting up a free labor economy, using the U.S. Army and the Freedmen's Bureau. The Bureau protected the legal rights of freedmen, negotiated labor contracts, and set up schools and churches for them. Thousands of Northerners came South as missionaries, teachers, businessmen, and politicians.

Many Northerners who came to the South to help promote equality and justice were slurred by right wing Southerners as "Carpetbaggers." Rebuilding the rundown railroad system was a major strategy, but it collapsed when a nationwide depression (called the Panic of 1873) struck the economy. The Radicals in the House of Representatives, frustrated by Johnson's opposition to Congressional Reconstruction, filed impeachment charges but the action failed by one vote in the Senate. In early 1866, Congress passed the Freedmen's Bureau and Civil Rights Bills and sent them to Johnson for his signature. The first bill extended the life of the bureau, originally established as a temporary organization charged with assisting refugees and freed slaves, while the second defined all persons born in the United States as national citizens who were to enjoy equality before the law. Andrew Johnson vetoed the bill. This caused a division in government. Johnson would be impeached in 1868. Congress overridden his veto and caused the Civil Rights Act to be the first major bill in the history of America to become law through an override of a Presidential veto.

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The Civil Rights Act of 1866 made black people full U.S. citizens (and this repealed the Dred Scott decision). In other words, all people born in America are now citizens as stated by the Civil Rights Act of 1866. In the same year, ex-Confederate soldiers formed the racist Ku Klux Klan in Pulaski, Tennessee. They Klan for over 100 years have killed, raped, and assaulted black people (and others). It is a paramilitary insurgent group too. On May 1, 1866, more and more black people came into the city of Memphis. White policemen (who were angry at black people coming into Memphis) instigated a race riot where more than 40 people died. In July 1866, the New Orleans riot involved white people harming and killing black Americans. In September 21, 1866, the Buffalo soldiers were formed. They were an U.S. Army regiment made up of African Americans. In 1867, Congress removed civilian governments in the South and the former Confederacy was placed under the rule of the U.S. army. So, the army conducted new elected in which freed slaves could vote while whites (who had held leading positions in the evil Confederacy) were temporarily denied the vote (and they weren’t permitted to run for office).

During this time of Reconstruction, black educational institutions grew. Morehouse College was founded in the basement of Springfield Baptist Church in Augusta, Georgia by the time of February 14, 1867 (it was called the Augusta Institute back then). Howard University was founded in Washington, D.C. in March 2, 1867. The Hampton Institute was founded in April 1, 1868 in Hampton, Virginia. Educational opportunities expanded for many black Americans during this time period. By 1900, the literacy rate in the black community radically increased.

After Johnson, Ulysses S. Grant was President of the United States. He enforced the protection of the African Americans in the South. He supported Radical Reconstruction. Grant passed the Enforcement Act. The Enforcement Acts were used to combat the Ku Klux Klan. It was very successful in eradicating a large part of Klan terror in the South. Yet, new white racist vigilante groups would develop to harm the lives of black people and others during this time. Political tensions still rose. Many Republicans felt that Reconstruction should not go further while others viewed it as not going far enough. Many white Southerners supported Reconstruction and they were called Scalawags. Terror was so bad against black people that the Union allowed Southern states to have Union troops to protect black citizens. The safety provided by the troops did not last long, and white southerners frequently terrorized black voters. Coalitions of white and black Republicans passed bills to establish the first public school systems in most states of the South, although sufficient funding was hard to find. Blacks established their own churches, towns and businesses. This has grown black infrastructure, which is good since black infrastructure must be developed in order for black liberation to exist.

Tens of thousands migrated to Mississippi for the chance to clear and own their own land, as 90% of the bottomlands were undeveloped. By the end of the 19th century, two-thirds of the farmers who owned land in the Mississippi Delta bottomlands were black.

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In this time Southern black men began to vote and they elected many black men to the United States Congress, local offices, sheriffs, and state government offices too. This was historic. Hiram Revels was the first black Senator in the U.S. Congress in 1870. Hiram Revels was selected by the Mississippi legislature (in February 21, 1870) to replace the traitor and racist Jefferson Davis. There were many other African Americans in Congress from South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. These new politicians fought for Reconstruction and wanted to bring more improvements to the lives of African Americans. Blanche K. Bruce was another U.S. Senator and he was African American. African Americans elected to the House of Representatives during this time included Benjamin S. Turner, Josiah T. Walls, Joseph H. Rainey, Robert Brown Elliot, Robert D. De Large, and Jefferson H. Long. Frederick Douglass also served in the different government jobs during Reconstruction. These jobs included Minister Resident and Counsel General to Haiti, Recorder of Deeds, and U.S. Marshall. Bruce worked to fight for the human rights of African Americans, Chinese immigrants, and Native Americans. African

Americans further developed our own national African American identity. Thousands of black northerners left their homes in order to help build schools, newspapers, and businesses in the South. Elizabeth Keckly published “Behind the Scenes or Thirty Years a Slave and Four Years in the White House” on 1868. In 10 states, there was the coalitions of freedman, black and white new arrivals from the North, white Southerners who supported Reconstruction (or scalawags) came together to form Republican biracial state governments. They funded public schools, organized charitable institutions, raised taxes, and offered massive aid. This aid was used to improve railroad transportation and shipping in the South. Conservative opponents of Reconstruction instituted violence against freedmen and white people who supported Reconstruction. President Grant did a lot of positive actions to fight the Klan.


In Grant's two terms he strengthened Washington's legal capabilities to directly intervene to protect citizenship rights even if the states ignored the problem. He worked with Congress to create the Department of Justice and Office of Solicitor General, led by Attorney General Amos Akerman and the first Solicitor General Benjamin Bristow. Congress passed three powerful Enforcement Acts in 1870–71. These were criminal codes which protected the Freedmen's right to vote, to hold office, to serve on juries, and to receive equal protection of laws. Most important, they authorized the federal government to intervene when states did not act. Grant's new Justice Department prosecuted thousands of Klansmen under the tough new laws. Grant sent federal troops to nine South Carolina counties to suppress Klan violence in 1871. Grant supported passage of the Fifteenth Amendment stating that no state could deny a man the right to vote on the basis of race. Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1875 giving people access to public facilities regardless of race. On October 21, 1876 President Grant deployed troops to protect black and white Republican voters in Petersburg, Virginia. His presidency at the end of his term was plagued with financial sandals.

The 14th Amendment granted full U.S. citizenship to African Americans on July 9, 1868. It gave due process and equal protection. The 15th Amendment, which was ratified in February 3, 1870, extended the right to vote to black males. P.B.S. Pinchback was sworn in as the first black member of the U.S. House of Representatives in December 11, 1872. In the same year, Elijah McCoy (who was a great black inventor) patented his first invention, an automatic lubricator that supplied oil to moving parts while a machine was still operating. The Freedman's Bureau was closed by the federal government on June 10, 1872.

Many conservatives worked with Democratic Party to oppose Reconstruction too. Opponents of Reconstruction accused the Carpetbaggers of corruption, excessive state spending, and ruinous taxes. The Conservatives and the white racists used their backlash against Reconstruction (which is similar to the white backlash of the 1960's). One of the most important cases during Reconstruction was the Slaughterhouse cases. In those cases, the U.S. Supreme Court voted 5-4 for a narrow reading of the Fourteenth Amendment. The court also discussed dual citizenship. This means that the Court wanted to divide between state citizens and U.S. citizens, which racists exploited to deprive black people of federal human rights. Throughout the 1870’s, violence against black people increased. On Easter, the Colfax Massacre existed in 1873. This was when more than 100 blacks in the Red River area of Louisiana are killed when attacked by white militia after defending Republicans in local office – continuing controversy from gubernatorial election.

The Coushatta Massacre of 1873 involve Republican officeholders are run out of town and murdered by white militia before leaving the state – four of six were relatives of a Louisiana state senator, a northerner who had settled in the South, married into a local family and established a plantation. Five to twenty black witnesses are also killed. Paramilitary white racist groups (with ties to the Democratic Party) were the White League of Louisiana and the Red Shirts of Mississippi, North and South Carolina. They terrorized black people and Republicans. Many Republicans were forced out of office, rallies were disrupted, and voting was suppressed. More political violence happened again in New Orleans. This was related to the still-contested gubernatorial election of 1872. Thousands of the White League armed militia march into New Orleans, then the seat of government, where they outnumber the integrated city police and black state militia forces. They defeat Republican forces and demand that Gov. Kellogg leave office. The Democratic candidate McEnery is installed and White Leaguers occupy the capitol, state house and arsenal. This was called the "Battle of Liberty Place." The White League and McEnery withdraw after three days in advance of federal troops arriving to reinforce the Republican state government.

The Civil Rights Act of 1875 was signed in March 1, 1875. The Mississippi Plan to try to intimidate black Americans and suppress black voter registration plus voting existed in 1875 too. In 1876, the African American Lewis Latimer prepared drawings for Alexander Graham’s Bell application for a telephone patient. In July 8, 1876, the Hamburg Massacre occurred when local people rioted against black Americans who were just celebrating the Fourth of July. White Democrats started to control more southern state legislatures by this time and Jim Crow laws increased. Women were denied the right the vote back then until the 1920’s. Women being deprived the right to vote back then is an injustice and a total disgrace. African Americans formed their own churches and religious organizations. They were mostly Baptist and Methodist back then. These religious groups were involved in politics too. Many Catholic churches of black people existed in Louisiana too. Many black ministers would be elected into Congress.

By 1877, they or racists took over most state governments. Racists attacked both white and black Republicans in trying to suppress black voting rights. Public support for Reconstruction by the North had declined by the 1870’s. Octavius Catto was murdered during the harassment of black people on Election Day in Philadelphia in October 10, 1871. He was a civil rights activist. The panic of 1873 was a depression economically in America. Many older abolitionists were passing away by this time. Many Republicans lost interest in Reconstruction policy, because some of them erroneously believed that the age of Reconstruction has run its course. Democrats, who opposed Reconstruction, gained more power. There was a split in the progressive community of the South. Many black leaders focused on individual economic progression in working with white corporate elites rather than following racial political politics. The view of black vocational education is akin to the Booker T. Washington conservative ideology. Nationally, President Grant was blamed for the depression. Therefore, the Republican Party lost 96 seats in all parts of the country in the 1874 elections. The Democrats, who strongly opposed Reconstruction, regained control of the House of Representatives in 1874. The presidential electoral vote in 1876 was very close and confused, forcing Congress to make the final decision.

The deployment of the U.S. Army was central to the survival of Republican state governments soon change. The age of Reconstruction collapsed when the Army was removed in 1877 as part of a Congressional bargain to elect Republican Rutherford B. Hayes as president. By this time, Reconstruction ended. Reconstruction caused many successes, but it ended by a racist backlash which caused modern Jim Crow to develop throughout the South and even in the Midwest. Reconstruction was an important part of civil rights history. It represented the possibility of a freer society, but it showed that the evil of oppression didn’t end with the end of the Civil War. Over the course of Reconstruction, more than 1,500 African Americans held public office in the South; some of them were men who had escaped to the North and gained educations, and returned to the South. They did not hold office in numbers representative of their proportion in the population. Reconstruction was defeated by a rightwing backlash who wanted to deprive black and poor people human rights. The disfranchisement of millions of human beings by racists is a total disgrace. The inability of the states to suppress the violence of Southern racist whites reversed many of the gains that black people fought for and it ultimately ended Reconstruction. Many Northerners even abandoned black people. Decades later, the spirit of Reconstruction would exist in future civil rights activists who would ultimately end Jim Crow oppression once and for all.


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Early Jim Crow

 After Reconstruction, Jim Crow grew into the next level. Modern Jim Crow lasted from 1876 to 1965. Jim Crow laws and policies existed long before the 1870’s. For example, back in 1865, legislatures in former Confederate states started to enact harsh black codes (which didn't want freeman to rent land, to serve on juries, to bear arms, to assemble except for religious purposes, to drink alcohol, to travel, or to learn to read). Yet,  early Jim Crow in the modern sense existed in America from 1876. Jim Crow was not only brutal against black people. Many innocent black people were murdered during the Jim Crow regime. Jim Crow is legalized terrorism against black people period. Jim Crow also involved an anti-black propaganda campaign which used films, newspapers, posters, and other forms of media (like the evil movie Birth of a Nation, which came about in 1915. That movie slandered black people as collectively rapists and incompetent people) to unjustly dehumanize and caricature black people in the world (not just black human beings in America). In a sense, Jim Crow mandated forced de jure segregation in all public facilities. This was federally instituted by the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896 which allowed states to segregate public facilities based upon race. The court used the illogical concept of “separate but equal” as a means to promote an evil decision. The truth is that segregation is immoral and evil for many reasons.

Jim Crow segregation is against the freedom of association, it restricts how and where people can live, it promotes racial tensions, and it deprives people of basic human rights. The increase of anti-black pogroms in the South caused many black people to leave the South. Black people like Benjamin “Pap” Singleton talked about separating from the South. There was the movement of the Exodusters from 1879-1880, which involved African American families migrating to Kansas in order to escape anti-black violence. White Democrats soon passed laws that dealt with Jim Crow. One section of law made voter registration and elections more complicated. Most of the rules acted overwhelmingly against blacks, but many poor whites were also disfranchised. Interracial coalitions of Populists and Republicans in some states succeeded in controlling legislatures in the 1880's and 1894, which made the Democrats more determined to reduce voting by poorer classes. When Democrats took control of Tennessee in 1888, they passed laws making voter registration more complicated and ended the most competitive political state in the South. Voting by blacks in rural areas and small towns dropped sharply, as did voting by poor whites. Black people lived in an era of overt terrorism and tyranny nationwide.

Laws that disfranchised most black people existed in 10 of the 11 Southern state constitutions from Mississippi to Georgia (during the time of from 1890 to 1908). These laws used poll taxes, residency requirements, and literacy tests to reduce black voter registration massively.  The grandfather clause was used in many states temporarily to exempt illiterate white voters from literacy tests. Yet, grandfather clauses were used mostly against black people. As power became concentrated under the Democratic Party in the South, the party positioned itself as a private club and instituted white primaries, closing blacks out of the only competitive contests. By 1910, one-party white rule was firmly established across the South. African Americans used litigation to fight against these evil provisions and unjust laws. Yet, state and national court decisions readily went against them. In Williams v. Mississippi (1898), the US Supreme Court upheld state provisions. This encouraged other Southern states to adopt similar measures over the next few years. Booker T. Washington, of Tuskegee Institute secretly worked with Northern supporters to raise funds and provide representation for African Americans in additional cases, such as Giles v. Harris (1903) and Giles v. Teasley (1904). Yet, again the Supreme Court upheld the pro-Jim Crow statues. White racists continued to use law to promote segregation and use peonage. Peonage was virtually slavery policies in which black people were forced to work against their will for white corporations. This existed well into the 20th century. Racist terror continued. Lynching grew too.

Between 1890 and 1940, millions of Africans were disfranchised, killed, brutalized, and raped.   According to newspaper records kept at the Tuskegee Institute, about 5,000 men, women, and children were murdered in documented extrajudicial mob violence —called lynchings. The journalist Ida B. Wells estimated that lynchings not reported by the newspapers, plus similar executions under the veneer of "due process", may have amounted to about 20,000 killings. Ida B. Wells fought against lynching with every fiber of her being. W.E.B. DuBois fought for racial justice as well. Very few whites were indicted for the lynching of black people. Black people couldn’t be in juries to convict murderers. Many black people, especially in the South, were deprived the right to keep and bear arms under Jim Crow law. This prevented many black people from protecting themselves and their families. After regaining control of the state legislatures, Democrats were alarmed by a late 19th-century alliance between Republicans and Populists that cost them some elections. In North Carolina's Wilmington Insurrection of 1898 (long called a race riot by whites), white Democrats conducted a coup d’état of the city government, the only one in United States history. They overturned a duly elected biracial government headed by a white mayor, and widely attacked the black community, destroying lives and property. Many blacks left the city permanently. Oklahoma had Jim Crow and used policies to deprive black people the right to vote too. Racist Democrats would dominate Southern politics for decades to come. By the mid to late 20th century, a political realignment took place where elite conservatives left the Democrats to be Republicans, because of the civil rights movement and other reasons.

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This is a picture of the unjust grandfather clause document. 

South Carolina had a large majority of black people (with nearly 60 percent in 1890). Democrats wanted to prevent a possible resurgence of black Republican voters at the polls. So, they promoted the Eight Box Law. This called for a separate box for ballots for each office. Therefore, a voter had to insert the ballot into the corresponding box or it would not count. The ballots could not have party symbols on them. They had to be of a correct size and type of paper. Many ballots were arbitrarily rejected because they slightly deviated from the requirements. Ballots could also randomly be rejected if there were more ballots in a box than registered voters. This was challenged in court and it was ruled at first unconstitutional by Judge Goff of the United States Circuit Court on May 8, 1895. Later, in June 1895, the U.S. Circuit of Appeals reversed Judge Goff and dissolved the injunction. This caused a constitutional convention. The constitutional convention met on September 10 and adjourned on December 4, 1895. By the new constitution, South Carolina adopted the Mississippi Plan until January 1, 1898. Any male citizen could be registered who was able to read a section of the constitution or to satisfy the election officer that he understood it when read to him.

Those thus registered were to remain voters for life. Under the new constitution and application of literacy practices, black voters were dropped in great number from the registration rolls. By 1896, in a state where blacks numbered 728,934 (in South Carolina) and comprised nearly 60% of the total population according to the 1890 census, only 5,500 black voters had succeeded in registering. In Virginia, Democrats used disenfranchisement too. Racists wanted to end the coalition of black and white Republicans with populist Democrats. The coalition of the biracial coalition formed the Readjuster Party which lasted from 1877 to 1895. From 1881 to 1883, they elected a governor and controlled the legislature in Virginia. State Democrats divided the Readjuster support by using white supremacist rhetoric.  After regaining power, Democrats changed state laws and the constitution in 1902 to disenfranchise blacks. They ratified the new constitution in the legislature and did not submit it to popular vote. Voting in Virginia fell by nearly half as a result of the disenfranchisement of blacks. The eighty-year stretch of white Democratic control ended only in the late 1960's after passage and enforcement of the federal Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the collapse of the Byrd Organization machine.

I’m from Virginia and I know about the pro-segregationist Harry Byrd Sr. (who drafted the Southern Manifesto, which opposed the Supreme Court decision of Brown v. Board of Education. He opposed civil rights legislation and the social programs of President John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson). The segregationists in Virginia used the massive resistance tactics and other racist moves to deprive black people human rights. Early Jim Crow was horrible.

The North learned of the South’s abuse of black human rights. Northern corporations wanted to invest in the South, but many of them wanted to ignore the systematic racism that existed in the South and all over America. Racism existed in the North too not just in the South. By the early 20th century, white veterans of the North and South formed reconciliation policies while ignoring the issues of race and suffrage. Southern whites used historical revisionism to advance lies about the Civil War (which was promoted by the Dunning School at Columbia University and other institutions. These lies are promoted by the Neo-Confederate movement in our generation). National newspapers and magazines documented disfranchisement of black Americans in the South. Some Northerners were outraged and alarmed. The Lodge Bill or Federal Elections Bill or Lodge Force Bill of 1890 was a bill drafted by Representative Henry Cabot Lodge (R) of Massachusetts, and sponsored in the Senate by George Frisbie Hoar. It would have authorized federal electors to supervise elections under certain conditions. Due to a Senate filibuster, as well as trade-off of support with Democrats by western Silver Republicans, the bill failed to pass. Southern Democrats prevented Congressional investigations of disfranchisement.

From 1896 to 1900, the House of Representatives with a Republican majority had acted in more than thirty cases to set aside election results from Southern states where the House Elections Committee had concluded that “black voters had been excluded due to fraud, violence, or intimidation.” Nevertheless, in the early 1900's, it began to back off from its enforcement of the Fifteenth Amendment and suggested that state and federal courts should exercise oversight of this issue. The Southern bloc of Democrats exercised increasing power in the House. They didn’t have an interest in protecting suffrage for black people. Segregation existed under the times of Roosevelt and Wilson. Despite the Lever decision and domination of Congress by Democrats, some Northern Congressmen continued to raise the issue of black disfranchisement and resulting malapportionment. For instance, on December 6, 1920, Representative George H. Tinkham from Massachusetts offered a resolution for the Committee of Census to investigate alleged disfranchisement of blacks. His intention was to enforce the provisions of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments. In the early 20th century, civil rights organizations and other institutions like the Tuskegee Institute, the NAACP, the Urban League, etc. developed to fight for change.

The Border States had history involving this system. The five Border States are Delaware, Maryland, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Missouri. Each of these states had legacies similar to the Confederate states from the Civil War. All of the Border States had slaves. They had laws which promoted racial segregation. Yet, the disenfranchisement of black people was never attained to any significant degree in Border States for a long period of time.  Most Border States did attempt such disenfranchisement during the 1900's. The causes of failure to disenfranchise black people and poor whites in the Border States, as compared to their success for well over half a century in former Confederate states, were complicated. During the 1900's Maryland was vigorously divided between supporters and opponents of disenfranchisement (or depriving black people the right to vote), but it had a large and increasingly educated black community concentrated in Baltimore. Baltimore had many free black people before the Civil War. They had both economic and political power. Maryland’s state legislature passed a poll tax in 1904. Yet, an opposition to it grew and it was repealed in 1911. Despite support among conservative whites in the conservative Eastern Shore, referenda for bills to disenfranchise blacks failed three times in 1905, 1908 and 1910, with the last vote being the most decisive. In Kentucky, Lexington’s city government had passed a poll tax in 1901, but it was declared invalid in state circuit courts. Six years later, a new state legislative effort to disenfranchise blacks failed because of the strong organization of the Republican Party in pro-Union regions of the state. Texas restricted black people and Mexican Americans from voting. The Supreme Court by the 1940’s stopped this policy.

By 1919, the massive pogroms called Red Summer where white racist mobs murdered tons of innocent black Americans nationwide. This showed that racism was a key part of Jim Crow tyranny.

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The Early Civil Rights Movement

After the unjust 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson decision, life changed for African Americans. Segregation and Jim Crow laws expanded nationwide. Many African Americans by 1900 traveled nationwide to try to escape injustice and find a greater living standard. A large percentage of African Americans were farmers by 1900. Tons of African Americans were sharecroppers during the turn of the 20th century as well. This was an era of massive anti-black violence and black migration into Kansas, Boley, Oklahoma, and to the West Coast. This era of African American showed courage, strength, and ideological diversity in the black community. In the same year of 1900, more than 30,000 African American teachers have been trained and helped human beings in the South. The majority of black Americans are literate. There was also the growth of the black bourgeoisie (which is made up of the upper middle class and the rich). Booker T. Washington went to work to promote the Tuskegee Institute and his agenda of economic empowerment. His autobiography “Up from Slavery” was published in 1901. The book is an important part of black literature and an important part of the diverse views of the black community. In other words, we (who are black people) believe in the same goal (which is justice for all black people), but we disagree on the methods on achieving that same goal. Tuskegee Institute in Alabama was his school to help black people to have vocational skills and he believed in black people to pull themselves “up by the bootstraps.” He wanted trade learning, manners, and in essence conservative habits to be used by black people.

He was later be criticized by W.E. B. Du Bois, Trotter, and others because they wanted immediate social activism to fight white racism. Booker T. Washington dinned with President Theodore Roosevelt too. One big error that Booker T. Washington did was to give his Atlanta Compromise speech, which wanted economic advancement at the expense of continuing segregation for a time and accepting the current system of accommodation. We don't compromise with evil. We fight evil instead. Many racists like Benjamin Tillman (or senator from South Carolina) disrespected Washington because of the meeting. In 1903, W.E.B. DuBois published his article called “The Talented Tenth.” Of course, I disagree with a talented tenth governing the black community for I believe in egalitarian power in the black community. In other words, we want the whole black community to be leaders and liberated not just the 10% (in an aristocratic fashion).

One of W.E.B. Du Bois’s greatest works was his seminal work entitled, “The Souls of Black Folk” was published. It was a great, classic read. It dealt with sociology, black history, and other important subjects. The book explained the dual consciousness of black Americans in that we (who are African Americans) have the African and American identities in one soul. We know the truth. The truth is that we need both vocational education (as Washington has stated) and political agitation including intellectual development (as DuBois has said) in order for us to reach the Promised Land. The Souls of Black Folk was unapologetic in advocating for black freedom. This book inspired the future boycott of the buses in Montgomery during the 1950’s. In May 15, 1904, Sigma Phi Phi was formed. This was the first African American Greek letter organized. It was created by professional people in Philadelphia. People know how I feel about GLOs. It is what it is. I disagree with hazing and many GLOs having links to the political establishment. Many GLOs have overt links to Freemasonry and the Eastern Star. I disagree with Freemasonry, because it has oaths where people swear involving death, Blue Lodge low level members are shown deception (according to Albert Pike), I won't call a grown man Worshipful Master, and I don't follow their dogmas. In the same year of 1904, Orlando, Florida hired its first black postman. Anti-black riots or pogroms existed in Atlanta in 1906 and in Springfield in 1908. Tons of black people felt betrayed (even Booker T. Washington who Roosevelt informed of his plan to discharge the soldiers without honor) at Theodore Roosevelt's discharging of the entire black 25th Infantry at the hearsay about soldiers being involved in a murder. The soldiers were stationed in Brownsville, Texas.

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The first meeting of the historic Niagara Movement was formed in July 11, 1905. The Niagara Movement was a multiracial group of people who wanted to fight for civil rights causes via protests, boycotts, organizations, and other forms of social activism. W.E.B. DuBois is clear in the goal of the Niagara Movement from 1906 in the following words from him: "We want full manhood suffrage and we wnat it now...We want discrimination in public accommodation to cease...We want the Constitution of the country enforce...We are men! We will be treated as men. And we shall win!"

Alpha Phi Alpha was created in Cornell University. This was the first intercollegiate fraternity for black American men. The National Primitive Baptist Convention of the U.S.A. was formed in 1907. Jack Jonson won the World Heavyweight Title in December 1908. Jack Johnson was a fighter who was bold, controversial, and he didn’t submit to the conventions of white America back then. Alpha Kappa Alpha at Howard University was created in 1908. This was the African American college women first sorority in America. In 1909, the historic National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was created. It was a multiracial group that was devoted to civil rights. Its first planned meeting existed in February 12, 1909. It has done the right thing in fighting against Jim Crow laws and in setting up many programs that has helped black people. Of course, I don’t agree with the NAACP’s massive anti-Communism and their once support for the Vietnam War. Before the NAACP choose its official name, it was called the National Negro Committee. I do agree with the NAACP's fight for voting rights and social justice.
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1910's

During the 1910’s, there was a further expansion of the civil rights movement. The NAACP gains its official name in May 30, 1910. In September 29, 1910, Committee on Urban Conditions Among Negroes was formed. The next year, it would merge with other groups to form the National Urban League. The National Urban League’s goal is to give black people economic opportunities, so they can achieve freedom and justice. The NAACP started to publish its newspaper entitled, “The Crisis.” W.E.B. DuBois was heavily involved in the Crisis as he was an early member of the NAACP. Many black activists would read and be inspired by the Crisis newspaper. Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc. was founded in Indiana University by January 5, 1911. Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., which is the first African-American Greek-lettered organization to be founded at an HBCU (Howard University) on November 17, 1911. In 1913, Nobel Drew Ali formed the Moorish Science Temple of America, which is a religious organization. Nobel Drew Ali’s original name was Timothy Drew. Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc. was created at Howard University at January 13, 1913. Phi Beta Sigma fraternity was founded at Howard University by A. Langston Taylor, Leonard F. Morse, and Charles I. Brown. One of the reactionary policies of the overtly racist President Woodrow Wilson in 1914 was that he ordered the physical re-segregation of federal workplaces and employment after nearly 50 years of integrated facilities. Booker T. Washington passed away in 1915. By the time of his passing, more progressive civil rights voices grew. The truth is that despite his imperfections, he wasn't wrong on everything. As a community, we have every right to develop our economic power and to advance tons of skills. The deal is that immediate political action must be done too.


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The Crisis back during the 1910's and today is the official magazine of the NAACP. The first issue of the Crisis would exist in November 1910.

In 1915, one of the most disgraceful and racist films existed called the Birth of a Nation. It was released to film theaters in February 8, 1915. Many black people boycotted and opposed the film. The NAACP organized protests in cities across the country. Some didn’t show the film, yet its impact was national and hurtful to the black community. It slandered black people as rapists, incompetent, and dangerous when white racists are dangerous to human civilization. By this time, many Supreme Court cases would slowly eat away at many bad policies. In June 21, 1915, in Guinn v. United States, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled against grandfather clauses used to deny blacks the right to vote. On September 9 in the same year, Professor Carter G. Woodson founds the Association for the Study of African American Life and History in Chicago. A schism from the National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc. forms the National Baptist Convention of America, Inc. In January of 1916,  Professor Carter Woodson and the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History begins publishing the Journal of Negro History, the first academic journal devoted to the study of African-American history. Marcus Garvey comes into America in March 23, 1916. In the same year, Los Angeles hired the country’s first black female police officer. The Great Migration growth from this time to 1940. During this time, about 1.5 million African Americans move from the Southern United States to the North, Midwest, and the West Coast. The Second Great Migration was from 1940 to 1970 (which include more destinations into California and the West). In 1917, racist pogroms or riots against black people existed in East St. Louis (in Illinois), Houston, and in other locations. Many black people were killed by racist criminals in the July 1-2, 1917 East St. Louis, Illinois riot. The NAACP responded to this by having a silent protest in NYC in 10,000 strong. The event happened in Fifth Avenue.

In 1917, in Buchanan v. Warley, the U.S. Supreme Court upholds that racially segregated housing violates the 14th Amendment. A compassionate black woman named Viola Pettus from Marathon, Texas helped people who were victims of the Spanish Influenza. In 1918, Mary Turner was a 33-year-old lynched in Lowndes County, Georgia who was Eight months pregnant. Turner and her child were murdered after she publicly denounced the extrajudicial killing of her husband by a mob. Her death is considered a stark example of racially motivated mob violence in the American south, and was referenced by the NAACP's anti-lynching campaign of the 1920's, 1930's and 1940's.

The Red Summer 1919 riots were some of the worst anti-black riots in American history. Many black people defended themselves too. These riots existed in Chicago, Washington, D.C., Knoxville, Indianapolis, etc. in the summer. In September, there was the Omaha Race Riot in Nebraska. In October 1-5, there was the Elaine Race Riot in Phillips, County, and Arkansas. Numerous blacks are convicted by an all-white jury or plead guilty. In Moore v. Dempsey (1923), the U.S. Supreme Court overturns six convictions for denial of due process under the Fourteenth Amendment.

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The 1920's

The 1920’s was a time of massive growth of activism and it was the time of the historic Harlem Renaissance. From 1920 to 1931, the Negro National League was formed. In the same year, Fritz Pollard and Bobby Marshall are the first two African-American players in the National Football League (NFL). Pollard goes on to become the first African-American coach in the NFL. On January 16, 1920, the Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc. was founded at Howard University.

On August 18, 1920, the 19th Amendment was ratified, which gave women the right to vote. This was very historic. The first major African American hit musical on Broadway called Shuffle Along existed on Broadway on May 23, 1921. The Tulsa Race Riot existed in Black Wall Street in Oklahoma. Massive black businesses existed there, but white terrorists even used planes with bombs to destroy the black community in Tulsa. To this very day, there has been no true accountability involving the destruction of Black Wall Street. Bessie Coleman was the first African American to earn a pilot’s license in 1921. The sorority of Sigma Gamma Rho was founded at Butler University in November 12, 1922. In 1923, Garrett A. Morgan invented and patented the first automatic three position traffic light. The Rosewood massacre existed from January 1-7 in 1923. It was about six African Americans and two whites die in a week of violence when a white woman in Rosewood, Florida, claims she was beaten and raped by a black man. The anti-black pogroms of Elaine, Arkansas (1919), Tulsa, Oklahoma (1921), and Rosweood, Florida (1923) never stopped our black ancestors. We are black and we are strong. Also, black women were heavily involved in the black freedom struggle, especially in leadership roles.

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On February 10, 1923, in Moore v. Dempsey, the U.S. Supreme Court mentioned that mob-dominated trials violate the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. In 1924, the Knights of Columbus commissions and publishes The Gift of Black Folk: The Negroes in the Making of America by civil rights activist and NAACP cofounder W. E. B. Du Bois as part of the organization's Racial Contribution Series. In 1924, Spellman Seminary became Spelman College. During this age of the Harlem Renaissance, authors have written stories like Jean Toomer’s Cane, Alain Locke’s the New Negro, and Countee Cullen’s publishing of poem in Color. The American Negro Labor Congress was founded in the Spring of 1925. In August 8, 35,000 Klan members march in D.C. This would be the peak of the Klan in numbers. The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters was organized in 1925 by A. Philip Randolph and others. This group was dedicated to promote labor and economic rights for black workers. The Harlem Globetrotters were founded in 1926. In that year, the historian Carter G. Woodson proposed Negro History Week. Corrigan v Buckley challenges deed restrictions preventing a white seller from selling to a black buyer. The U.S. Supreme Court rules in favor of Buckley, stating that the 14th Amendment does not apply because Washington, DC is a city and not a state, thereby rendering the Due Process Clause inapplicable. Also, that the Due Process Clause does not apply to private agreements. In 1928, Claude McKay's Home to Harlem wins the Harmon Gold Award for Literature. Professor John Hope became President of Atlanta University. Graduate classes were offered in the liberal arts, and Atlanta University becomes the first predominantly black university to offer graduate education. Hallelujah! is released (in 1929), one of the first films to star an all-black cast.


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The 1930's

The 1930's saw the Great Depression. The Great Depression involved a financial catastrophe for millions of Americans. During the 1930's, many people starved, came into long lines to get food, struggled economically, and black people survived the Great Depression too. The Great Depression was a very difficult time. In many cities during that time, African American unemployment reached almost 50 percent. Children tried to get food. College educated black women and black men struggled to get jobs. So, civil rights organizations fought against racism, oppression, and poverty. In 1930, black activists and labor united to defeat Hoover's nominee Judge John J. Parker (who spoke against black suffrage) from being on the Supreme Court. W.E. B. DuBois, Ralph Bunche, A. Philip Randolph, Mary McLeod Bethune fought for justice. The antilynching movement grew in the 1930's too. During this decade, the labor movement increased in power. They used strikes, protests, and other methods to fight for economic and workers' rights. In many cases, black and white workers would unite to fight for better working conditions, better wages, and more changes. Many labor organizations were integrated like the AFL-CIO, etc.

During the time of August 7, 1930, Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith were African-American men lynched in Marion, Indiana, after being taken from jail and beaten by a mob. They had been arrested that night as suspects in a robbery, murder and rape case. A third African-American suspect, 16-year-old James Cameron, had also been arrested and narrowly escaped being killed by the mob. He later became a civil rights activist. In the same year, the League of Struggle for Negro Rights was founded in New York City. Jessie Daniel Ames forms the Association of Southern Women for the Prevention of Lynching in 1930. She gets 40,000 white women to sign a pledge against lynching and for change in the South. On March 25, 1931, the Scottsboro Boys were arrested. They were accused of raping a white woman, which was false. The Communist Party (back then, the Communist Party appealed to many black Americans because of its work to fight racism and police brutality. They also fought corruption from landlords. Most black people wouldn't join the Communists because most black people back then weren't atheists) helped the Scottsboro young people too. Years would exist until many of those charged would be let out of prison. In that same year, Walter Francis White became the executive secretary of the NAACP. The evil Tuskegee experiment happened in 1932. This was about black men being lied to by the government about receiving what they thought was medicine. They actually received syphilis without their permission and many of them died. The government wanted to see the effects of untreated syphilis on black men, which was sick. Hocutt v. Wilson unsuccessfully challenged segregation in higher education in the United States back in 1933. Wallace D. Fard mysteriously disappeared in 1934. He was the leader of the Nation of Islam. The new leader became Elijah Muhammad.

In Murray v. Pearson (in June 18, 1935), Thurgood Marshall and Charles Hamilton Houston of the NAACP successfully argue the landmark case in Maryland to open admissions to the segregated University of Maryland School of Law on the basis of equal protection under the Fourteenth Amendment. In August of 1936, American sprinter Jesse Owens won four gold medals at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. In 1937, Zora Neale Hurston wrote the novel, “Their Eyes Were Watching God.” The Southern Negro Youth Congress was founded in the same year too. In October of 1938, the Negro National Congress meets at the Metropolitan Opera House in Philadelphia, Pa.

On Easter Sunday on 1939, Marian Anderson performs on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. at the instigation of Secretary of Interior Harold Ickes after the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) refused permission for Anderson to sing to an integrated audience in Constitution Hall. Sister Marian Anderson has toured in Europe before. She can sing in multiple language. One of her friends was Eleanor Roosevelt (who opposed lynching and believed in racial equality). The Easter Sunday concert was attended by 75,000 people.

In 1939, a federally controlled District of Columbia Board of Education declined a request to use the auditorium of a white public high school.

In 1939, Billie Holiday first performed “Strange Fruit” in New York City. The song was a protest song against lynching and racism. It was written by Abel Meeropol under the pen name of Lewis Allan. Abel Meeropol was a liberal and a Jewish schoolteacher. He saw a picture of a lynching and was inspired to write the song. It was a signature song for Sister Billie Holiday. She performed it in the Manhattan nightclub called the Cafe Society. The lyrics that Billie Holiday sang in "Strange Fruit" are the following words:

"...Southern trees bear strange fruit
Blood on the leaves and blood at the root
Black bodies swinging in the southern breeze
Strange fruit hanging from the poplar trees

Pastoral scene of the gallant south
The bulging eyes and the twisted mouth
Scent of magnolias, sweet and fresh
Then the sudden smell of burning flesh

Here is fruit for the crows to pluck
For the rain to gather, for the wind to suck
For the sun to rot, for the trees to drop
Here is a strange and bitter crop..."


The Little League is formed, becoming the nation's first non-segregated youth sport. By August 21, 1939, five African-American men recruited and trained by African-American attorney Samuel Wilbert Tucker conduct a sit-in at the then-segregated Alexandria, Virginia, library and are arrested after being refused library cards. By September 21, 1939, the followers of Father Divine and the International Peace Mission Movement join with workers to protest racially unfair hiring practices by conducting "a kind of customers' nickel sit down strike" in a restaurant.

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The 1940's

During the 1940’s, African Americans experienced the New Deal, and the World War II events. Still, black people in the civil rights movement sacrificed and fought against oppression by any means necessary. The 1940's also saw militant action done by black Americans in the freedom struggle. A. Philip Randolph was a leader in the early civil rights movement. Slowly, but surely more and more cases in favor of black civil rights activists existed during the 1940's. Charles H. Houston (who was a great lawyer and a mentor to Thurgood Marshall) continued in cases to fight Jim Crow apartheid. The Second Great Migration among the black community existed from the 1940's too. Heroic black women like Irene Morgan opposed racial injustice. She refused to go to the back of the bus in Virginia in 1944. She was a 27 year old mother back then. She wanted to visit a doctor in Baltimore. Thurgood Marshall was one of her attorneys. "If something happens to you which is wrong, the best thing to do is have it corrected in the best way you can," said Morgan. "The best thing for me to do was to go to the Supreme Court." Her case was used to allow the Supreme Court to ban segregation involving interstate travel. In 1946 in a landmark decision, the Supreme Court ruled that the Virginia law was unconstitutional, as the Commerce clause protected interstate traffic.

By February 12, 1940, in Chambers v. Florida, the U.S. Supreme Court frees three black men who were coerced into confessing to a murder. On February 29, 1940, Hattie McDaniel becomes the first African-American to win an Academy Award. She wins Best Supporting Actress for her performance as Mammy in Gone with the Wind. The first African American general of the U.S. Army was Benjamin O. Davis Sr. from October 25, 1940. Richard Wright wrote about the black experience in his classic book, entitled, “Native Son.” The NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fun was formed in the same year as well. On January 25, 1941, A. Philip Randolph proposed a March on Washington, which started the March on Washington Movement. In early 1941, the U.S. Army forms African-American air combat units, the Tuskegee Airmen. The Tuskegee Airmen were involved in 15,000 combat sorties, winning 150 Distinguished Flying Crosses, 744 Air Medals, 8 Purple Hearts, and 14 Bronze Stars.

A. Philip Randolph tells President Roosevelt that if he doesn’t make policies to deal with discrimination in defense contracting jobs, then he would organize a march on Washington to protest racial discrimination. That is why on June 25, 1941, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt issues Executive Order 8802, the "Fair Employment Act", to require equal treatment and training of all employees by defense contractors. In Mitchell v US., the Interstate Commerce Clause was used to successfully desegregate seating on trains in 1941. In 1941, Adam Clayton Powell (who was a pastor in New York City too) was the first African American elected to the New York City Council in 1941.

 In 1942, six non-violence activists in the Fellowship of Reconciliation (Bernice Fisher, James Russell Robinson, George Houser, James Farmer, Jr., Joe Guinn and Homer Jack) found the Committee on Racial Equality, which becomes the Congress of Racial Equality. In 1943, Dr. Charles R. Drew developed techniques for separating and storing blood. He was the head of an American Red Cross effort to collect blood for American armed forces. He was the chief surgeon of Howard University's medical school and professor of surgery. His achievements were recognized when he became the first African-American surgeon to serve as an examiner on the American Board of Surgery.  Detroit’s racial riot existed in 1943. Lena Horne starred in the all African American film called “Stormy Weather.” Lena Horne was not only a great singer and performer. She was a life long advocate for civil rights. During World War II, many black GIs had pictures of her on their walls.

In 1944, in Smith v. Allwright, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that the whites-only Democratic Party primary in Texas was unconstitutional. The United Negro College Fund was incorporated in April 25, 1944. The Port Chicago disaster in July 17 caused the Port Chicago mutiny. From August 1-7, 1944, the Philadelphia transit strike of 1944 existed. This strike was about white transit workers protesting against job advancement by black workers, is broken by the U.S. military under the provisions of the Smith-Connally Act. In September 3, 1944, Recy Taylor kidnapped and gang-raped in Abbeville by six white men, who later confessed to the crimes but were never charged. The case was investigated by Rosa Parks and provided an early organizational spark for the Montgomery Bus Boycott. In November 7, 1944, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from Harlem, New York. Miami in the same year hired its first black police officers. From April 5–6, there was the Freeman Field Mutiny, in which black officers of the U.S. Army Air Corps attempt to desegregate an all-white officers' club in Indiana.

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In August of 1945, the first issue of Ebony came about. Ebony described black life in its diversity and beauty. In June 3, 1946, in Morgan v. Virginia, the U.S. Supreme Court invalidates provisions of the Virginia Code which require the separation of white and colored passengers where applied to interstate bus transport. The state law is unconstitutional insofar as it is burdening interstate commerce – an area of federal jurisdiction. In Florida, Daytona Beach, DeLand, Sanford, Fort Myers, Tampa, and Gainesville all have black police officers. So does Little Rock, Arkansas; Louisville, Kentucky; Charlotte, North Carolina; Austin, Houston, Dallas, San Antonio in Texas; Richmond, Virginia; Chattanooga and Knoxville in Tennessee.

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Renowned actor/singer Paul Robeson founds the American Crusade Against Lynching. All of these events happened in 1946. The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) sends 16 men on the Journey of Reconciliation in 1947. On April 15, 1947, Jackie Robinson played his first game for the Brooklyn Dodgers. He was the first black baseball player in professional baseball in 60 years. John Hope Franklin in 1947, authored the nonfiction book entitled, “From Slavery to Freedom.” In 1948, the United Nations, Article 4 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights bans slavery globally. In Sipuel v. Board of Regents of Univ. of Okla., (on January 12, 1948), the U.S. Supreme Court rules that the State of Oklahoma and the University of Oklahoma Law School could not deny admission based on race ("color"). In Shelley v. Kraemer, and companion case Hurd v Hodge (ACLU) the U.S. Supreme Court rules that the government cannot enforce racially restrictive covenants and asserts that they are in conflict with the nation's public policy. This happened on May 3, 1948. Hubert Humphrey gave a historic speech in favor of American civil rights at the Democratic National Convention on July 12, 1948. On July 26, 1948, President Harry S. Truman issued Executive Order 9981 ordering the end of racial discrimination in the Armed Forces. Desegregation comes about after 1950. Atlanta in the year of 1948 hired its first black police officers. On January 20, 1949, the Civil Rights Congress protests the second inauguration of Harry S. Truman.

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The 1950's to 1954.

In the 1950’s, the civil rights movement grown in to new heights. A new era dawned for black Americans during the 1950's. In McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents (on June 5, 1950), the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a public institution of higher learning could not provide different treatment to a student solely because of his race. During the date of June 5, 1950, in  Sweatt v. Painter the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a separate-but-equal Texas law school was actually unequal, partly in that it deprived black students from the collegiality of future white lawyers. The Supreme Court abolished segregation in railroad dining cars in Henderson v. United States in June 5 of that year too. By September 15, 1950, the University of Virginia under a federal court order admitted a black student to its law school. In 1950, the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights was created in Washington, D.C. to promote the enactment and enforcement of effective civil rights legislation and policy. Orlando, Florida hired its first black police officers in 1950. Dr. Ralph Bunche won the 1950 Nobel Peace Prize for his actions in the Middle East. Also, Chuck Cooper, Nathaniel Clifton and Earl Lloyd broke the barriers into the NBA in the same year. On February 2 and 5 in 1951, there was the execution of the Martinsville Seven. The Maryland legislature ended segregation on trains and boats in February 15, 1951, but Georgia legislature back then voted to deny funds to schools that integrate.


During the day of April 23, 1951, the high school students in Farmville, Virginia, go on strike. The case Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County is heard by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1954 as part of Brown v. Board of Education. A federal court ruling upheld segregation in South Carolina public school in June 23, 1951. There was a riot of white residents destroying property in July 11, 1951 in Cicero, Illinois when a black family tries to move into an apartment in the all-white suburb of Chicago. The National Guard dispersed them (or the rioters) in July 1. In July 26 of the same year, the United States Army high command announced it will desegregate the Army. The famous "We Charge Genocide" petition (on December 17, 1951) was presented to United Nations by the Civil Rights Congress which accused the United States of violating the Genocide Convention. The home of NAACP activists Harry and Harriette Moore in Mims, Florida, was bombed by a KKK group. Both human beings would die of injuries on December 24, 1951.  The Regional Council of Negro Leadership (RCNL) was founded in Cleveland, Mississippi (on December 28, 1951) by T.R.M. Howard, Amzie Moore, Aaron Henry, and other civil rights activists. Assisted by member Medgar Evers, the RCNL distributed more than 50,000 bumper stickers bearing the slogan, "Don't Buy Gas Where you Can't Use the Restroom." This campaign successfully pressured many Mississippi service stations to provide restrooms for black people.

On January 5, 1952, the Governor of Georgia Herman Talmadge criticized television shows for depicting black people and white people as equal. Herman was so racist that he didn’t want equality for all. On January 28, 1952, Briggs v. Elliott existed after a District Court had ordered separate but equal school facilities in South Carolina. Yet, the U.S. Supreme Court agreed to hear the case as part of the Brown v. Board of Education. Another federal court in March 7 of the same year upheld segregated education laws in Virginia. On April 1, Chancellor Collins J. Seitz finds for the black plaintiffs (Gebhart v. Belton, Gebhart v. Bulah) and orders the integration of Hockessin elementary and Claymont High School in Delaware based on assessment of "separate but equal" public school facilities required by the Delaware constitution.

By September 4, 1952, 11 black students attended the first day of school at Claymont High School in Delaware. They are the first black students in the 17 segregated states to integrate a white public school. The day occurs without incident or notice by the community. During the next day, the Delaware State Attorney General informed Claymont Superintendent Stahl that the black students will have to go home because the case is being appealed. Stahl, the School Board and the faculty refuse and the students remain. The two Delaware cases are argued before the Warren U.S. Supreme Court by Redding, Greenberg and Marshall and are used as an example of how integration can be achieved peacefully. It was a primary influence in the Brown v. Board case. The students become active in sports, music and theater. The first two black students graduated in June 1954 just one month after the Brown v. Board case. Ralph Ellison authored the novel Invisible Man. His book wins the National book Award. In June 8, 1953, the United States Supreme Court strikes down segregation in Washington, D.C. restaurants. On August 13, the Executive Order 10479 was signed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. It established the anti-discrimination Committee on Government Contracts. On September 1, 1953, in the  landmark case Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company, WAC Sarah Keys, represented by civil rights lawyer Dovey Roundtree, becomes the first black American to challenge "separate but equal" in bus segregation before the Interstate Commerce Commission. Also, in 1953, James Baldwin shows his semi-autobiographical novel entitled, “Go Tell It on the Mountain.” On May 3, 1954, in Hernandez v. Texas, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that Mexican Americans and all other racial groups in the United States are entitled to equal protection under the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.


On May 17, 1954, the Supreme Court ruled on one of the most important cases in human history. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled against the "separate but equal" doctrine in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kans. and in Bolling v. Sharpe, thus overturning Plessy v. Ferguson. That ruling bans segregation in public schools. It was a long fight, but that decision was a victory for humanity. This ends the early chapter of the early civil rights movement.

Later in Part 4, information about the Great Migration, the Harlem Renaissance, various black social movements (like Marcus Garvey's UNIA, etc.), World War I, the Great Depression, and the New Deal will be shown. In the end, we shall overcome.



By Timothy