Friday, March 31, 2017

African Politics and the World Situation

African Students in India to File Formal Complaint With African Union After String of Racist Attacks

Arrested Development - I Dont See You At The Club feat Veselino Jazz Pro...

Arrested Development - A Truce

Nelly Furtado - Palaces (Lyric Video)

Interview Highlights: Lauren Casteel Young, Daughter of Whitney Young Jr.

Friday Information.

I will mention many words. When a racist white male coward slanders and disrespects a black woman, we will not be silent. NO black woman should be disrespected period. I agree with Maxine Waters and with Angela Rye. Maxine Waters for decades have promoted the interests of the black community and progressive causes. For example, as an Assembly member, Waters advocated for divestment from South Africa's apartheid regime. In Congress, she was an outspoken opponent of the Iraq War. She has worked to help the poor and the homeless in California too. Maxine Waters is right to oppose the agenda of Donald Trump. Trump is overt is cutting environmental regulations, which can harm human life and animal life. Trump is overt in his proposed draconian budget, which will cut legitimate social programs (from Meals on Wheels to PBS) if it is passed. Trump is for waterboarding and Trump is involved in the vicious attack in Mosul, which has killed many civilians. Trump supporters should be ashamed of themselves for voting for a reprehensible human being. Maxine Waters is a victim of racism and misogynoir and we are all appalled.

Trump supporters have no credibility when they lecture people on respectability politics, but many of them don't say a single thing on promoting universal health care and black liberation. You have Spicer who made a disrespectful remark about April Ryan, who is a black woman and a expert journalist. The Trump administration has shown no decency involving women. Bill O'Reilly is a hypocritical liar. He is a racist for saying that he is fearful that black children would steal his hubcaps and that comment in disrespecting Sister Maxine Waters. I'm not holding back what I think. Bill only issued his pseudo "apology" because he was caught on air. He should be fired. O'Reilly's own daughter said that he was involved in domestic violence. Ailes has been sued over sexual harassment too as Sister Waters has stated. FOX News is a propaganda network. We will stand up and speak up for the humanity of black women. Maxine Waters is a strong black woman who has no fear. We will always defend the rights of women in general too. No one should be mistreated in an unfair way. The right wing extremists have no logical arguments in defending a corrupt, scandal filled administration, so many of them express ad hominem attacks against progressives. I'm a social justice warrior and I'm proud of it. I believe in a strong education, in workers' rights, and in human rights. We all honor Maxine Waters' courage.

I want to mention this point as well. Angela Rye should receive great respect for defining the truth. She refuted the lies and bigotry from Joe Walsh and Bill O'Reilly. Walsh made the racist, evil statement that former President Barack Obama was on a lower standard because he is a black man. That's a lie, because Barack Obama was heavily vetted and unfairly disrespected. Barack Obama was a U.S. Senator, a state Senator, a constitutional teacher, and a community organizer in Chicago. He has tons of qualifications. Obama's wife was also disrespected by far right extremists. Barack Obama has shown the greatest temperament in my view of any President in American history. In the first term of Trump alone, we have many scandals that deal with national security and other issues. Rye is right that O'Reilly is wrong to slander Maxine Waters too. Black women like Angela Rye, Michelle Obama, April Ryan, Maxine Waters, etc. should be treated with dignity and with respect. As Michelle Obama has mentioned, when the haters go low, we go high. It is a fact that black people work twice as hard in order to get into the door constantly. Rye is from Seattle, which is a home to progressive activists. I send great respect for her showing her Blackness unapologetically and standing up for the truth. We want all people to live in peace and harmony. Yet, in order to do that, we must eradicate racism, sexism, and injustice in general. We forever support and love black women unconditionally.
I salute Sister Angela Rye.

The age of European exploration grew rapidly. The Genoese sailor Christopher Columbus (who was an imperialist, an enslaver, and a hypocrite) proposed a voyage west from Europe to find a shorter route to Asia. He was backed financially by Isabella I and Ferdinand II. They were the Queen and king of newly united Spain. In 1492, Columbus reached land in the Bahamas. John Cabot explored the east coast of what is now called Canada in 1497. Giovanni da Verrazzano explored the East Coast of North America from Florida to presumably Newfoundland in 1524. Jacques Cartier made a series of voyages on behalf of the French crown in 1534 and penetrated the St. Lawrence River. Colonization grew in the Americas as time went on. Colonization was about many people from a former country coming into a new land. They establish colonial political structures and this system is called settler colonialism. The mother country exploit the colonists and the colonists exploit resources and the original inhabitants of the Americas. Exploration by Europeans evolve into settlements. The three principal colonial powers in North America by the 17th century were Spain, England, and France. There were other powers in the Americas involved in colonialism and imperialism like the Netherlands and Sweden too. The Spanish and the Portuguese started modern European colonization of the Americans. The Spanish  gained control of most of the largest islands in the Caribbean and conquered the Aztecs, gaining control of present-day Mexico and Central America. This was the beginning of the Spanish Empire in the New World. The first successful Spanish settlement in continental North America was Veracruz in 1519, followed by many other settlements in colonial New Spain and Spanish Florida. The first successful English settlements were at Jamestown (1607) (along with its satellite, Bermuda in 1609) and Plymouth (1620), in what are today Virginia and Massachusetts respectively. The first French settlements were Port Royal (1604) and Quebec City (1608) in what is now Nova Scotia and Quebec. The Fur Trade soon became the primary business on the continent and as a result transformed the indigenous North American lifestyle. Further to the south, plantation slavery became the main industry of the West Indies, and this gave rise to the beginning of the Atlantic slave trade. In the colonial era, the French crown took over control of New France from fur trading companies in 1663. The English charter colonies gave may to more formalized colonialism in North America. After the Battle of the Plains of Abraham at Quebec City, and France ceded most of her claims outside of the Caribbean. The end of the French presence in North America was a disaster for most Native American nations in Eastern North America, who lost their major ally against the expanding Anglo-American settlements. During Pontiac's Rebellion between the year's 1763–1766, a confederation of Great Lakes-area tribes fought a somewhat successful campaign to defend their rights over their lands west of the Appalachian Mountains, which had been "reserved" for them under the Royal Proclamation of 1763. Viceroyalty of New Spain (present-day Mexico) was the name of the viceroy-ruled territories of the Spanish Empire in Asia, North America and its peripheries from 1535 to 1821.

Yesterday was the Birthday of Sister Leleti Khumalo. She is a South African actress. She is 47 years old today. She is a beautiful black woman. She is of Zulu heritage. She was born in KwaMashu township, north of Durban, South Africa. Showing an interest in performing from an early age, Khumalo joined a youth backyard dance group called Amajika, mentored by Tu Nokwe. Khumalo performed the role of Sarafina! on stages in South Africa and on Broadway, where she received a 1988 Tony Award nomination for Best Actress in a Musical. Sarafina! had a Broadway run lasting two years, after which the production embarked on a worldwide tour. In 1987 Khumalo received a NAACP Image Award for Best Stage Actress. She was in the international musical Sarafina and the movie Sarafina. She is a great actress and performer. She loves her children and was a part of an African film festival. Also, Sarafina is one of my favorite movies. I love to listen to South African music too. Her spirit is powerful and we wish more blessings for her.
I wish more blessings for Sister Leleti Khumalo.

By Timothy

Dr. Roger Arliner Young - African American Trailblazers

Billy and James: Choices Facing African Americans during the Revolutiona...

Gabriel's Conspiracy, African American Burial Grounds, 9 of 9

Maggie L. Walker - African American Trailblazers

Thursday, March 30, 2017

Holocaust Survivor Slams ICE Official: "History is Not on Your Side!"

Watch Angela Rye Eviscerate Joe Walsh Over His Racially Charged Comments

Sean Spicer, Joe Walsh and Bill O’Reilly: Your Hatred for Black Women Is Showing

African students hospitalized in roving mob attacks in India

More News

Angela Rye legitimately exposes the bigot Joe Walsh

Wednesday, March 29, 2017

Adriana Evans - Say You Won't 1997

Real News about Life

This story is emotional and personal to us, because any missing person is a tragedy. The parents of the missing girls from the D.C. area are going through horrific pain and unspeakable hurt. This situation involves our people and this is our problem. This is a world problem too. Many people, from many quarters, have courageously spoken up about the missing girls in town hall meetings and in the streets of Washington, D.C. D.C. is home to an activist spirit. The task force is needed. Mayor Muriel Browser is doing the right thing by promoting a task force and going into public to give leadership and words of enlightenment about missing children. We express empathy to the families and friends of the young girls of D.C. We want them to come home safely. Beyonce has shown a lot of compassion to Ebony Banks. Beyonce is not only a great performer and musician. She is a very gracious black woman. Ebony Banks received her wish and now she passed away. Yet, her life's legacy isn't extinguished. Her life shows what real love and what real priorities should be about. Our real priorities is to help our neighbors, to grow, to learn, and to reach out to make society better. I send payers and condolences to the family of Ebony Banks.

One person, who is a white supremacist and a terrorist, murdered an innocent elderly black man. I won't mention the murderer's name, because of obvious reasons. I don't respect a murderer. The Brother, who was murdered, was named Timothy Caughman. The murderer was charged with terrorism as he should. He or the murderer is charged with a hate crime too. He wanted to target black men in Times Square. He came from Baltimore in order for him to travel into NYC. Timothy Caughman was a black man who wanted to survive in an imperfect world. Timothy Caughman lived his life and now he is gone physically. Although, his spirit remains forever. We see hate crimes against black people, anti-Semitic attacks against Jewish cemeteries, and the evils of Trumpism spreading internationally. Therefore, we reject racism and bigotry in the strongest terms possible. We also realize that in order for us to end injustice, we have to use our power and our activism to defeat evil. There are other incidents where white racists have assaulted black men, black women, and black children all over America. The fight for justice remains. This Trump regime has shown us that we can't be sleep at all. We have to advance our interests and stand up for our Blackness unapologetically. I send prayers and condolences to the family and friends of Brother Timothy Caughman.

I salute Sister Angela Rye for checking Bill O'Reilly's evil comments about Maxine Waters. To this very day, O'Reilly isn't fired from FOX News. He should be fired. Maxine Waters, for decades, have helped the black community and stood up for progressive causes. O'Reilly is known to make racist comments for years and even his own child said that he was involved in domestic violence against his now ex-wife. O'Reilly is vulgar and very disrespectful. Waters is right to disagree with the extremists views of Donald Trump. When a white male coward slanders a black woman, then we stand up against that racist O'Reilly. We will defend the human dignity of black women. Have hope, have faith, and do the necessary action in changing the world positively. Now, under Trump, we know about the March 17 bombing in Mosul by U.S. airstrikes which killed many civilians. Amnesty International issued a report Tuesday charging the US-led coalition besieging Mosul, Iraq’s second-largest city, with war crimes involving the “disproportionate and indiscriminate” bombing of residential areas that has slaughtered hundreds of civilian men, women and children. This bombing occurred long before 2017 too. Witnesses have said that they came into the basements of their homes in order for them to escape the bombings. Iraqi vice president Osama al-Nujaifi, who is from Mosul and the most senior Sunni official in the country, described the US bombing as a “humanitarian catastrophe” that had resulted in the “martyrdom of hundreds of civilians.” He called for an emergency session of the Iraqi parliament along with an official investigation of the incident. He charged that the mass civilian casualties were the result of changed rules of engagement on the part of the US-led “coalition” that have minimized any attempt to protect the lives of unarmed men, women and children trapped in Mosul. The killing of civilians in Mosul should not be minimized. This is the evil example of how war have ruined the lives of so many innocent human beings. We also condemn the patronizing sexism that April Ryan (who is an accomplished journalist and scholar) experienced by a White House official. April Ryan should be treated with dignity and with respect. Women in general should always be treated with dignity and with respect.

I want to make this point too. We know that beauty is diverse. Beautiful people exist in a myriad of shapes and sizes. Likewise, we know that some people want to disrespect and dehumanize women who are plus sized. We all condemn that, because we believe in treating our neighbors with dignity and with respect. Therefore, I want to send respect and love to plus sized women too (along with showing respect to women involved in exercising as women of diverse sizes are into fitness). That means that humanity is beautiful in our diversity. Diversity makes the world better.
We honor the human dignity of plus sized women forever. We believe in treating people as equal human beings. That is what my mother and father taught me to believe in. They're right to teach me that principle. We all remember the legacy of Sister Tammi Terrell. She was a great singer and a close friend of Marvin Gaye. There was a time that Marvin Gaye was a very shy man. Yet, Tammi Terrell inspired Marvin Gaye to be more open with his talent and to express that music into the next level. Also, Tammi Terrell made many great songs that are anthems of our musical culture. She had power. A lot of people in the younger generation don't know about the sacrifice, the adversity, and other challenges that artists (especially black artists) had to go through back in the day. Her goal was to provide an outlet to give joy to people and to provide for herself and her family. She loved music and music was part of her soul. Tammi Terrell desired her dignity to flow globally. She is a legend and a woman of a great presence of compassion.
Rest in Power Sister Tammi Terrell.

Human beings are complex in our actions. Alicia Keys' initial no makeup policy wanted to make a great point. It was about seeing that true beauty can be expressed without using makeup. Also, Keys is clear that women collectively who wear makeup are not pretentious or arrogant. Her response to Levine activates the point that she has the right to wear makeup if she desires. It's her face and her choice. She never said (to my mind) that all women must be required to not wear makeup. Therefore, Alicia Keys can change her mind if she desires. Tomi Lahren and the Blaze each represent the extremism of far right Republicanism. Their disagreements never ignore the blatant anti-black racism and race baiting that Tomi Lahren (who lied and compared the BLM to the Klan. She ignores the truth that the national anthem was created by a slave owning racist) has shown for a while. She has disrespected black people and now she is banned from the right wing instrument of The Blaze. My take is that you reap what you sow. I'm opposed to the views of the Blaze and Tomi Lahren.

By Timothy

Tuesday, March 28, 2017

Angela Rye Checks Bill O'Rielly (Rye is right)

More Information about Our Heroes

GrandMaster Vic Moore: The Man That Fought 'Em ALL!!!

Arrested Development - In 1 Day (Whole World Changed) - [Official Music ...

More Conscious Information

Monday, March 27, 2017

Nina Simone at Sesame Street, 18 February 1972

Black History Facts

The Missing Black Girls from DC

Words of Advice and Truth from Sister Trojan Pam.

@ diaryofanegress

Once again, you’ve provided a ton of food for thought. I have to agree, the most destructive mass mind weapon being used against black people is the TELEVISION and all the excessive video/movie watching,

Plus all the wasted, brain-crushing internet entertainment and YouTube foolishness, and that also includes the FACEBOOK-ing of meaningless personal trivia (look at what I ate!) and “selfies”

taking us all back to a STAGE of ADOLESCENCE where the world revolves around us

Our reckless disregard for our own survival is due to a great degree to all that movie watching with Denzel and Morgan Freeman and Chris Rock and Viola Davis and Kerry Washington and Tyler Perry, etc, because in the movies, racism is all but a distant memory, and black people are treated as the equals of white people and the world is such a wonderful integrated paradise, where white women LOVE them some sexy black men and white men WANT them some hot black women

At least that’s what the movies tell us, right?

And we suck it right in, hook line and dynamite

Because I’ve actually HEARD grown (over 40) black males on my job say how much white females love black men

Yet, they are also constantly complaining about the way “white people” treat black males

including stories about white females falsely accusing black males of rape or being “prejudiced”


How racist one of our WHITE FEMALE managers is


And everywhere I look, black males by the droves are breeding and dating white females, shopping at Wal-Mart, or dining at restaurants, or shopping for groceries

And I suspect, more and more black females are throwing up their hands and their skirts, saying, what the hell, if I can’t beat him, I might as well join him in my own sexual and psychological suicide

because in MOST CASES, in fact, the vast majority of cases, these tragic “relationships” or “arrangements” as some prefer to call it SELDOM lead to marriage and seldom LAST.

In the end, the black male has “dropped” a ton of “biracial” babies to be raised by often RACIST white females and has moved on, and the black female has another “secret” she has to keep for fear of being judged a “white man’s whore”

(Funny how the black male is never described as the white female’s male whore…)

In any case, reality has a strange way of sneaking up on the foolish, naive, apathetic, and unsuspecting and laying you out cold and flat on your back especially when war is being waged against a group of people and they fail to come together for their own survival.

You don’t have to be a genius to guess the ending to that movie

-Sister Trojan Pam

The Beauty of the Beast

What the Eyelash Ambush Says To the Black Collective

Late March Information about Society

As we know more about American cities, we see the beauty and the diversity of American culture. The city of Seattle has a powerful history of technology, social activism, and other aspects of human civilization. We recognize many people from Seattle for their great work in advancing human tolerance, environmental justice, racial justice, gender justice, and equality in general. This fight for human liberation continues in our generation. In our time, I have learned much more about Seattle than ever before. Seattle is a West Coast city with almost 700,000 people who live in it. So, it is the largest city in Washington State and the largest city in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. Some call it the fastest growing major city in America. It is growing rapidly. It is found in the isthmus between Puget Sound (which is an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington. It is also about 100 miles south of the Canada/United States border. It is the fourth largest port in North America in terms of container handling as of 2015. Seattle is very well known for its musical history. For example, from the duration of time from 1918 to 1951, there were almost two dozen jazz nightclubs along Jackson Street (from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District). The jazz scene in Seattle influenced the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson, and other musicians. Seattle is the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix and the alternative rock subgenre grunge. Seattle's gorgeous architecture has been iconic in its imagery for a long time. For over 100 years, Seattle has inspired our thinking, our creativity, and our activism as human beings. Therefore, we honor the great people of Seattle, who represent the greatness found in us as members of the human family. The history of Seattle of course begins with Native Americans. Today, Seattle is diverse ethnically and culturally and we appreciate that diversity too.

For thousands of years, sports have inspired human excellence, improved society, promoted togetherness, and extended human longevity. People of every creed and background have expressed sports to express creativity and the love of constructive competition. Track and field is one of the greatest sports in human history. It can improve human endurance, strength, and athleticism. It is very diverse. It deals with running, jumping, and throwing. Track and field is an international sport. It is found in America, Africa, Asia, Europe, Australia, etc. Many oval shaped stadiums have track and field sports being performed. Adults, college students, high school students, middle school students, and other youth perform track and field. There are so many activities involving track and field as well. There is sprinting. There are the actions of road running, cross country running, and race walking. Marathon running is very famous. Many athletes run in hurdles. Jumping events include the long jump, the triple jump, the high jump, and the pole vault. People throw in activities of the shot put, javelin, discus, and hammer. Combined events are common in track and field. An activity including 5 events is called the pentathlon. Those that deal with 7 events is called the heptathlon and those including 10 events is called the decathlon.   In these siutations, athletes participate in a combination of track and field events. Most track and field events are individual sports with a single victor; the most prominent team events are relay races, which typically feature teams of four. Events are almost exclusively divided by gender, although both the men's and women's competitions are usually held at the same venue. Back then, there were track races in the ancient Olympic Games from ca. 776 B.C. Today, there is track and field in the Olympic Summer Games. Also, there is the IAAF World Championships in Athletics that deals with track and field. The International Association of Athletics Federations is the international governing body. Records are readily kept involving track and field in our modern age. Women, men, and children love track and field as they express all of the time. There are many legendary track and field athletes too. They include: Jesse Owens, Jackie Joyner Kersee, Usain Bolt (who is the greatest sprinter in human history), Carl Lewis, Carmelita Jeter, Flo Jo, Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce, Paula Radcliffe, Dennis Kimetto, Patrick Makau, Catherine Ndereba, Joan Benoit, Sohn Kee-chung, Mike Powell, Michael Johnson, etc. Track and field is an awe inspiring sport and we love it wholeheartedly.  

The time from 1776 to 1865 included some of the most powerful historical events involving the American West. That time definitely caused monumental changes in the North American continent for real. There were many battles of the Revolutionary War to the west of the Appalachian Mountains and in the Midwest too. Soon, the British forces were defeated by the American forces by the end the Revolutionary War in 1783. During that era, the settlers and pioneers readily lived in one room log cabins in the frontier. Many of them ate deer, turkeys, and other animals. Many of them used horses to travel into farther distances. Native American tribes were constant victims of attack and murder by many settlers and their lands were increasingly stolen. As the 19th century progressed, changes existed. American settlers traveled into the Northwest Territory as found in Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, etc. Daniel Boone was a famous frontiersperson as well. He came from Virginia into central Kentucky. Back then, Kentucky was part of Virginia. The Wilderness Road in Kentucky by the 1700’s and 1800’s were home to many attacks. During the 19th century, the fur trade expanded. The federal postal system grew in the frontier West. Scientists, artists, and explorers existed too. The evil, bigoted doctrine of Manifest Destiny was embraced by many. Manifest Destiny is the myth that settlers (especially those of European descent) have the destiny to control all of the lands of the North American continent from the Atlantic Ocean into the Pacific Ocean (plus beyond). The Santa Fe Trail in the Southwest carried goods and services. Mexico became independent via the Mexican Revolution and Texas became independent in a controversial fashion via the Texas Revolution. The Oregon Trail allowed people to travel in the Northwest of the Pacific. Religions developed like Mormonism in the west. Joseph Smith was the founder of Mormonism. This era ends with the conclusion of the Civil War. Battles in the West during the Civil War existed. By 1865, railroads grew, technology became more advanced, and immigrants from China, Germany, and Scandinavia came into America. A new era was born and the continued oppression against Native Americans by imperialists unfortunately persisted. The American West has a complex historical story that must be told.

I'm not surprised. Like one saying goes, we are all we got. Black people have every right to stand up for the mission to save the lives of missing Black girls in Washington, D.C.. Latina girls who are missing should be found as well. This is an important issue of our generation. Black families have every right to use their voices to express outrage at how missing black people have been ignored heavily by the mainstream media and by many in society at large. This is why is is imperative to support organizations that fight to save the lives of missing children. This is personal for us for when one girl is missing, then it effects everyone in our community. We are in solidarity with the Brothers and the Sisters in Washington, D.C. who are making a difference. Certainly, the major point is that missing Black and Latina girls in the D.C. is a total tragedy and they should be found. White attendance in a meeting should never be used as a prerequisite on the importance of issues relevant to us, who are black people. Regardless if white people are there or not, the primary goal in our time is the total liberation of our black people. Historically, black people have shown massively empathy to diverse ethnicities and many from those ethncities haven't shown equivalent reciprocity to us. That is why many people in Chicago now are boycotting a business which allowed a coward to assault a black woman. The rise of the demagogue of Trump has made it clear that self-determination and promoting our interests are important actions to enact.

Likewise, I believe in caring for the environment, fighting poverty, improving health care, etc. Just because I believe in black liberation doesn't mean that we don't care for the environment (The Flint water disaster proves that environmental issues matter). Without a clean environment, people will die. No one will prevent me from speaking up for clean water and clear air. Our mind must expand and discuss about diverse issues along with showing concern unconditionally for black people too. Our cultural communities can be enhanced in many ways (from using unique programs and working in real groups that help people). One of those ways is to not worship non-blacks and that's true. Yet, we shouldn't scapegoat the poor collectively in our communities as many faux nationalists (i.e. Hoteps) have done or the past years. There is no revolutionary change without helping the poor. Great revolutionaries from Malcolm X, Dr. King, Fannie Lou Hamer, Ella Baker, Fred Hampton, etc. opposed the current economic system of oppression and desired a radical redistribution of the wealth to help our people. I believe in egalitarianism and I reject xenophobia. Yes, tons of black people showed up in the D.C. townhall, because tons of black people care for black youth and are sincere in desiring missing girls to come home. We are always showing great empathy. The lack of non-blacks in the meeting in Washington, D.C. shouldn't be the primary issue. The issue is about the safe return of the girls.

By Timothy

Corporate plunder vs. Native resistance

The massacre in Mosul

A poison pill we shouldn't swallow

Has Trump made the economy great again?

Friday, March 24, 2017

Spring 2017 Part 6

 Image result for kalief browder funeral


First, it is important to acknowledge the 160th anniversary of the evil Dred Scott decision. That decision deprived Dred Scott unjustly of his human rights. Ultimately, the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments (including the Civil and Voting Rights Act) would negate the evil Dred Scott decision. Today, we see once again how slavery ought to be remembered. Our black ancestors suffered huge injustices and this is why many of our people desire reparations. We owe a lot to the sacrifice of our ancestors. Harvard acknowledging its role in the slave trade obviously isn't enough. It isn't enough when police brutality, gentrification, and systematic racism still manifest itself against the black community. It isn't enough when Flint families suffer poisoned waters. It isn't enough when black girls and black women suffer epidemic levels of assault, harassment, and rape. We don't want tokenism. We want black people to have the power to determine our own destinies as human beings. We want true liberty in our everyday lives regardless of our sex or our income. We want economic justice and universal health care. We desire growth of our infrastructure in a Pan-African fashion. So, we know that revolutionary change is needed. I have no issues with reparations despite the difficulty of reparations transpiring in our generation. We will continue to fight to make sure that black men, black women, and black children have not only freedom, but justice.

This is certainly monumental news. Sister Nancy Abu-Bonsrah explicitly has mentioned that she desires to use her expertise to help people in Ghana (where her relatives live in). She is dedicated, extremely intelligent, and talented to soon become a physician. Her family is with her. Also, her being the first black woman accepted by Johns Hopskins as a neurosurgery resident once against outlines the genius and the power of black women globally. She honors her family and she is her own woman. Her dreams are her own and she believes in helping people in an ubiquitous fashion. I wish more blessings for Sister Nancy Abu-Bonsrah.

Ironically, many of the same Evangelicals who condemned Clinton's adultery are massively silent on Trump's bigotry, sexism, and other extremist views. It is right to compare the Trump supporters of the SBC to the Pharisees of old. They lecture people on morality, but blatantly support a person (Trump) who is a habitual liar and expresses vulgarity in a regular basis. We know many Christians who are not like bigots and who have their own love for humanity. Likewise, in order to get things rights, we have to clean our house. We can't talk about others without getting our own house in order. The members of the SBC who support Trump are embracing views antithetical to the views of Jesus Christ, who believed in helping the poor, caring for the immigrant, and standing up for justice overtly. Moore should never had apologized for his statements. We reject racism and xenophobia and we believe in the Dream. The Dream states that equality and justice is made real for us and we endorse societal changes, which can improve the world, in order for human beings to achieve joy, peace, and tranquility.

The following is a sad story that must be told. Kalief Browder is the personification of what's wrong with the prison industrial complex. Black people, for years and decades, have told the public about how vicious and nefarious the prison system is. In prison, people are assaulted by guards, money laundering exists, human beings are raped in many cases, there is massive corruption in many prisons, and human exploitation is in epidemic levels. America imprisons more people than any other nation on Earth. Even when people leave prison and paid their debts to society, there are in virtually second citizenship status (as in many states, many ex-prisoners can't vote and some struggle to find stable employment). Kalief Browder was a black man whose mother loved him a great deal. He endured vicious, , unjust, and inhuman treatment. It is totally incomprehensible to understand the turmoil that he experienced in his daily life. His story must be shown as a way for everyone to reflect and to be motivated to change conditions in society. In the final analysis, the status quo doesn't work and we desire revolutionary solutions to horrendous problems.
Rest in Power Brother Kalief Browder.

By Timothy

Spring 2017 Part 5

Image result for basketballImage result for lisa leslie and candaceImage result for wilt  kareem


For decades, basketball has been a part of world culture. It has promoted teamwork, camaraderie, friendship, and honor. It is a total team sport, which requires not only fundamental skills, but endurance, practice, mental strength, and hard work. Millions of people in America and a lot of people worldwide either see it, participate in it, or know about its components. The game is fun and it is easy to understand too. 2 teams of five players compete against each other. The objective is to shoot a ball through a hoop, which is mounted on a backboard on each side of the court. It was invented in 1891 by Dr. James Naismith in Springfield, Massachusetts. It has been around for over 125 years, so beyond the 125 year anniversary of basketball, we certainly honor its history and its cultural impact internationally. People of every age, background, and sex have played this sport. People of a diversity of physical abilities and nationalities have played and enjoyed basketball too.

We know about Lisa Leslie slam dunking a basketball in the WNBA years ago. We know about Michael Jordan doing athletic moves and dunks in the basketball court. We know about Maya Moore inspiring her team and LeBron James making a championship a reality for the Cleveland Cavaliers for the first time of its franchise's history. Therefore, basketball is here to stay. Also, it is important to note the following. Just because we love basketball, doesn’t mean that we want to minimize STEM fields or other important aspects of human civilization. STEM fields, history, philosophy, political matters, art, medicine, etc. are additional fields that we inspire anyone to pursue. Basketball for generations has been involved in social movements for positive change, has brought people together, and has been a key part of great human expression indeed. Now, it's the time to show what the great sport of basketball is all about.

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The Start

Basketball has a long history in its invention. It was invented by Dr. James Naismith (who was inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame in 1959). He was an educator in physical education and he was born in Canada. In 1891, he invented basketball. He was working at the YMCA Training School in Springfield, Massachusetts. He wanted to invent a new game, because he was in the winter and young people were forced to play sports indoors. He wanted to promote a more athletic sport in the midst of the disruptive group of students. He also wanted to condition young athletes during cold months. Dr. Naismith used his mind to invent a game of skill, finesse, and accuracy instead of one relying solely on pure strength. He played a game as a child when he used rocks. He used a soccer ball and two peach baskets placed 10 feet up in the air. He organized nine players on each team. He created a set of 13 basic rules and basketball was formed. The first game was played on December 21, 1891.  The eighteen players were John G. Thompson, Eugene S. Libby, Edwin P. Ruggles, William R. Chase, T. Duncan Patton, Frank Mahan, Finlay G. MacDonald, William H. Davis and Lyman Archibald, who defeated George Weller, Wilbert Carey, Ernest Hildner, Raymond Kaighn, Genzabaro Ishikawa, Benjamin S. French, Franklin Barnes, George Day and Henry Gelan 1–0.  The goal was scored by Chase. Initially, players could only advance the ball by passing it. Bouncing the ball along the floor — what we call "dribbling" today — did not become part of the game until later. Points were earned by successfully tossing the soccer ball into the peach baskets.   After each basket that was made, players had to climb a ladder to retrieve the ball from the basket. Iron hoops with open-ended nets didn't come along until 1913.  The first public game was played in Springfield, Massachusetts on March 11, 1892. The first college basketball game was played on January 18, 1896, when the University of Iowa hosted a game with the University of Chicago. The final score was: Chicago 15, Iowa 12.  Only in 1906 were metal hoops, nets and backboards introduced. Moreover, the earlier the soccer ball was replaced by a Spalding ball, similar to the one used today.

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Basketball expanded rapidly during the late 19th century and early 20th century. The YMCA helped to spread basketball throughout America, Canada, and the world. By 1893, Mel Rideout created the first European basketball game in Paris in Montmartre. At the same time, Bob Gailey sent basketball in Tientsin, China. Duncan Patton came into India to spread basketball. There were Genzabaro Ishikawa to Japan, and C. Hareek to Persia to send the sport of basketball to those nations. When World War I came about in 1914, the U.S. Army soon fought in Europe by 1917. The American Expeditionary Force in WWI took basketball wherever it went.   Together with the troops, there were hundreds of physical education teachers who knew basketball. Naismith also spent two years with the YMCA in France in that period. The first professional league was founded in 1898. Six teams took part in the National Basketball League, and the first champions were the Trenton Nationals, followed by the New York Wanderers, the Bristol Pile Drivers and the Camden Electrics. The league was abandoned in 1904. Then, many small championships were organized, but most of them were not as important as some teams who played for money against challengers. There were the Original Celtics who were famous back during the early 20th century. They played until 1928. Some viewed the team as the forerunners of the Boston Celtics of the NBA. Yet, the team is not. The Boston Celtics was created in 1946.  In 1922, the first all-African American professional team was founded: the Rens (also known as New York Renaissance or Harlem Renaissance). The Rens were the Original Celtics’ usual opponent, and for their matches a ticket cost $1. They took part in some official championships and won the first World Professional Basketball Tournament in 1939. The team disbanded in 1949. In the 1920's and 1930's, Eastern Basketball League (founded in 1909), Metropolitan Basketball League (founded in 1921) and American Basketball League (founded in 1925) were the most important leagues in America.

During the year years of basketball, college basketball was always extremely popular in America. The first known U.S. college to field a basketball team against an outside opponent was Vanderbilt University. That team played against the local YMCA in Nashville, Tennessee on February 7, 1893. The second recorded instance of an organized college basketball game was Geneva College’s game against the New Brighton YMCA on April 8, 1893 in Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania which Geneva won 3-0. The first recorded game between two college teams occurred on February 9, 1895, when Hamline University faced Minnesota A&M (which later became a part of the University of Minnesota). Minnesota A&M won the game, which was played under rules allowing nine players per side, 9–3. The first intercollegiate match using the modern rule of five players per side is often credited as a game between the University of Chicago and the University of Iowa, in Iowa City, Iowa, on January 18, 1896. The Chicago team was organized by Amos Alonzo Stagg. He learned the game from James Naismith at the Springfield YMCA. The Chicago team won the game 15-12. Some sources said that the first “true” five on five intercollegiate match was game  between Yale and Penn, because the Iowa team, that played Chicago in 1896, was composed of University of Iowa students, but did not officially represent the University of Iowa – rather being organized through a YMCA. College basketball games spread to colleges nationwide by 1900. In 1897, the AAU (or the Amateur Athletic Union) has taken oversight of basketball activity from the YMCA. By April 1905, representatives of fifteen colleges separately took over control of the college game. They created the collegiate “Basket Ball Rule Committee.” The Committee was in turn absorbed into the predecessor of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (or NCAA) in 1909. The extremely popular NCAA’ Men’s Basketball Tournament was created in 1939. Basketball traveled quickly internationally. In 1909, the first international match was held in Saint Petersburg.  Mayak Saint Petersburg beat a YMCA American team. The first great European event was held in 1919 in Joinville-le-Pont, near Paris, during the Inter-Allied Games. United States, led by future Hall of Fame player Max Friedman, won against Italy and France, and then Italy beat France. Basketball soon became popular among French and Italians. The Italian team had a white shirt with the House of Savoy shield and the players were: Arrigo and Marco Muggiani, Baccarini, Giuseppe Sessa, Palestra, Pecollo and Bagnoli.

World basketball grew as well during the early 20th century. On June 18, 1932, a real international organization was created. It had tournaments and teams. Argentina, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Portugal, Romania and Switzerland founded the International Basketball Federation (Fédération internationale de basketball amateur, FIBA) in Geneva. Its actions and work was crucial in causing the first inclusion of basketball in the Berlin Summer Olympic Games in 1936. The first Olympic title was won by the U.S. national team: Sam Balter, Ralph Bishop, Joe Fortenberry, Tex Gibbons, Francis Johnson, Carl Knowles, Frank Lubin, Art Mollner, Donald Piper, Jack Ragland, Willard Schmidt, Carl Shy, Duane Swanson, Bill Wheatley and the trainer James Needles. Canada was runner-up; the games were played on an outdoor clay court. The first World Championship was held in Argentina in 1950.

African Americans have a long history in the early years of basketball. The Smart Set Athletic Club of Brooklyn and the St. Christopher Club of New York City were established as the first fully organized independent all-black basketball teams in 1906. These teams were amateur. In 1907 the amateur, all-black Olympian Athletic League was formed in New York City consisting of the Smart Set Athletic Club, St. Christopher Club, Marathon Athletic Club, Alpha Physical Culture Club, and the Jersey City Colored YMCA. The first inter-city basketball game between two black teams was played in 1907 when the Smart Set Athletic Club of Brooklyn traveled to Washington, DC to play the Crescent Athletic Club. In 1908, Smart Set Athletic Club of Brooklyn, a member of the Olympian Athletic League was named the first Colored Basketball World's Champion. In 1910 Howard University’s first varsity basketball team started. In 1922 the Commonwealth Five, the first all-black professional team was founded. The New York Renaissance was founded in 1923. In 1939 the all-black New York Renaissance beat the all-white Oshkosh All-Stars in the World Pro Basketball Tournament. From the late 1920's the African American Harlem Globetrotters were a successful touring team, winning the WPBT in 1940. The all-white National Basketball League began to racially integrate in 1942 with 10 black players joining two teams, the Toledo Jim White Chevrolets, and the Chicago Studebakers. The NBA integrated in 1950–51 seasons, just two years after its founding, with three black players each achieving a separate milestone in that process. In the draft held immediately prior to that season, Chuck Cooper became the first black player drafted by an NBA team. Shortly after the draft, Nat Clifton became the first black player to sign an NBA contract. Finally, Earl Lloyd became the first black player to appear in an NBA game as his team started its season before either Cooper's or Clifton's. After the integration of the NBA, the Harlem Globetrotters started to focus on international touring and exhibition performances, including comic routines. These tours helped to popularize basketball internationally, and gave the Globetrotters the reputation as Basketball's goodwill ambassadors.

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The NBA was called the Basketball league at first in June 6, 1946. It was founded in New York City. In 1967, the NBA faced new competition with the creation of the ABA or the American Basketball Association. So, both leagues had the best players in the country. The NBA landed the most talented college star of that era. His name is Kareem Abdul-Jabbar (his previous name was Lew Alcindor). Also, Rick Barry (the NBA’s leading scorer back then) jumped into the ABA along with 4 veteran referees (their names are Norm Drucker, Earl Strom, John Vanak, and Joe Gushue). In 1969, Alan Siegel, who oversaw the design of Jerry Dior's Major League Baseball logo a year prior, created the modern NBA logo inspired by the MLB's. It incorporates the silhouette of the legendary Jerry West based on a photo by Wen Roberts. Although NBA officials denied a particular player as being its influence because, according to Siegel, "They want to institutionalize it rather than individualize it. It's become such a ubiquitous, classic symbol and focal point of their identity and their licensing program that they don't necessarily want to identify it with one player." The iconic logo debuted in 1971 and would remain a fixture of the NBA brand. The ABA was very successful. They signed many major stars during the 1970’s. One was Julius Erving of the Virginia Squires. It allowed teams to sign college undergraduates.  The NBA expanded rapidly during this period, one purpose being to tie up the most viable cities. From 1966 to 1974, the NBA grew from nine franchises to 18. In 1970, the Portland Trail Blazers, Cleveland Cavaliers, and Buffalo Braves (now the Los Angeles Clippers) all made their debuts expanding the league to 17. The New Orleans Jazz (now in Utah) came aboard in 1974 bringing the total to 18. Following the 1976 season, the leagues reached a settlement that provided for the addition of four ABA franchises to the NBA, raising the number of franchises in the league at that time to 22. The franchises added were the San Antonio Spurs, Denver Nuggets, Indiana Pacers, and New York Nets (now the Brooklyn Nets). Some of the biggest stars of this era of the 1970's were Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, Rick Barry, Wilt Chamberlain, Oscar Robertson, Dave Cowens, Julius Erving, Elvin Hayes, Walt Frazier, Moses Malone, Artis Gilmore, George Gervin, Dan Issel, and Pete Maravich. WIlt and Chamberlain had a powerful rivalry. Kareem is right that Wilt is a great player and possibly the strongest player in NBA history. Yet, Kareem is right to mention in a letter to criticize Wilt's denigration of black women in his autobiography and his support of a criminal like Richard Nixon. Wilt was a political conservative and he was overt in his right wing, Republican ideology. I disagree with Wilt's misogynoir and his politics. While Wilt criticized the Black Panthers, Kareem defended Muhammad Ali, advanced progressive causes, and stood up in favor of social justice in public. The end of the decade, however, saw declining TV ratings, low attendance and drug-related player issues – both perceived and real – that threatened to derail the NBA.

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Basketball increased with popularity still. The NBA added the ABA’s innovative 3 point field goal starting in 1979 to open up the game. During that same year, rookies Larry Bird and Magic Johnson joined the Boston Celtics and the Los Angeles Lakers respectively. This started a period of significant growth in fan interest in the NBA nationwide and internationally. Both players were some of the greatest players in NBA history. In 1984, they played against each other for the first time in NBA Finals. Magic Johnson and the Lakers during the 1980’s caused the Lakers to get five titles. Bird and the Celtics went on to cause the Celtics to win 3 titles. Also in the early 1980's, the NBA added one more expansion franchise, the Dallas Mavericks, bringing the total to 23 teams. Later on, Larry Bird won the first three three-point shooting contests. Former league commissioner David Stern who took office on February 1, 1984 before retiring February 1, 2014, oversaw the expansion and growth of the NBA to a global institution.

The 1984 NBA Draft was one of the most talented drafts in NBA history. The players of the draft during that year included Hakeem Olajuwon, Sam Bowie, Michael Jordan, Sam Perkins, Charles Barkley, Melvin Turpin, Alvin Robertson, John Stockton, and other players. Scottie Pippen, Dominique Wilkins, and other players of the 1980’s were ahead of their times and excellent in their talent. Michael Jordan entered the league in 1984 with the Chicago Bulls, providing an even more popular star to support growing interest in the league. This resulted in more cities demanding teams of their own. In 1988 and 1989, four cities got their wishes as the Charlotte Hornets, Miami Heat, Orlando Magic, and Minnesota Timberwolves made their NBA debuts, bringing the total to 27 teams. In the first year of the 1990's, the Detroit Pistons would win the second of their back-to-back titles, led by Coach Chuck Daly and guard Isiah Thomas. Jordan and Scottie Pippen would lead the Bulls to two three-peats in eight years during the 1991–98 seasons. Hakeem Olajuwon won back-to-back titles with the Houston Rockets in 1994 and 1995. The 1992 Olympic basketball Dream Team, the first to use current NBA stars, featured Michael Jordan as the anchor, along with Bird, Johnson, David Robinson, Patrick Ewing, Scottie Pippen, Clyde Drexler, Karl Malone, John Stockton, Chris Mullin, Charles Barkley, and Christian Laettner. Eleven players on the Dream Team have been inducted individually into the Basketball Hall of Fame. The Dream Team was a great team.

In 1995, the NBA expanded to Canada with the addition of the Vancouver Grizzlies and the Toronto Raptors. In 2001, the Vancouver Grizzlies relocated to Memphis, which left the Raptors as the only Canadian team in the NBA. In 1998, the NBA owners began a lockout which lasted 191 days and was settled on January 18, 1999. As a result of this lockout the 1998–99 NBA season was reduced from 82 to 50 games (61% of a normal season), and the All-Star Game was cancelled. The San Antonio Spurs won their first championship, and first by a former ABA team, by beating the New York Knicks, who were the first, and are the only, eighth seed to ever make it to the NBA Finals. By this time, the modern era of the NBA existed. By the summer of 1998, the breakup of the Chicago Bulls championship roster existed. The Western Conference afterwards dominated the NBA Finals. Since 1998, the Los Angeles Lakers and the San Antonio Spurs combined to win the title nine out of 14 seasons.  Tim Duncan and David Robinson won the 1999 championship with the Spurs, and Shaquille O'Neal and Kobe Bryant started the 2000's with three consecutive championships for the Lakers. The Spurs reclaimed the title in 2003 against the Nets. In 2004, the Lakers returned to the Finals, only to fall in five games to the Detroit Pistons. After the Spurs took home the Larry O'Brien Championship Trophy in 2005, the 2006 Finals featured two franchises making their inaugural Finals appearances.

The Miami Heat, led by their star shooting guard, Dwyane Wade, and Shaquille O'Neal, who had been traded from the Lakers during the 2004 summer, won the series over the Dallas Mavericks in six after losing the first two games. The Lakers/Spurs dominance continued in 2007 with a four-game sweep by the Spurs over the Cleveland Cavaliers, who were led by LeBron James. The 2008 Finals saw a rematch of the league's highest profile rivalry, the Boston Celtics and Los Angeles Lakers, with the Celtics winning, for their 17th championship, thanks to their new big three of Paul Pierce, Ray Allen, and Kevin Garnett. In 2009, Kobe Bryant and the Lakers returned to the Finals, this time defeating the Dwight Howard-led Orlando Magic. Bryant won his first Bill Russell NBA Finals Most Valuable Player Award in his 13th season after leading the Lakers to their first NBA championship since the departure of Shaquille O'Neal. The 2010 NBA All-Star Game was held at Cowboys Stadium in front of the largest crowd ever, 108,713. At the end of that season, the Celtics and the Lakers renewed their rivalry from 2008 when they met again in the NBA Finals for a record 12th time. The Lakers won the title by winning Game 7, 83–79.

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Before the start of the 2010–11 season the NBA had an exciting summer with one of the most anticipated free agent classes of all time. Two of which signed, and one resigned, with the Miami Heat, leading to a season that was heavily centered on their eventual success or failure at taking home the championship. The Heat, led by LeBron James, Dwyane Wade, and Chris Bosh, did in fact make the Finals against the Dallas Mavericks, in a rematch for the franchises of the 2006 Finals. The Mavericks, led by Dirk Nowitzki (the eventual NBA Finals MVP), took the series in six games. This was the Mavericks' first title. Veterans Shawn Marion, Jason Kidd, Jason Terry, and Peja Stojaković celebrated their first NBA championship. July 1, 2011, at 12:01 am, the NBA announced another lockout. After the first few weeks of the season were canceled, the players and owners ratified a new collective bargaining agreement on December 8, 2011, setting up a shortened 66-game season. Following the shortened season, the Miami Heat made a return to the Finals with the trio of Dwyane Wade, LeBron James, and Chris Bosh against Oklahoma City Thunder's Kevin Durant, Russell Westbrook, and James Harden. The Heat went on to defeat the Thunder in five games, capturing their second NBA title in six years. Their success would continue into the following season, which concluded with their victory over the San Antonio Spurs in the 2013 NBA Finals. The two teams would meet for a rematch in the following year's Finals, where the Spurs defeated the Heat in five games. Following that series, LeBron James announced that he would return to the Cleveland Cavaliers. James led the Cavaliers to their second Finals appearance, where they fell to the Golden State Warriors in six games. Most recently, in a rematch, the 2016 NBA Finals concluded with the Cavaliers defeating the Warriors in seven games to win their first NBA Championship. Right, Lebron James is the greatest player in the NBA playing right now. He has taken the league into new heights and has shown philanthropy outside of the court too.

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Other Leagues

The American Basketball Association or the ABA was created as an alternative to the NBA in 1967. This was when the NBA had a lot of popularity. The ABA offered an alternative ethos and game style as well as some changes in the rules. Julius Erving was the leading player in the league, and helped launch a modern style of play that emphasizes leaping and play above the rim. His playing strength helped legitimize the American Basketball Association. The league emphasized excitement and liveliness, be it in the color of the ball (red, white and blue), the manner of play, wild promotions, or the three-point shot. National recognition and earnings were low, leading the league to look for a way out of its problems. That is why the ABA soon merged with the NBA. The ABA was merged with the NBA in the summer of 1976. Its four most  successful franchises (the New York Nets, Denver Nuggets, Indiana Pacers, and San Antonio Spurs) being incorporated into the older league.  The aggressive, loose style of play and the three-point shot were taken up by the NBA.

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Impact and International Power

The internationalization of basketball has increased over the years and decades. Since the advent of the 1992 Dream Team, many players from around the world has been inspired to play in international basketball leagues and in the NBA (of North America). We live in a new society. We live in a more technological, social, political, and economic integrated globe. About a quarter of the players in the NBA are international players. Ben Simmons from Australia, Dragan Bender from Croatia, and the Pelicans’ Buddy Hield from the Bahamas play in the NBA. Also, countries like France, Germany, Russia, Spain, Turkey, Nigeria, Angola, and other nations have their own basketball leagues and championships as well. Their institutions must be respected just like the NBA. Dirk Nowitzki, Drazen Petrovic, and Yao Ming made huge impacts in basketball and they weren’t born in America. Hakeem Olajuwon was born in Lagos, Nigeria. He is one of the greatest basketball players in history. He won 2 championships in the NBA and had 2 Finals MVPs. He has also paved the way for many international players to play in the NBA and other international leagues.

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Women's Basketball

Women’s basketball has existed for over 100 years in the world. It is very popular not only in America, but worldwide. Today, FIBA Women’s Basketball World Cup features top national teams from continental championships. There is the Euro League Women that has teams from Russian Women’s Basketball Premier League. There is the NCAA Women’s Division I Basketball Championship. Also, there is the famous WNBA League. Women’s basketball started in the winter of 1892 in Smith College.  Senda Berenson, an instructor at Smith, taught basketball to her students, hoping the activity would improve their physical health. Basketball's early adherents were affiliated with YMCAs and colleges throughout the United States, and the game quickly spread throughout the country. Berenson modified some of the rules. These included a court divided into three areas and nine players per team. Three players were assigned to each area (guard, center, forward) and could not cross the line into another area. The ball was moved from section to section by passing or dribbling. Players were limited to three dribbles and could hold the ball for three seconds. No snatching or batting the ball away from a player was allowed. A center jump was required after each score. Peach baskets and the soccer ball were the equipment. Variations of Berenson’s rules spread across the country via YMCAs and college. The first intercollegiate women’s basketball game was played between teams from Stanford University and the University of California, Berkeley, in 1896. Women’s basketball popularity increased. Women’s basketball became part of the Olympic Games in 1976. Funding for women’s basketball in America grew in funding in the college level. New laws forbid discrimination based upon sex. In America, Title IX was passed in 1972 as a way to end sexual discrimination and stereotyping in admission to colleges and in academic subjects.  Between 1971 and 2000, Title IX has proven to have had a huge impact on female collegiate sports. “Sports participation among college women has risen from 372 percent over that time, from 32,000 to more than 150,000 women (McDonagh, Pappano, 2008, 108). Also now 33.5% of female students participate in sports (McDonagh, Pappano, 2008).

The fight for gender equality continues. Professional leagues for are found globally. There we many attempts to create women’s professional leagues in America. The other attempts (like the Women’s Pro-Basketball League and the WBA) didn’t last over 10 years until the NBA founded the WNBA in 1996. The WNBA played its first game in June 21, 1997 and I remembered it like it was yesterday. The regular WNBA season is June to September (North American Spring and Summer). Most WNBA teams play at the same venue as their NBA counterparts. Most team names are also very similar to those of NBA teams in the same market, such as the Washington Wizards and Washington Mystics, the Minnesota Timberwolves and Minnesota Lynx. Rules for women's basketball are nearly the same as the rules for men's basketball. Probably the biggest difference is that the circumference of the women’s basketball is one inch smaller than the circumference of the size of the men's basketball. Also, in American professional basketball, the women’s three-point line is slightly closer to the basket than men’s. As for the Olympics, since 1996, the U.S. women’s basketball team has won gold. The FIBA Africa Women's Championship is the women's basketball continental championship of Africa, played biennially under the auspices of FIBA, the basketball sport governing body, and the African zone thereof. Women’s basketball is global and it will remain forevermore.

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Important Lessons

There are many lessons learned in basketball. It is a team game, therefore one person can’t win a team game alone. There must be teamwork in order to make one team the victor. Also, basketball is fun. It requires not only athleticism and physical skill. It requires practice and patience, because practice can make anyone a better basketball player. Anyone needs patience in order to concentrate and make a game more interesting. Also, basketball is more than a game. It has given opportunities to so many human beings from the poor to those who work in other fields too. We have issues too. Many big corporations want to exploit athletes for the sake of increasing their profits and growing their portfolios. Many athletes have been the victims of bad contracts and other complications. This should change. We also know about the legacy of many players displaying a social consciousness involving basketball. Bill Russell and Kareem Abdul Jabbar are well known human beings who have advocated for social justice and standing up for civil rights. They stood in support of Muhammad Ali in defending his right to oppose the unjust Vietnam War. Today, many athletes give much of their money to help the minorities and the poor. Also, some athletes are selfish and refuse to help the inner city, which is a shame.

The fundamental point is that we have work to do. We want resources to build up our communities excluding materialism and militarism. "Forty Million Dollar Slaves: The Rise, Fall, and Redemption of the Black Athlete" is a book written by the sports expert William C. Rhoden. His book conclusively exposes the exploitation of athletes by the establishment in strong terms. Basketball is an international game that has helped so many people. Yet, basketball alone can never save us. Social activism, the development of our consciousness, and real work can help society in comprehensive ways. Basketball has sent joy into the lives of many. It has united societies and developed cultures. It is a game that is part of the expression of humanity. We love the game and we cherish it. Also, we have the responsibility to use basketball to teach us the lesson about making the world better.

By Timothy

Spring 2017 Part 4

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Phoenix, Arizona is found in the Southwest and the Western part of the United States of America. Phoenix has a long history. Its growth is amazing, its people are diverse, and its cultural strength is beautiful and magnanimous. Today, the great city of Phoenix has more than 1.5 million human beings. From its airport to its neighborhoods (like Midtown, Uptown, West Phoenix, North Phoenix, Biltmore, Aracadia, and Sunnyslope), Phoenix is known for its technological innovations and its down to Earth people. Phoenix is a cultural center of the state and a large city of the Southwest region. Diverse fauna and flora reside in the city too from bobcats to a giant saguaro. People of diverse backgrounds and creeds live in Phoenix. Frank Lloyd Wright influenced heavily much of the architecture or the city of Phoenix. He built his winter home called the Taliesin West in Phoenix. Home to many recreational parks, artistic locations, and sports arenas, its tourism in Phoenix has been very strong. The mayor currently is Greg Stanton, who is a Democrat. He was re-elected in 2015. It has its own light rail system too. Valley Metro's 20-mile (32 km) light rail project, called Valley Metro Rail, through north-central Phoenix, downtown, and eastward through Tempe and Mesa, opened December 27, 2008. Future rail segments of more than 30 miles (48 km) are planned to open by 2030. From an agricultural community to an international city, it has shown the world that great communities are blessings for the world society. It has almost 1.6 million people. Phoenix is found in the Valley of the Sun metropolis area. South of Phoenix is Maricopa County. Northeast of Phoenix is Scottdale. Southeast of Phoenix is found the city of Temple. Northwest of Phoenix is Glendale and Peoria. West of Phoenix is found Goodyear and north of Phoenix is Prescott.

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Native American History

The first inhabitants of Phoenix were the Native Americans. They were hunters and gatherers. They hunted Pleistocene animals like mammoths, mastodons, and giant bisons. Back then, there were ancient horses, camels, and giant sloths in the area whose remains were discovered in the Salt River Valley. The Native Americans lived in the southwestern American region and northern Mexico for tens of thousands of years. This existed in 9,000 B.C. By 7,000 B.C, some Native Americans left the area to be replaced by other Native Americans. This era lasted from ca. 7,000 B.C. until 1 A.D. These human beings were hunters and gatherers. They travel the area too. By about 3,000 years ago, the culture changed into an agricultural lifestyle. Maize around this time was cultivated. The agrarian culture grew. Farming spread. Groups started to show their cultural differences. These differences in the ancient Southwestern territories were among farmers, villagers, and the nomads. The farmer culture was dominated by a tribe called the Hohokam.

The Hohokam peoples used petroglyph or writings on stone. They came from Mexico. They were agrarian in their civilization. They traveled as north as the Salt River basins. For more than 2,000 years, the Hohokam peoples traveled into Phoenix.  Hohokam is a present-day name given to the occupants of central and southern Arizona who lived here between about the year 0 and 1450 A.D. (current era). It is derived from the Pima Native American (Akimel O'odham) word for "those who have gone" or "all used up. The Hohokam travel into the valley has been divided into 5 periods by paleontologists. The earliest period is known as the Pioneer Period, which lasted roughly from 1–700 AD, and was categorized by groups of shallow pit houses, and by its end the first canals were being used for irrigation. Also, the period saw the first decorated ceramics appearing.

This was followed by the Colonial Period (c. 700 – 900 AD), during which time the irrigation system was expanded and the community sizes grew, as did the size of the dwellings. Rock art and ball courts began to appear, and cremations became the usual form of burial. 900 to 1150 AD, referred to as the Sedentary Period, again saw the expansion of the settlements and the canal system. Platform mounds began to be built, and plazas and the ball courts which began to appear in the last period, became more prevalent in the larger settlements. The final period, the Classic Period, lasted approximately from 1150 A.D. until 1450 A.D. The number of villages declined during this period, but the size of the remaining settlements increased. Their canals were about 135 miles which made the desert land arable. Many of these canals are used for the model day Arizona Canal, Central Arizona Project Canal, and the Hayden-Rhodes Aqueduct. By 1300, the Hohokam peoples became the largest population in the Southwest. They traded with the Aztecs and other nearby peoples like the Anasazi, Mogollon, and the Sinagua. Some believed that the Hohokam witnessed a supernova of 1006. They disappeared from the area by the mid 1400’s possibly either because of drought or flooding. Afterwards, many people came into the area. They were the Akimel O'odham (commonly known as Pima), Tohono O’odham and Maricopa tribes began to use the area, as well as segments of the Yavapai and Apache. The O’odham especially dominated the Phoenix area with irrigation systems, crops, etc. They worked to protect themselves from the Yuma and Apache tribes. The Yuma people traveled and they lived in the Arizona state.

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Colonization by Europeans

By the 1500’s, Spanish explorers came about into the Arizona area. Many of them wrote accounts about their journeys. They left behind European diseases that ravaged Native American tribes with no immunity, especially smallpox, measles and influenza. The Spanish opened a mission in the Tucson area, but made no settlements anywhere near Phoenix. When the Mexican-American War ended in 1848, most of Mexico’s northern zone passed to United States control. A portion of it was made into the New Mexico Territory (which included what is now Phoenix) shortly afterward. Later, in the Gadsden Purchase of 1853, the U.S. promised to honor all land rights of the area including those of the O’odham. The O’odham gained full constitutional rights. During the American Civil War, the Salt River and the Gila River Valleys (which made up of much of the territory of Phoenix today) were claimed by both sides in the conflict.  Confederate Arizona was officially claimed by The South, and formally created by a proclamation by Jefferson Davis on February 14, 1862. Its capital was at Mesilla, in New Mexico.

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The North claimed the Salt River Valley as part of the Arizona Territory, formed by Congress in 1863 with its capital at Fort Whipple, before it was moved the following year to Prescott. While laying claim to the area, the Confederates made no move to enforce that claim, while one of the reasons for the establishment of Fort McDowell was to support the North's possession of the territory. However, since the Phoenix area had no military value, it was not contested ground during the war.

The founding of Phoenix

The founding of Phoenix has a long history. By 1863, the mining community of Wickenburg was the first to be established in what is now Maricopa County. It’s located to the northwest of modern Phoenix. During that time, Maricopa County had not yet been incorporated. The land was within Yavapai County, which included the major town of Prescott to the north of Wickenburg. When the Civil War came to a close, settlers from the north and east began to encroach on the Valley of the Sun. The U.S. Army set up Fort McDowell on the Verde River in 1865 to quell Native American uprisings. In order to create a supply of hay for their needs, the fort established a camp on the south side of the Salt River in 1866. This was the first non-native settlement in the valley. Later, other nearby settlements would form and merge to become the city of Tempe. Yet, this community was incorporated after Phoenix. Phoenix’s history as a city started with Jack Swilling. He was an ex-Confederate who in November 1867 was on a visit to the Fort’s camp. He was the first to utilize the agricultural potential of the Salt River Valley. He promoted the 1st irrigation system, which was in part inspired by the ruins of Hohokam canals.

Returning to Wickenburg, he raised funds from local gold miners and formed the Swilling Irrigating and Canal Company, whose intent was to build irrigation canals and develop the Salt River Valley for farming. The next month, December, Swilling led a group of 17 miners back to the valley, where they began the process of building the canals which would revitalize the area. There is no concrete evidence on who came up with the name for the new community, but anecdotal stories give credit to Darrell Dupa, who suggested they name it Phoenix. Swilling had suggested "Stonewall", after Stonewall Jackson, and another proposed name was Salina, which had been an early name for the Salt River. However, in light of the rebirth of a town after the collapse of the Hohokam civilization, the name Phoenix predominated. A letter to a newspaper in Prescott shows that this name was already in use by January 1868. The Board of Supervisors in Yavapai County, which at the time encompassed Phoenix.

It officially recognized the new town of Phoenix on May 4, 1868 and formed an election precinct. The first post office was established on June 15, 1868, located in Swiling’s homestead, with Swiling serving as the postmaster. Phoenix grew. By 1870 in the U.S. census, the total Salt River Valley population had 240. Due to economic considerations benefiting the members of SRVTA, the more westerly town site was selected, and a 320 acres (1.3 km2) plot of land was purchased in what is now the downtown business section. On February 14, 1871, following a vote by the territorial legislature, Governor A.K. Safford issued a proclamation creating Maricopa County by dividing Yavapai County. In that same proclamation, he named Phoenix the county seat, but that nomination was subject to the approval of the voters. An election was held in May 1871, at which Phoenix' selection as the county seat was ratified. Quite a few members of SRVTA were also elected to county positions: among them were John Alsop (Probate Judge), William Hancock (Surveyor) and Tom Barnum was elected the first sheriff. Barnum ran unopposed as the other two candidates had a shootout that left one dead and the other withdrawing from the race. The town's first government consisted of three commissioners. Several lots of land were sold in 1870 at the average price of $8. The first church in Phoenix opened in 1871 as did the first store. The first public school class was held on September 5, 1872, in the courtroom of the county building. By October 1873, a small school was completed on Center Street (now Central Avenue). The total value of the Phoenix Town site was $550, with downtown lots selling for between $7 and $11 each.

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Phoenix's Growth

By 1875, the town had a telegraph office, sixteen saloons, and four dance halls, but the townsite-commissioner form of government was no longer working well. At a mass meeting on Oct. 20, 1875, an election was held to select three village trustees and other officials. Those first three trustees were John Smith (Chairman), Charles W. Stearns (treasurer), and Capt. Hancock (secretary). 1878 saw the opening of the first bank, a branch of the Bank of Arizona, and by 1880, Phoenix's population stood at 2,453. Later in 1880, the first legal hanging in Maricopa County was held, performed in town. In 1881, Phoenix continued to grow. It had a board trustee, but it became obsolete. The 11th Territorial Legislature passed "The Phoenix Charter Bill", incorporating Phoenix and providing for a mayor-council government. The bill was signed by Governor John C. Fremont on February 25, 1881, officially incorporating Phoenix with a population of approximately 2,500. On May 3, 1881, Phoenix held its first city election. Judge John T. Alsap defeated James D. Monihon, 127 to 107, to become the city's first mayor. Infrastructure and services developed in Phoenix especially to respond to crisis or events. After many smallpox outbreaks, the public health department was instituted during the early 1880’s. There was the volunteer fire department being created after 2 serious fires in the city. The public water system began in 1887. Other services which would see their beginnings in this decade were a private gas lighting company in 1886. A telephone company was created in 1886, a mule drawn streetcar system was made in 1887 and electric power came about in 1888. The coming of the railroad in the 1880’s was the first of several important events that revolutionized the economy of Phoenix. A spur of the Southern Pacific Railroad, the Phoenix and Maricopa, was extended from Maricopa into Tempe in 1887.

Merchandise now flowed into the city by rail instead of wagon. Phoenix became a trade center, with its products reaching eastern and western markets. In response, the Phoenix Chamber of Commerce was organized on November 4, 1888. Earlier in 1888, the city offices were moved into the new City Hall at Washington and Central (later, the site of the city bus terminal until Central Station was built in the 1990’s). When the territorial capital was moved from Prescott to Phoenix in 1889 the temporary territorial offices were also located in City Hall. The Arizona Republic was a daily paper in 1890 with Ed Gill as its editor. The greatest flood in the Valley’s history was in 1891. The creation of the Phoenix Sewer and Drainage Department existed in 1892. The Phoenix Street Railway electrified its mule-drawn streetcar lines in 1893, with streetcar service continuing until a 1947 fire. Another important event which occurred in 1893 was the passage of a territorial law which allowed Phoenix to annex land surrounding the city, as long as it obtained the permission of the inhabitants of that area. This would begin a process which lasts till today, as the city annexed some surrounding terrain, growing from its original 0.5 square miles of territory to slightly over 2 square miles of territory by the turn of the century. On March 12, 1895, the Santa Fe, Prescott and Phoenix Railroad ran its first train to Phoenix, connecting it to the northern part of Arizona. The additional railroad sped the capital city's economic rise. The year 1895 also saw the establishment of Phoenix Union High School, with an enrollment of 90.

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The Early 20th Century

By 1900, the population of Phoenix was 5,554. On February 25, 1901, Governor Murphy dedicated the permanent state Capitol building. It was built on a 10 acre site on the west end of Washington Street, at the cost of $130,000. The Phoenix City Council levied a $5,000,000 tax for a public library after the state legislature. In 1901, a bill allowed for a tax to support free libraries. Andrew Carnegie sent money to a library in the city as well. The Carnegie Free Library opened in 1908 and it was dedicated to Benjamin Fowler. Back then, many tuberculosis patients came into the Phoenix weather. The reason was because of its dry, warm climate. Tuberculosis is a dangerous lung disease.  The Roman Catholic order of the Sisters of Mercy opened St. Joseph's Hospital in 1895, with 24 private rooms for tuberculosis patients. Although the Catholic population was small and poor, the city's Protestants were generous and funding a new hospital. In 1910 the sisters opened Arizona's first school of nursing. Today St. Joseph's Hospital is part of a corporation called Catholic Healthcare West, and is still operated by the Sisters of Mercy. Until 1901, the sisters also ran Sacred Heart Academy, an elite school for young ladies. The Sisters of the Precious Blood opened St. Mary's Catholic High School in 1917. Brophy College Preparatory for boys was opened in 1935 by the Jesuits.

In 1902, President Theodore Roosevelt signed the National Reclamation Act, allowing for dams to be built on western streams for reclamation purposes. Residents were quick to enhance this by organizing the Salt River Valley Water Users' Association (on February 7, 1903), to manage the water and power supply. The agency still exists as part of the Salt River Project.  Theodore Roosevelt Dam was started in 1906. It was the first multiple-purpose dam, supplying both water and electric power, to be constructed under the National Reclamation Act. On May 18, 1911, the former President himself dedicated the dam, which was the largest masonry dam in the world, forming several new lakes in the surrounding mountain ranges. On February 14, 1912, President William Taft was in existence. Phoenix in that year became the capital of the newly formed state of Arizona. This happened just six months after Taft had vetoed on August 11, 1911, a joint resolution giving Arizona statehood. Taft disapproved of the recall of judges in the state constitution. Compared to Tucson or Prescott, Phoenix was considered preferable as the capital because of its central location. It was smaller than Tucson, but outgrew that city within the next few decades, to become the state's largest city.

In 1913, Phoenix formed a new form of government. It went from a mayor council system to a council manager system. It was one of the first cities in the United States with this form of city government. After Arizona’s statehood, Phoenix’s popular grew massively. By the end of the first eight years under statehood, Phoenix’s population grew to 29,053. Two thousand were attending Phoenix Union High School. In 1920, Phoenix built its first skyscraper, the Heard Building. In 1928, Scenic Airways, Inc. saw profitability in flights in the Southwest. Scenic General Manager, J. Parker Van Zandt purchased land for Scenic in Phoenix, and named the new airport Sky Harbor, which was formally dedicated on Labor Day in 1929. On March 4, 1930, former President Calvin Coolidge dedicated a dam on the Gila River named in his honor. Because of a long drought the "lake" behind it held no water. Humorist Will Rogers, also a guest speaker, quipped, "If that was my lake I’d mow it."

Phoenix's population had more than doubled during the 1920's, and now stood at 48,118. After the stock market crash of 1929, Sky Harbor was sold to another investor, and in 1930 American Airlines brought passenger and air mail service to Phoenix. In 1935 the city of Phoenix purchased the single runway airport, nicknamed "The Farm" due to its isolation, and it has been owned and operated by the city to this day. During the 1930's couples used to fly into Sky Harbor solely to get married at the chapel, for Arizona was one of the few states that did not have a waiting period for marriage. It was also during the 1930's that Phoenix and its surrounding area began to be called "The Valley of the Sun", which was an advertising slogan invented to boost tourism. In 1940 as the Depression ended, Phoenix had a population of 65,000 (with 121,000 more in the remainder of Maricopa County). Its economy was still based on cotton, citrus and cattle, while it also provided retail, wholesale, banking, and governmental services for central Arizona, and was gaining a national reputation among winter tourists.

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WWII in Phoenix

During World War II, Phoenix’s economy became a distribution center. It was turning into an embryonic industrial city. It mass produced military supplies. In the area, there were 3 Air Force fields like Luke Field, Williams Field, and Falcon Field. There were two large pilot training camps. Their names are Thunderbird Field, NO. 1 in Glendale and Thunderbird Field No. 2 in Scottsdale. These facilities coupled with the giant Desert Training Center, being created by General George S. Patton (east of Phoenix) brought thousands of new people into Phoenix. Mexican-American local organizations enthusiastically supported the war effort, providing encouragement for the large number of men who enlisted, and assistance for their families. Many civilians were employed in the war effort, bringing the community more money than ever before. Some projects were organized in cooperation with the dominant Anglo community, but most were operated separately. Numerous postwar politicians got their start during the war on the home front or from their experiences and contacts in the military.

The postwar G.I. Bill of Rights provided mortgage funding for home ownership, allowing thousands to move out of small apartments. On Thanksgiving night on 1942, there was a brawl at a bar. This caused the MPs to arrest a black soldier. Later, black troops rebelled from segregated units. 3 men died and 11 were wounded in the rebellion. Most of the 180 men arrested and jailed were released, but some were court-martialed and sent to military prison. This existed in the midst of racial tensions in America and rebellions happened in Detroit and in other places where black innocent people were brutalized and murdered by racists. German prisoners of war built a secret tunnel at the prisoner-of-war camp which was located at the present site of Papago Park. In the Great Papago Escape of 23 December 1944, 25 POW's escaped. Local and federal officials took a month to recapture them all. During the war, public transportation was overwhelmed by the newcomers at a time when gasoline was rationed to 3 gallons a week and no new autos were built. In 1943, the transit systems operated seventeen streetcars and fifty-five buses. They carried 20,000,000 passengers a year. A fire in 1947 destroyed most of the streetcars, and the city switched to buses.

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Phoenix had just over sixty-five thousand residents in 1940. Later, it became America’s sixth largest city by 2010, with a population of nearly 1.5 million, and millions more in nearby suburbs. Young veterans traveled into Phoenix too. By 1948, high tech industry would be a strong staple of the economy of Arizona. Military electronics, research, and development centers developed. Motorola made offices in Phoenix. It was close to New Mexico and southern California. Engineering programs existed in Arizona State University. The climate allowed more residents to live there. Other high tech companies like Intel and McDonnel Douglas would set up manufacturing operations in the Phoenix area too. After World War II, the 1950’s saw Phoenix going through massive changes. Population growth rapidly increased in the city. Industry has grown. Many housing for minorities developed. Also, there was smog, traffic congestion, and many people moved into the suburbs and other surrounding communities. By 1950, over 105,000 people lived within the city. Thousands lived in surrounding areas.  There were 148 miles (238 km) of paved streets and 163 miles (262 km) of unpaved streets.  The 1950's growth was spurred on by advances in mechanical air conditioning, which allowed both homes and businesses to offset the extreme heat known to Phoenix during its long summers. Affordable cooling in the decade contributed to a wild building boom. In 1959 alone, Phoenix saw more new construction than it had in the more than three decades from 1914 to 1946. In May of 1953, there was the location of the very first franchise of the McDonald’s restaurant chain in Phoenix. It was found in the southwest corner of Central Avenue and Indian School Roads. The Phoenix location also was the first McDonald’s restaurant to feature the Golden Arches architectural motif, which would be emblematic architectural element of the global restaurant chain. The McDonald brothers, Richard and Maurice, desired to expand the successful restaurant that they had created in San Bernardino, California. They licensed the first McDonald’s franchise to the Phoenix businessman named Neil Fox and two other partners for a licensing fee of $1,000.00.  There was the rise of Barry Goldwater too in Phoenix. He lived from 1909 to 1989. He was one founding father of the modern conservative and libertarian movements. He was well known in Phoenix, Arizona and throughout the state. He wanted reform and he rebuilt the Republican Party in the state. He was a state Senator known as “Mr. Conservative.”

He promoted conservative views throughout his life. He led a 1964 Presidential campaign against LBJ, which Goldwater lost. I don’t agree with him on many political views, but it is important to outline the complexities of a person's life regardless of their ideological affiliations. He is of both English and Jewish heritage. He is related to the famous theologian Roger Williams. He was a lifelong Episcopalian. He was a conservative. Therefore, he opposed New Deal liberalism and distrusted unions. Phoenix schools back then was segregated. Goldwater held a contradictory view on civil rights. He believed in civil rights for black people, but he wanted the states to handle the issue without federal intervention. I oppose that proposition since civil rights is a federal issue beyond just a state issue. He opposed the federal Voting Rights Act and the Civil Rights Act because of federalism reasons. Of course, I disagree with Goldwater on that issue. In 1964, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was explicit in opposing the 1964 Presidential campaign of Barry Goldwater. Dr. King wrote the following words:

"...On social and economic issues, Mr. Goldwater represented an unrealistic conservatism that was totally out of touch with the realities of the twentieth century. The issue of poverty compelled the attention of all citizens of our country. Senator Goldwater had neither the concern nor the comprehension necessary to grapple with this problem of poverty in the fashion that the historical moment dictated. On the urgent issue of civil rights, Senator Goldwater represented a philosophy that was morally indefensible and socially suicidal. While not himself a racist, Mr. Goldwater articulated a philosophy which gave aid and comfort to the racist. His candidacy and philosophy would serve as an umbrella under which extremists of all stripes would stand. In the light of these facts and because of my love for America, I had no alternative but to urge every Negro and white person of goodwill to vote against Mr. Goldwater and to withdraw support from any Republican candidate that did not publicly disassociate himself from Senator Goldwater and his philosophy..." (From The Autobiography of Martin Luther King, ed., Clayborne Carson [Time Warner, 1998], 247. See also, Martin Luther King Jr., Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community? [Harper & Row, 1967]).

Barry Goldwater was a pilot, an outdoorsman, and a photographer. He loved the natural beauty of Arizona. He loved history and politics. He wanted to get rid of corruption in Phoenix. He was elected to the Phoenix City Council in 1949. He wanted to eliminate widespread prostitution and gambling. Goldwater rebuilt the weak Republican Party and won election to the U.S. Senate in 1952, defeating the Senate Majority Leader Ernest McFarland by enough of a lead in the Phoenix area to narrowly overcome Democratic strength in rural Arizona. Many groups wanted to eliminate corruption in city government.

In 1947 a new organization, the Phoenix Charter Revision Committee, began to analyze the administrative instability, factionalism, mediocrity and low morale that had long paralyzed city government. The proposed a series of reforms and reorganized itself as the nonpartisan Charter Government Committee. Goldwater was a leader, and the committee, starting in 1949, swept nearly all the elections in the next two decades. The Committee had a broad base that included many civic and business leaders, and made sure that all the city's religions were represented. The problem was that the committee had only one woman and it had no black people or Hispanic people in the organization. Eugene C. Pulliam, owner of the city's major newspaper the Arizona Republic, provided extensive publicity. Much of the Committee’s funding secretly came from Gus Greenbaum, an associate of organized crime figures, despite the Committee’s vehement public denunciation of crime and corruption. The newly invigorated city council introduced a more efficient, less corrupt system based on a professional city manager. While the Committee could win all its elections, it was defeated on one major policy issue when a different grassroots group warned against urban renewal proposals, saying they were socialistic and threatened the rights of private property owners.

Arizona by the 1960’s changed from a Democratic stronghold in the 1930’s to a Republican bastion by the 1960’s. To this day, Arizona is a heavily conservative, Republican state. Democrats have lost much political power over the decades. There are many reasons for this. Many Midwesterners traveled into Arizona. Many of these human beings were Republicans. The new industries in Arizona were headed by people who voted Republican and abhorred labor unions. These new industries used high technologies and they appealed to engineers and technicians. Many Democratic areas were found in urban centers. Many retirees came into Arizona were Republicans. The media climate was different too. Arizona Republic and Phoenix Gazette newspapers and their television stations, owned by Eugene Pulliam.

After 1964 however the Pulliam media were politically better balanced. Finally, Pearce points to the quality of Republican candidates that Goldwater had systematically recruited from among the affluent, well-educated new arrivals from the East. They attracted votes across party lines, as did Goldwater himself, as well as Governor Howard Pyle, Congressman John Rhodes and numerous others. Pearce, however, also notes a growing right-wing element, based in Phoenix that repeatedly challenged the business-oriented Republican establishment. Goldwater would be more libertarian and opposed the theocratic element of the GOP by the 1980's and in the 1990's.

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The Civil Rights Movement in Phoenix

The civil rights movement has a long history in Phoenix, Arizona. A lot of people in America don't know about the civil rights movement in Phoenix. Decades ago, numerous people moved into Phoenix in trying to get economic opportunities and to escape the bigotry and racism that existed in other places of America. Also, racism is a global phenomenon, so racism existed back then in Phoenix too. The Klan was prominent there in the 1920’s and the 1930’s. Also, many residents and others in the city fought back in order to fight for human justice for all people. Local organizations and leaders in Phoenix fought for local and national change. Black Americans came into Phoenix too. Phoenix had segregation back then. Back then, much of the black population in Phoenix was middle class, rich, and entrepreneurs. One of the greatest civil rights leaders in Phoenix was Lincoln Ragsdale Sr. He lived from 1926 to 1995. He was outspoken on many issues and he was a famous Tuskegee Airmen back during World War II. He fought for reforms in the Valley like voting rights, civil rights, the desegregation of schools including neighborhoods, and public accommodations. He was born in Tulsa, Oklahoma and was raised in Ardmore, Oklahoma. He and his family escaped the Tulsa riot where white racist terrorists burned black businesses and murdered innocent black people. Onlia Violet Ragsdale (his mother) had a college degree and was the President of the National Association of Colored Women’s Oklahoma chapter. Lincoln Ragsdale fought for racial equality and he loved flying, so he was in the Tuskegee Airmen. He narrowly escaped a lynching when he was 19. He moved into Phoenix in 1946. He and his brother formed a mortuary business. His family has done this before too.

This made Lincoln Ragsdale Phoenix's first black funeral home owner in Arizona in 1948. He graduated from Arizona State University and received a doctorate in business administration from Union Graduate School. He married Eleanor Ragsdale, who was a local schoolteacher at Dunbar Elementary School. She was an activist in her own right. They married in 1949. He formed many businesses from construction to a restaurant. Lincoln called Phoenix the Mississippi of the West. Phoenix had signs that discriminated against black people and Mexicans. He worked to integrate cemeteries via the Greater Phoenix Council for Civic Unity or the GPCCU. He fought for the desegregation of Arizona schools. Barry Goldwater supported this effort. The law which passed only went so far as to allow school boards to voluntarily desegregate. While many districts, including Tucson's, did desegregate voluntarily, Phoenix schools did not. The GPCCU then campaigned for a local ballot initiative to desegregate Phoenix's schools, but it failed by a 2-to-1 margin. Before 1954, Phoenix desegregated their schools before the Supreme Court’s Brown v. Board of Education decision. He fought against housing discrimination too. The Ragsdales raised 4 children despite threats, harassment from the police, and graffiti with racial epithets on their home. Ragsdale and Rev. George B. Brooks were in the Maricopa County NAACP chapter. They protested and wanted to end workplace discrimination that barred black people from skilled jobs. Lincoln and Eleanor organized protests in local Phoenix Woolworth stories in 1962.

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He fought and caused the passage of an Arizona state wide civil rights law. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. spoke at Arizona State University in 1964 at Ragsdale’s invitation after which the Ragsdale hosted him in their home. Dr. King spoke in 1962 too in Phoenix. Ragsdale worked with the Hispanic community too. As a pilot, Ragsdale served on the Phoenix Municipal Aeronautics Advisory Board in the 1970's. Lincoln and Eleanor Ragsdale knew African dignitaries, Jesse Jackson, and other human beings. Lincoln Ragsdale later became involved in the intense fight to create a statewide Martin Luther King, Jr. Day in Arizona, which finally passed after a voter-approved ballot measure in 1992. Eleanor Ragsdale also fought for racial justice too. She was an entrepreneur. Many people played a role in the Phoenix Civil Rights movement. Their names were: George B. Brooks, Clovis Campbell Sr., Val Cordova, Carl E. Craig, Hayzel B. Daniels, Pete Garcia, J. Eugene Grigsby Jr., Charles Lama Jr., Edward F. Orduna. The city council created the Phoenix Human Rights Commission in July of 1963 to fight poverty and racism. It was chaired by William P. Reilly who wanted more job opportunities for black Americans.

It or the Commission received pledges from 300 businesses to hire without regard to race, color, or creed. A self-help job training program was created in 1967 by Reilly, Carl Craig, Robert Nesby, George Brooks, Augustus Shaw, and other black activists. Operation LEAP (Leadership and Education for the Advancement of Phoenix) was created to fight poverty too. It was a public, private sector partnership agency. Yet, Operation LEAP struggled to get results. Many Mexicans supported black people in marches and sit ins in the 1950’s and the 1960’s. Many Hispanic groups existed too. A lot of black women were in leadership positions of the civil rights movement. Great teacher Arlena E. Seneca worked in education. She won Phoenix Women of the Year honors. Vernell Coleman organized Juneteenth celebrations and Black History Month in Phoenix. Helen Mason supported the Phoenix Black Theater Troup. African American churches and other institutions assisted the black community in Phoenix in many ways.

The Arizona State University has many progressive activists. Clovis Campbell was the first African American to serve in the Arizona Senate. He was elected in 1970. Many unsung heroes of Phoenix include Vicky Daviss-Mitchell. She is a longtime community activist for over 50 years. She is a blogger, and a resident of Phoenix. She knew of crosses being burnt in years, of segregation, and other evils. Yet, she continues to fight for justice. She is right to say that some things ought to be taught at home too. Another community activist in Phoenix is Samuel Lee France. Dr. Neal Lester is a professor of English at Arizona State University. He wants education, housing, and ending evils. He’s the director of Project Humanities. He specializes in African American literacy and cultural studies. In our generation, the civil rights struggle continues. The unjust ban on ethnic studies in schools of Arizona must be banned. Immigration rights should be maintained. The rights of black people and all people must be respected.

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Late 20th century Developments

From the 1960’s to the 1980’s, the city of Phoenix further developed. The city metropolitan area has grown and it became a large tourist destination. It has an exotic desert setting. Many recreational opportunities existed and nightlife plus civil events flourished in the Central Avenue. By this time, Central Avenue was filled with skyscrapers. The Phoenix Corporate Center opened in 1960. Back then, it was the tallest building in Arizona at 341 feet. By 1964, there was the completion of the Rozenweig Center or Phoenix City Square. Architect Wenceslaus Sarmiento's largest project, the landmark Phoenix Financial Center (better known by locals as the "Punch-card Building" in recognition of its unique southeastern facade), was also finished in 1964. In addition to a number of other office towers, many of Phoenix's residential high-rises were built during this decade. The growth in Phoenix didn’t transpire evenly. This pattern existed in other cities too. The growth was mainly in the city’s north side, which was a location that was nearly all white. In 1962, one local activist testified at a U.S. Commission on Civil Rights hearing. This person said that of 31,000 homes that was recently spurning up in the neighborhood, not a single one had been sold to an African American.

Phoenix’s African American and Mexican American communities remained mostly in the south side of Phoenix. The color lines were so rigid that no one north of Van Buren Street would rent to the African American baseball star Willie Mays (who was in town for spring training during the 1960’s). In 1964, a reporter from the New Republic wrote of segregation in these terms: "Apartheid is complete. The two cities look at each other across a golf course." People would fight against segregation in Phoenix too. In 1965, the Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum was opened on the grounds of the Arizona State Fair. This location was west of downtown. In 1968, the city was awarded the Phoenix Suns NBA franchise in a surprising fashion. The Phoenix Suns played its home games at the Coliseum until 1992. By 1968, the Central Arizona Project was approved by President Lyndon B. Johnson. This action assured future water supplies for Phoenix, Tucson, and the agricultural corridor in between. In 1969, the Catholic Church created the Diocese of Phoenix on December 2, by splitting the Archdiocese of Tucson. The first bishop was Reverend Edward A. McCarthy, who had become a Bishop in 1965.

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In 1971, Phoenix adopted the Central Phoenix Plan. This allowed unlimited building heights along Central Avenue. The problem was that the plan didn’t sustain long term development of the Central Corridor. There were few office towers constructed along the North Central during the 1970’s. None approached the scope of construction during the previous decade. Downtown experienced a resurgence. There was a great level of construction activity. This would not be seen again until the urban real estate boom of the 2000’s. Many high rise buildings were erected, including the buildings currently named Wells Fargo Plaza, the Chase Tower (at 483 feet, the tallest building in both Phoenix and Arizona) and the U.S. Bank Center.  By the end of the decade, Phoenix adopted the Phoenix Concept 2000 plan which split the city into urban villages, each with its own village core where greater height and density was permitted, further shaping the free-market development culture. This officially turned Phoenix into a city of many nodes, which would later be connected by freeways. 1972 would see the opening of the Phoenix Symphony Hall. The Salt River flooded in 1980. That flood damaged many bridges. So, the Arizona Department of Transportation and Amtrak worked together. They temporarily operated a train service. It has been referred to by the Valley Metro Rail known as “Hattie B” line. It existed between central Phoenix and the southeast suburbs. There were high operating costs and a lack of interest from local authorities in funding, so it was discontinued. Sandra Day O’Connor (who was born in Texas and grew up in Arizona) was the first woman justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. She was nominated by President Ronald Reagan on September 25, 1986. In 1985, the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, the nation's largest nuclear power plant, began electrical production. Conceived in 1980, the Arizona Science Center, located in Heritage and Science Park, opened in 1984. 1987 saw visits by Pope John Paul II and Mother Teresa.

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Phoenix in the 21st Century

The 20 story City Hall was opened in Phoenix in 1992. There were many areas being developed to help refugees from Afghanistan, Bosnia, the Sudan, Somalia, Congo, Sierra Leona, Laos, Vietnam, and Central and South America. Many of the refugees from those nations lived in the Sunnyslope area with low cost housing. Students and adults spoke 43 different languages in local schools by the year of 2000. In the 21st century, Phoenix continued to grow economically. Its population grew too. It was the second fastest metropolitan area in America under Las Vegas. The Phoenix Light Rail developed in 2008. It would connect Phoenix, Tempe, and Mesa. Squaw Peak, the second tallest mountain in the city, was officially renamed Piestewa Peak after Army Specialist Lori Ann Piestewa, an Arizona native who was the first Native American woman to die in combat with the U.S. military. Also, she was the first American female casualty in the 2003 Iraq War. Phoenix was hit hard by the subprime mortgage crisis.  In early 2009, the median home price was $150,000, down from its $262,000 peak in recent years. Crime rates in Phoenix have declined in recent years and once troubled, decaying neighborhoods such as South Mountain, Alhambra, and Maryvale, have recovered and stabilized. Recently, Downtown Phoenix and the central core have experienced renewed interest and expansion, resulting in numerous restaurants, stores and businesses opening or relocating to central Phoenix.

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The Culture of Phoenix.

The culture of Phoenix is very diverse. There are performing arts venues in the city too. The Phoenix Symphony Orchestra and the Arizona Opera plus the Ballet Arizona are found in the city. Performs globally come to these locations to express their talents to the world. Several smaller theaters including Trunk Space, the Mesa Arts Center, the Crescent Ballroom, Celebrity Theater, and Modified Arts support regular independent musical and theater performances. Music can also be seen in some of the venues usually reserved for sports, such as the Wells Fargo Arena and the University of Phoenix Stadium. Dozens of museums exist in the Valley (which includes Phoenix). The Musical Instrument Museum opened its doors in 2010. It has the biggest musical instrument collection in the world. It was designed by Alden B. Dow. He was a student of Frank Lloyd Wright. The Phoenix Art Museum was constructed in a single year. It opened in November of 1959. Sculptures are found in the new Phoenix Civil Space Park. That is a two city block park in the middle of downtown. Tourism is very popular in Phoenix too. The greater Phoenix area has more than 62,000 hotel rooms in over 500 hotels and 40 resorts. Due to its natural beauty and climate, Phoenix has a plethora of outdoor attractions and recreational activities. The Phoenix Zoo is the largest privately owned, non-profit zoo in the United States. Since opening in 1962, the zoo has developed an international reputation for its efforts on animal conservation, including breeding and reintroducing endangered species back into the wild.

Right next to the zoo, the Phoenix Botanical Gardens were opened in 1939, and are acclaimed worldwide for their exhibits and educational programs, featuring the largest collection of arid plants in the U.S. South Mountain Park, which is the largest municipal park in the U.S., is also the highest desert mountain preserve in the world. Mexican food is found in restaurants as well.  Some of Phoenix's restaurants have a long history. The Stockyards steakhouse dates to 1947, while Monti's La Casa Vieja (Spanish for "The Old House") was in operation as a restaurant since the 1890's, but closed its doors November 17, 2014. Macayo's (a Mexican restaurant chain) was established in Phoenix in 1946, and other major Mexican restaurants include Garcia's (1956) and Manuel's (1964). There are other restaurants that show Korean, Irish, Japanese, Thai, Spanish, Brazilian, and French cuisine. Sports are a huge part of the culture of Phoenix. The Arizona Cardinals (of the NFL), the Arizona Diamondbacks (of the MLB), the Phoenix Suns (of the NBA), the Arizona Coyotos (of the NHL), the Phoenix Mercury (of the WNBA), the Arizona Rattlers (of IFL or indoor football), and the Phoenix Rising FC (of Soccer), and other teams play in Phoenix.

By Timothy