Monday, November 20, 2017

Earle Hyman, Grandpa Huxtable on 'The Cosby Show,' Dies at 91

Part of the life of W.E.B. Du Bois.

In May of 1909, Du Bois attended the National Negro Conference in NYC. The meeting led to the creation of the National Negro Committee. It was chaired by Oswald Villard and was dedicated to the campaigning for civil rights, equal voting rights, and equal educational opportunities. The next spring in 1910, at the second Negro Conference, the attendees formed the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People or the NAACP.  DuBois suggested to use the word “colored” instead of black, because he wanted to include people of color worldwide. Dozens of civil rights supporters (who were black people and white people including Mary Ovington, Charles Edward Russell, William English Walling, and its first President Moorfield Storey) were involved in the NAACP. NAACP leaders offered Du Bois the position of Director of Publicity and Research. He accepted the job during the summer of 1910. He moved to New York City after resigning from Atlanta University. His main duty was to edit the NAACP’s monthly magazine in which he named “The Crisis.” The first issue of The Crisis appeared in November 1910. Du Bois said that his aim was to set out, "those facts and arguments which show the danger of race prejudice, particularly as manifested today toward colored people.” The journal was phenomenally successful, and its circulation would reach 100,000 in 1920. Typical articles in the early editions included one that inveighed against the dishonesty and parochialism of some black churches, and one that discussed the Afrocentric origins of Egyptian civilization. Du Bois wrote a famous editorial in 1911 where he called for a nationwide push to push for the federal government to outlaw lynching.  Du Bois, employing the sarcasm he frequently used, commented on a lynching in Pennsylvania: "The point is he was black. Blackness must be punished. Blackness is the crime of crimes ... It is therefore necessary, as every white scoundrel in the nation knows, to let slip no opportunity of punishing this crime of crimes. Of course if possible, the pretext should be great and overwhelming – some awful stunning crime, made even more horrible by the reporters' imagination. Failing this, mere murder, arson, barn burning or impudence may do." The Crisis carried editorials by Du Bois that supported the ideals of unionized labor but excoriated the racism demonstrated by its leaders, who systematically excluded black people from membership. Du Bois also supported the principles of the Socialist Party (he was briefly a member of the party from 1910 to 1912), but he denounced the racism demonstrated by some socialist leaders. Frustrated by Republican President Taft's failure to address widespread lynching, Du Bois endorsed Democratic candidate Woodrow Wilson in the 1912 presidential race, in exchange for Wilson's promise to support black causes. As we know, Wilson was totally against black liberation and was a stone cold racist.

WEB DuBois wrote in support of women’s rights. He found it difficult to endorse the women right to vote movement because leaders of the suffragism movement in his view refused to support his fight against racial injustice. He is incorrect, because even if many suffrage leaders were racists against black people (which is very true), the overall cause of giving women the right to vote must be advanced. You can support women’s voting rights and abhor the racism among some suffrage leaders at the same time. He wrote about interracial marriage back in 1913 too. From the years 1915 to 1916, some leaders of the NAACP were disturbed by the financial losses of the Crisis. They were worried about the views of Du Bois. They wanted to oust Du Bois from his editorial position. Du Bois and his supporters prevailed and he continued in his role as editor.  In a 1919 column titled "The True Brownies", he announced the creation of The Brownies' Book, the first magazine published for African-American children and youth, which he founded with Augustus Granville Dill and Jessie Redmon Fauset. He worked hard during the 1910’s. In 1911, he attended the first Universal Races Congress in London. He published his first novel called, “The Quest of the Silver Fleece.” 2 years later, Du Bois wrote, produced, and directed a pageant for the stage called, The Star of Ethiopia. In 1915, Du Bois published, “The Negro.” This was a general history of Black Africans and the first of its kind in English. The book refuted the lie of African inferiority and would come to serve as a basis of much of the Afrocentric historiography of the 20th century. The Negro predicted unity and solidarity for colored people around the world and it influenced many who advanced the Pan-African movement. In 1915, The Atlantic Monthly carried an essay by Du Bois, "The African Roots of the War", which consolidated Du Bois's ideas on capitalism and race. In it, he argued that the scramble for Africa was at the root of World War I. He also anticipated later Communist doctrine, by suggesting that wealthy capitalists had pacified white workers by giving them just enough wealth to prevent them from revolting, and by threatening them with competition by the lower-cost labor of people of color workers.
DuBois fought against racism too while he was in the NAACP. When the Birth of a Nation film premiered in 1915, DuBois and the NAACP led the fight to ban the movie, because of its racist portrayal of black people as brutish and lustful. The fight wasn’t successful, but the publicity drew new supporters to the NAACP. DuBois included photographs of the lynching of Jesse Washington in the June 1916 issue of The Crisis. Racism wasn’t just found in the private sector. It was found from the White House too. Under President Wilson, the plight of African Americans in government suffered. Many federal agencies adopted whites only employment practices.

The Army excluded black people from officer ranks, and the immigration service prohibited the immigration of persons of African ancestry. Du Bois wrote an editorial in 1914 deploring the dismissal of blacks from federal posts, and he supported William Monroe Trotter when Trotter confronted Wilson about Wilson's failure to fulfill his campaign promise of justice for black human beings. The Crisis continued to fight lynching. In 1915, the Crisis published an article with a year by year tabulation of 2,732 lynchings from 1884 to 1914. The April 1916 edition covered the group lynching of six African Americans in Lee County, Georgia. Later in 1916, the "Waco Horror" article covered the lynching of Jesse Washington, a mentally impaired 17-year-old African American. The article broke new ground by utilizing undercover reporting to expose the conduct of local whites in Waco, Texas. The early 20th century was the era of the Great Migration of black Americans from the Southern United States to the Northeast, the Midwest, and the West. Du Bois wrote an editorial supporting the Great Migration. He believed that it would help black people escape Southern racism, find economic opportunities, and assimilate into American society. By the 1910’s, the evil American eugenics movement was in its infancy. Many leading eugenicists were openly racist and they believed in the lie that black people were “inferior.” Du Bois opposed racism and the lie of black inferiority. Yet, he believed in one of the principles of the eugenics deception that different persons have different inborn characteristics that make them more or less suited for specific kinds of employment, and that by encouraging the most talented members of all races to procreate would better the "stocks" of humanity. I’m opposed to that lie, because all people are born equal and people have the right to be great irrespective of their income level or social status in life. The United States prepared to go into World War I in 1917. Du Bois’s colleague in the NAACP, Joel Elias Spingarn, established a camp to train African Americans to serve as officers in the U.S. military. The camp was controversial, because some whites felt that black people were not qualified to be officers (which is ludicrous). The white racists believed that African Americans should not participate in what they considered “a white man’s war.” Du Bois supported Spingram’s training camp, but he was disappointed when the Army forcibly retired one of its few black officers, Charles Young, on a pretense of ill health.

The Army agreed to create 1,000 officer positions for black people. Yet, they insisted that only 250 come from enlisted men, conditioned to taking orders from whites, rather than from independent-minded black people that came from the camp. Over 700,000 black people enlisted on the first day of the draft. They were subject to discriminatory conditions, which prompted vocal protests from Du Bois. After the East St. Louis riots occurred in the summer of 1917, Du Bois traveled to St. Louis to report on the riots. Between 40 and 250 African Americans were massacred by whites, primarily due to resentment caused by St. Louis industry hiring blacks to replace striking white workers. Du Bois's reporting resulted in an article "The Massacre of East St. Louis", published in the September issue of The Crisis, which contained photographs and interviews detailing the violence. Du Bois also organized the Silent Parade. This was a march of about 9,000 African Americans down New York City's Fifth Avenue, the first parade of its kind in New York City, and the second instance of blacks publicly demonstrating for civil rights. The Houston riot of 1917 disturbed Du Bois and was a major setback to efforts to permit African Americans to become military officers. The riot started after Houston police officers arrested and beat 2 black soldiers. In response, over 100 black soldiers took to the streets of Houston and killed 16 whites. Black people in Houston back then experienced Jim Crow and other forms of oppression. A military court martial was held, and 19 of the soldiers were hung, and 67 others were imprisoned. In spite of the Houston riot, Du Bois and others successfully pressed the Army to accept the officers trained at Spingarn's camp, resulting in over 600 black officers joining the Army in October 1917.

Federal officials were concerned about the progressive views shown by NAACP leaders. They wanted to frighten the NAACP by threatening them with investigations. Du Bois was not intimidated. In 1918, Du Bois predicted that World War I would lead to an overthrow of the European colonial system and to the liberation of the colored people worldwide in China, in India, and especially in America. NAACP chairman Joel Spingam was enthusiastic about the war. He persuaded Du Bois to consider an officer’s commission in the Army contingent on Du Bois writing an editorial repudiating his anti-war stance.  Du Bois accepted this bargain and wrote the pro-war "Close Ranks" editorial in June 1918 and soon thereafter he received a commission in the Army. Many black leaders, who wanted to leverage the war to gain civil rights for African Americans, criticized Du Bois for his sudden reversal. Southern officers in Du Bois's unit objected to his presence, and his commission was withdrawn. When WWI ended, Du Bois traveled to Europe in 1919. He attended the first Pan-African Congress. He also interviewed African American soldiers for a planned book on their experiences in World War I. He was trailed by U.S. agents who were searching for evidence of treasonous activities. Du Bois discovered that the vast majority of black American soldiers were relegated to menial labor as stevedores and laborers. Some unites were armed, and one in particular, the 92nd Division (the Buffalo soldiers), engaged in combat. Du Bois found out about the widespread racism in the Army. He concluded that the Army command discouraged black Americans from joining the Army, which promoted bigotry and disrespected the accomplishments of black soldiers. After returning from Europe, Du Bois was more determined to fight for equal rights for African Americans. Many black soldiers returned overseas and felt a new sense of power and worth. They were part of a new movement and attitude called the New Negro. They wanted justice.

In the editorial "Returning Soldiers" he wrote: "But, by the God of Heaven, we are cowards and jackasses if, now that the war is over, we do not marshal every ounce of our brain and brawn to fight a sterner, longer, more unbending battle against the forces of hell in our own land." Many black people moved to northern cities for work. Some northern white workers didn’t like the competition. The labor strife was one of the causes of the Red Summer of 1919. This was about horrific race riots against black people in America. This caused over 300 African Americans to be killed in over 30 cities.  Du Bois documented the atrocities in the pages of the Crisis. This culminated in the December publication of a gruesome photograph of a lynching that occurred during the Omaha, Nebraska race riot. The most egregious episode during the Red Summer was a vicious attack on blacks in Elaine, Arkansas, in which nearly 200 blacks were murdered. Racists accused black people of starting the riot, which was a lie. So, DuBois refuted those lies by publishing a letter in the New York World, claiming that the only crime the black sharecroppers had committed was daring to challenge their white landlords by hiring an attorney to investigate contractual irregularities. Over 60 of the surviving blacks were arrested and tried for conspiracy, in the case known as Moore v. Dempsey. Du Bois rallied black people across America to raise funds for the legal defense, which, six years later, resulted in a Supreme Court victory authored by Oliver Wendell Holmes. Although the victory had little immediate impact on justice for African Americans in the South, it marked the first time the Federal government used the 14th amendment guarantee of due process to prevent states from shielding mob violence.

By Timothy

Friday, November 17, 2017

Friday News

One recent great news is that Tonya Boyd became FDNY’s 1st Black woman Deputy Chief. She has made history and it's glorious news. She has worked in emergency services for decades in order for her to save lives literally. “I’m so excited and I am so blessed,” the EMS officer told the Daily News. “After hearing about the promotion, I couldn’t believe it. I feel like I’ve knocked down a door and opened it for a lot of EMTs just starting on this job,” said Boyd. “African-American women will see someone who looks like them as a deputy chief and they will know more is possible — their careers won’t top out at paramedic or even lieutenant,” said the captain of Station 39 in Brooklyn. She has worked hard throughout her entire life and this news will inspire more human beings to follow their dreams and aspirations. Congratulations to Sister Tonya Boyd. One of the most inspiring stories of our generation is of the story of Sister Ida Keeling. She is a runner and she is 102 years old. She lives in Harlem, NYC. She holds Masters records in 60 meter and 100 meter distances for women in the 95-99 and 100-plus age groups. Keeling's story was featured in a segment in the Carl Reiner-hosted documentary If You're Not in the Obit, Eat Breakfast, on aging over 90, which premiered on HBO in June 2017. She started to run at the age of 67. She also gives secret s on how she lived so long on this Earth too. These secrets are the following:
-Escape drama
-Ally with positive people
-Promote positivity.
-Sticking it out on accomplishing your goals.
So, she is a great role model and an inspirational human being.

Today is the late Birthday of the hip hop artist Russell Tyrone Jones or ODB. He was a gentle person and he was part of the group Wu Tang Clan. He was born in 1968 in Fort Greene, Brooklyn, NYC. He loved hip hop. He had his own unique musical style. He inspired people to be their own individual selves. He also collaborated with many well known artists from Mariah Carey to Pras plus Mya. His life wasn't a crystal stair. The police shot at him 8 times when he had no weapon. He survived miraculously. He did many good things in his life and he made mistakes. There are no justifications for his errors. Yet, he loved his family and his children. Those, who really cared for him, helped him. He was a man who suffered hurt and he passed away very young at the year of 2004. I was in my early 20's when he passed. Today, we realize his life, so we recognize the value of human life in general.

In Jamestown, I saw a picture of a Bible verse from a recreation of a church in Jamestown. Back in the 1600's, most English settlers were Anglicans (or part of the Church of England). Back then, it was mandatory for settlers to go into church and worship as Anglicans (or face punishment). It would be years later, where Virginia and areas nationwide would legalize religious freedom (or the right to worship God as we desire). This is what the freedom of religion is all about (or believing in God as we desire without oppression). The verse in the picture looks elegant. This was also a re-enactor in Jamestown too. He spoke about how the English settlers used a specialized method to fire muskets. Muskets are old school guns that takes up to 2-3 minutes to fire one bullet. He fired a blank gun. He spoke about how the Native Americans originally had the upper hands in battling the English, because the Native American knew of the territory and fought readily in guerrilla warfare. The British used forts and provoked the Native Americans to fight in open lands. The metal helmet that he was wearing was used by the English back then. I also saw the top of a Native American Powhatan settlement (in a recreation). The top is open in allowing smoke to come out of the location. I have been inside of this location and it is sturdy and strong. You have to walk into a small opening and the inside is tall. It is filled with wood. It has baskets to preserve foods and it has animals skins for clothing and sleeping purposes.

The U.S. House passed a multitrillion dollar tax break for corporations and the wealthy. If this bill is passed by the Senate and signed into law, this will give corporations and the very wealthy trillions of dollars in tax cuts. It will increase the deficit and promote more assaults on basic social programs like Medicare and Social Security. The oligarchy benefits from this bill as the oligarchy influences both major parties. The military industrial complex allied with the intelligence community plus the oligarchy is real. The stock market has increased, which means that Wall Street is growing in its power. The bill is called, “Tax Cut and Jobs Act.” It was approved on a party line vote of 227 to 205. No Democrats voted for the measure and 13 Republicans voted against the bill. Many Republicans who voted against the bill came from high tax states like New York, New Jersey, and California. These states will suffer harshly because the bill ends federal income tax deductions on state and local income and sales taxes. This plan is a tax cut for billionaires. The Trump administration is desperate to support this legislation. The tax cuts will not benefit the majority of the poor or the middle class. These tax cuts will go to the large corporations and super rich according to multiple analyses. U.S. corporations are sitting under $2 trillion in cash and they refuse to invest in new plants, housing, schools, and infrastructure. Some of them want more cuts in wages and benefits.

Wall Street is salivating because the tax rollback for the rich—the corporate tax rate under the bill will be the lowest since 1939 and the estate tax will be eliminated in 2025—will enable the financial aristocracy to further pad its bank accounts and lord it over the bottom 90 percent with even more obscene displays of personal wealth.  The House and Senate tax bills currently working their way through Congress both slash the corporate tax rate from 35 percent to 20 percent. The Democrats are proposing a cut in the corporate rate to between 25 percent and 28 percent.  So, both parties want corporate tax rate cuts. According to Congress’s nonpartisan Joint Committee on Taxation, the House bill would increase the federal deficit over ten years by $1.4 trillion as a result of lost federal tax revenues. The bulk of that loss would come from the cut in the corporate tax rate, accounting for $1.5 trillion. Another $696 billion cut would result from the elimination of the alternative minimum tax, which applies to households with incomes of $200,000 to $1 million. We need progressive solutions instead of this tax bill.

By Timothy

Wednesday, November 15, 2017

Black Agenda Report Important Articles (on November 2017)

410 Years After Jamestown

I have been to Jamestown, Virginia days ago. I have learned a lot about its history. I already know many things about Jamestown, but now, I have a bigger picture understanding about its existence. The first inhabitants of Virginia were Native Americans. Native Americans who lived around Jamestown back then were the Powhatan. They spoke the Algonquian language in the Coastal Plain region of Virginia (in the Piedmont region of Virginia, many Native American tribes centuries ago spoke Siouan). Centuries ago, the capital of the Powhatan tribes was the location called Werowocomoco. After the Ice Age, they greatly came into VA. Spanish explorers visited Virginia, but the English were the first Europeans to develop a permanent settlement. By 1607, they formed a settlement in Jamestown. At first, they had more cordial relations with the Native Americans. Native Americans used open arms to help the English. Later, we know the rest of the story. War existed, Native Americans were displaced of their lands unjustly, many Native Americans died because of diseases, and many English died because of starvation (it was a new climate and many of the English didn't have extensive experience in agriculture in Jamestown). Wealthy British figures wanted gold, control of land, and power blatantly. John Rolfe was an English person who expanded the tobacco trade and expanded the Virginia Colony's influence and research. The story of Pocahontas existed during the First Anglo-Powhatan war, which was about Jamestown settlers and Native Americans fighting each other. Pocahontas' original name was Matoaka. She was kidnapped and learned of the ways of the English.

She later married John Rolfe and a temporary peace existed among the Powhatan and the English. After her passing, war was on and the Native Americans suffered continued genocide, murder, and oppression. By the 1700's, most of the Powhatan were either killed or their populations radically declined. Pocahontas' father was chief Powhatan (who lived in the Tsenacommacah or Tidewater Virginia). In essence, Pocahontas was an ambassador and a peacemaker. She passed away in 1617. Jamestown was the capital of the Virginia colony, then Williamsburg, and then Richmond, which is the modern capital of the State of Virginia. I saw a gift shop, a museum, recreation of Native American homes, re-creation of ships, and other locations. It was a great trip and the older woman tour guide was very educated and knew her stuff. I saw information about Africans in the museum too (from facts about Angola and the slave trade. It talked about earlier African cultures too. Africa is the location of the origin of human life, so as a black person, I will always love Africa). It was cold outside, so I had my jacket on. The Native Americans used animals, water, trees, and so many resources to live their lives back then. They used fire to make canoes for transportation. They used advanced creative technology to build homes and to survive in Nature. So, I have a great amount of respect for the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Providentially, I came today into Jamestown in about 410 years after 1607. I took many pictures of the areas in Jamestown.

Also, festivals existed for thousands of years among many creeds. The Thanksgiving the we know about has a long history. The Pilgrims left England because they experienced religious persecution from the Church of England. The problem with the Pilgrims is that many of them were complicit in the slaughter and murder of Native Americans. Many of the Pilgrims traveled into Holland before going into America. The Puritans wanted to reform the Church of England while the Pilgrims wanted a complete break from the Church of England. At first, I got Pilgrims and Puritans confused. Now, I know the difference. The Puritans were usually richer than the Pilgrims. Yes, the Native Americans experienced mass genocide and diseases as a product of Western imperialism. We certainly know about the past, so we can make a better future. When you think about it, this story is similar to the Jamestown story. In the Jamestown story, English settlers almost completely starved to death (in Virginia. The Powhatan tribes lived there and spoke the Algonquian language. One Powhatan capital in the area was called Werowocomoco). I'm from Virginia, so we were always taught about the Nottoway, the Siouan language, and other Native American tribes in Virginia. Later, Native Americans taught them how to plant crops in Virginia. Later, the Powhatan Native Americans were mostly exterminated in the Coastal Plain region of Virginia. In New England, the Pilgrims were dying off until the Native Americans taught them to live in the American environment.

More human beings are no longer on the sidelines on this issue as a result of Kaepernick's courage. His actions has a resonance, because what he is doing is not only right, but it is necessary to address the vitally important issue of injustice. American football has been in existence for almost 150 years and Colin Kaepernick has shown that there are things much more important than a game. They are justice, human dignity, and our inalienable rights as black people. Roy Moore is a disgusting man. I do hope that Moore loses the election. Moore is a stone cold bigot who believes that certain human beings are not people. He doesn't want any Muslim to hold public office. The decent people of Alabama hopefully can vote him out. The abuse of a 14 year old girl is reprehensible. This is beyond politics and any supporter of Moore is a total disgrace. The victims of this monster Moore are crying. They are hurting. That coward Moore deserves no respect. This is why we won't be silent on this issue. This is why we will support the rights of any victim of abuse period.

Yesterday was Birthday of Brother Joseph Simmons or Brother Rev. Run. For decades, he was part of the innovative hip hop group RUN DMC. This group made history in many ways. He was born in Queens, NYC. He was raised in the Hollis neighborhood. The group RUN DMC merged rock and rap in many of their records. They were the first hip hop group to go gold, to go platinum, and to be nominated for a Grammy. They are the first hip hop group to go multiplatinum too. Joseph Simmons now has a family and he loves his wife a great deal. He was in the realty TV show Run's House from 2005 to 2009. Family, spirituality, and music are large components of his life that he enjoys to express. He is a blessed man. I wish Brother Joseph Simmons a great Birthday. One of the greatest philanthropist and young heroes of our time is Sister Monique Coleman. For years, she has not only been in TV and movies. She has been active to help communities, speak on important issues, and inspire the young generation in achieving their goals with zeal. She is 37 years old and she was born in Orangeburg, South Carolina. She is a dancer, entrepreneur, singer, and philanthropist. She has worked in theater since she was a young person. She is famous for her role in High School Musical. She was in ABC's Dancing with the Stars show as well. Monique Coleman has worked in international anti-poverty initiatives as defeating poverty is a priority in our 21st century world. She continuously inspires the youth to be active in their communities as the future belongs to them basically. Monique Coleman has traveled the world to advance international peace and the cultivation of tolerance plus justice in the world. Also, it is right to do right by fellow people and to work towards social justice. She is a very kind person and I wish Sister Monique Coleman more blessings.

By Timothy

More News

Monday, November 13, 2017

The Oligarch's Alt-Right (Mini Documentary)

Words on Culture and Society

Global art started since the beginning of human history. The Paleolithic Age (from 25,000 B.C. to 8,000 B.C.) or the Old Stone Age involved human beings using hunting and gathering. Many humans lived in caves back then. So, cave paintings were developed. There were also statues like the famous Venus of Willendorf statue which was found between 28,000 B.C. and 25,000 B.C. It was found near Willendorf, which is a village in Lower Austria. It is also near the town of Krems. The statue is made up of limestone. There were human made objects in southern Africa, the Western Mediterranean, Central and Eastern Europe, Siberia, India, and Australia. There were wood and bone tools. Much of art back then used paint in red, iron oxide, clay, and black in manganese oxide. A lot of cave paintings were found in the Franco-Cantabrian region too. Many of the images show ritualized images. Some show animals. There were works like the Man from Brno and the Venus of Brassempouy. There is the Venus of Laussel too, which is an Upper Paleolithic carving. Many art images of that era included reindeer, horses, bison, birds, lions, woolly rhinoceros, etc.  There were African ancient art like African rock art found in the Nile River valley and Mali in about 10,000 years ago. There was the Apollo 11 Cave complex in Namibia with seven stone plaquettes painted with figures of animals have been recovered from a horizon dated to between 22,500 and 27,500 years ago. The Blombos cave in South Africa yielded hatched patterns incised on pieces of ochre dated to as early as 70,000 years ago, which has been classified as "art" in some publications. In Australia, human beings painted human figures on rocks in Western Australia dating to over 17,000 years ago. Gabarnmung, or Nawarla Gabarnmung, is an Aboriginal archaeological and rock art site in south-western Arnhem Land, in the Top End of Australia's Northern Territory. The rock shelter features prehistoric paintings of fish, including the barramundi, wallabies, crocodiles, people and spiritual figures.  Rock paintings existed in the Americas in central Andes, Ecuador, and northern Children from ca. 10,000 B.C. There were early art in the rock paintings of the Toquepala Caves from 9,500 B.C. The Mesolithic period was from 8,000 B.C. to 6,000 B.C. This is also known as the Middle Stone Age. During this time, cultures were diverse worldwide.  This was the time of when human agriculture developed. During this period, human beings formed cave paintings, engravings, and ceramics. They enacted this art for self-expression, a reflection of their lives, and for other purposes. During this time, people used stone tools or microliths. Cave art and rock art existed on the Mediterranean coast of Spain. There was a Mesolithic pendant found in England too.  The Mesolithic period had a warmer climate than the Paleolithic Age. The Man of Bicorp painting showed a person gathering honey from a beehive and it was found in an 8,000 year old cave near Valencia, Spain. The Dance of the Cogul painting was found in El Cogul, Catalonia, Spain.

The Neolithic Age came about from 6,000 B.C. to 3,000 B.C. Back then, there were more complex societies, religion was expressed, and agriculture started to flourish in a higher level. The rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin—dated between the Mesolithic and Neolithic eras—contained small, schematic paintings of human figures, with notable examples in El Cogul, Valltorta, Alpera and Minateda. This kind of painting was also similar to paintings found in northern Africa(Atlas, Sahara) and in the area of modern Zimbabwe. Neolithic painting was schematic, reduced to basic strokes (men in the form of a cross and women in a triangular shape). There are also cave paintings in Pinturas River in Argentina, especially the Cueva de las Manos. In portable art, a style called Cardium Pottery was produced, decorated with imprints of seashells. New materials were used in art, such as amber, crystals found in rock, quartz and jasper. During this period, the first traces of urbanistic planimetry appeared, such as the remains in Tell as-Sultan (Jericho), Jarmo (Iraq) and Çatalhöyük (Anatolia).The Neolithic Art also focused on agriculture and complex architecture too. There were more cultivation of wild and domestic crops and the use of domesticated animals. Neolithic is also known as the New Stone Age. The Neolithic cultures existed worldwide not just in the Near East. Pottery is part of art too and that was found during this age. Gobeki Tepe has the oldest human made place of worship in the world. It is found in 10,000 B.C. It has reliefs of animals decorated on the pillars. Fertility figures and terra cotta pottery has been found at Tell-Halaf (in northern Syria) and Tell al-Ubaid (on the coast of the Persian Gulf). Halafian pottery had complex geometric and animal motif on them too. Stonehenge in England is known as a megalithic henge. Its meaning has been debated. It aligned during the sunrise of summer solstice and the sunset of the winter solstice. Some believe that it was used as a large calendar to astronomically determine the growing season and harvest. Megaliths existed worldwide form Malta to Easter Island.

From 1797 to 1861, Baltimore was in the antebellum era. By 1797, Baltimore Town merged with Fells Point and incorporated as the City of Baltimore. The city of Baltimore grew quickly. It was the largest city south of the Mason-Dixon Line back then. Baltimore dominated the American flour trade after 1800. The reason was that there was the milling technology of Oliver Evans. The steam power in processing was introduced. There was also the merchant-millers’s development of drying processes which greatly reduced spoilage. By 1830, New York City’s competition was strong. Baltimoreans were hard pressed to match the merchantability standards despite more rigorous inspection controls than earlier nor could they match the greater financial resources of their northern rivals like NYC. Baltimore was the site of the Battle of Baltimore during the War of 1812. Washington, D.C. was burned down by the British. The British also attacked Baltimore outside of the eastern outskirts of town on the “Patapsco Neck” on September 12 (at the Battle of North Point). They attacked Baltimore again on the night of September 13-14, 1814. The United States forces from Fort McHenry successfully defended the city’s harbor from the British. Francis Scott Key (1779-1843) was a Maryland lawyer from Georgetown and Frederick. He was a racist and a slave owner too. He was abroad a British ship where he wanted to negotiate the release of an American prisoner (as the War of 1812 started in part by the British kidnapping Americans and bringing them on their ships). The American prisoner was named Dr. William Beanes. Key witnessed the bombardment from this ship and after seeing the huge American flag on the morning of September 14, 1814, he wrote, “The Star-Spangled Banner.” His poem recounted the attack. Key’s poem was set to a 1780 drinking song by British composer John Stafford Smith, and "The Star-Spangled Banner" became the official national anthem of the United States in 1931. The original song had lyrics that condoned slavery, which is disgraceful. 

A distinctive local culture started to take shape, and a unique skyline peppered with churches and monuments developed in Baltimore. Baltimore acquired its moniker "The Monumental City" after an 1827 visit to Baltimore by President John Quincy Adams. At an evening function Adams gave the following toast: "Baltimore: the Monumental City—May the days of her safety be as prosperous and happy, as the days of her dangers have been trying and triumphant.” Alexander Brown lived from 1764 to 1831. He was a Protestant immigrant from Ireland. He came into the city in 1800. He formed a linen business with his sons. Later, the firm Alex Brown and Sons moved into cotton. They worked in shipping in a lesser extent. Brown’s sons opened branches in Liverpool, Philadelphia, and New York. The firm was an enthusiastic supporter of the B&O Railroad. By 1850, it was the leading foreign exchange house in America. Brown was a business innovator who observed social conditions carefully. He was a transition figure to the era after 1819 when cash and short credits became the norms of business relations. He concentrated his capital in small risk ventures. He acquired ships. He also got Bank of the United States stock during the panic of 1819 and he came to monopolize Baltimore’s shipping trade with Liverpool by 1822. Brown next expanded into packet ships, extended his lines to Philadelphia, and began financing Baltimore importers, specializing in merchant banking from the late 1820's to his death in 1834. The emergence of a money economy and the growth of the Anglo-American cotton trade allowed him to escape Baltimore's declining position in trans-Atlantic trade. His most important innovation was the drawing up of his own bills of exchange. By 1830, his company rivaled the Bank of the United States in the American foreign exchange markets, and the transition from the 'traditional' to the 'modern' merchant was nearly complete. It became the nation's first investment bank. It was sold in 1997, but the name lives on as Deutsche Bank Alex. Brown, a division of the Germany's Deutsche Bank.

 One of the most anticipated films in our time has been the movie Black Panther. It will be released on February 16, 2018. It is based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name. For months, people have praised this movie as inspiring, historic, and filled with talented black actors and actresses. You do feel a sense of motivation to honor the project. The film is produced by Marvel Studios and it will be distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. Ryan Coogler is the director of the movie. The screenplay was created by Ryan Coogler and Joe Robert Cole. There are many famous actors and actresses in the film. They include: Chadwick Boseman (as T’Challa or the Black Panther), Lupita Nyong’o, Danai Gurira, Martin Freeman, Michael B. Jordan, Daniel Kaluuya, Letitia Wright, Winston Duke, Angela Bassett, Forest Whitaker, and Andy Serkis.  The plot involved the character named Black Panther or T’Challa returning home as king of Wakanda. Yet, he found out that his sovereignty is challenged by a longtime adversary in a conflict that has global consequences. As early as 1992, Wesley Snipes wanted to a Black Panther film. Today, the film will be released worldwide. The movie follows events of Captain America: Civil War afterwards. King T’Challa comes to Wakanda. He knows about two enemies conspiring to bring down the kingdom. He must team up, as the Black Panther, with CIA agent Everett K. Ross and members of the Dora Milaje—Wakanda's special forces—to prevent a world war. Lupita Nyong’o plays Nakia, who is T’Challa’s former lover and an undercover operative of the Dora Milaje. The Dora Milaje is the all-female special forces of Wakanda who serve as T’Challa’s bodyguards. Danai Gurira played Okoyke. She is a strong Wakandan and a traditionalist from the Border Tribe, who is the head of the Dora Milaje.  Gurira said that the fighting skills she learned playing Michonne (from the Walking Dead show, which is found in AMC) complemented the skills of Okoye, but that "there's a lot of ways that they're extremely different ... Okoye is a whole 'nother thing." Gurira described the Dora Milaje as "more like a secret service in a sense that it’s also very much about intel. It’s not just military," with Okoye the head of intel. Regarding Okoye's stoic demeanor, Gurira said, "She can be serious, but she also has an unexpected sense of humor. She has a heart, but for her country and for her people. She’s not a person who doesn’t connect to human beings as a result of what she does." Angela Bassett plays Ramonda or T’Challa’s mother. Forest Whitaker plays Zuri or an elder statesman in Wakanda. He is the keeper of the Heart Shaped Herb. He is a spiritual, religious character. The Black Panther character is a politician and a warrior at the same time. There is no doubt that the movie does show the cultural influence from Africa. Boseman was taught the Xhosa language by John Kani in order for him to prepare for his role in the film. The Kingdom of Wakanda hasn’t been conquered by colonialism or imperialism. Some supporters of the Afro-punk movement love the film. Ta-Nehisi Coates and Roxanne Gay supported stories dealing with the Black Panther. Another World Fantasy Hugo and Nuebula Award winning novelist Nnedi Okorafor is dealing her story entitled, “Black Panther: Long Live the King” by December 2017. The movie Black Panther is historic and it shows once again the power and the intellectual strength of black people.

 By Timothy

Saturday, November 11, 2017


More Information

American Football

Steve Schmidt: "Roy Moore Is A Pedophile" | All In | MSNBC

Veterans Day Weekend Information

It's Not A Coincidence | truth x ATTN

Friday, November 10, 2017

The Problems with the GOP Tax Bill

News on this Veterans' Day

There is certainly a serious problem of economic inequality. The IPS or the Institute of Policy Studies released a recent study. That study stated that Jeff Bezos, Bill Gates, and Warren Buffett (or the three wealthiest Americans) own more wealth than the poorest half of Americans (which make up about 160 million people). These three billionaires have the combined wealth of $264 billion. The Institute for Policy Studies report, “Billionaire Bonanza: The Forbes 400 and the rest of us,” reveals that the richest 25 Americans are wealthier than the bottom 56 percent of the US. The net worth of the 400 richest is roughly equal to that of the bottom two thirds of the country, a total of 200 million people. According to the report’s authors, the US has become “a hereditary aristocracy of wealth and power.” This concentration of wealth is a massive level isn't just found in America. It is found internationally too. Oxfam reported in June 2017 that the world’s 5 richest people own as much as the poorest half of the world’s population, down from 80 people in 2015. Today, each of the top 5 billionaires owns as much as 750 million people, more than the total population of Latin America and double the population of the US. That is wild to fathom. Offshore tax havens and legal trusts also are involved in the massive economic inequality in the world.

The Gini Coefficient is also used in economics to define wealth distribution in a country. Many low and middle income people have some wealth but lack liquid savings in dealing with cash or saving. One article says that over 60 percent of Americans report not having enough savings to cover a $500 emergency. According to a recent study of Census data by the Economic Policy Institute, retirement account savings have plummeted in recent years among all age groups. This reality of economic inequality is not new. For decades, deindustrialization, cuts to social programs, tax cuts to the super wealthy, the economic recession, and other problems have caused more economic tribulations. It is no secret that the super-rich have oligarchical influence over economics, politics, and other spheres of influence in the world. That is why it is imperative to talk about these things and organize among workers and the poor in order for us to defeat the agenda of oligarchy and form a greater society where egalitarianism and justice prevail.

Esther Rolle was an actress for decades and she represented the resiliency, strength, and determination of black women. She was famous in playing the mother of a family on Good Times (which is a show about a poor family in a poor Chicago neighborhood). She was born in Pompano Beach, Florida. Her parents came from the Bahamas. Rolle graduated from Blanche Ely High School in Pompano Beach, Florida. She initially studied at Spelman College in Atlanta, before moving to New York City. While in New York, she attended Hunter College before transferring to The New School and then Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. She was involved in music, theater, dance, and film. From the Learning Tree to Rosewood, her roles outlined the breadth of the African American experience. Rest in Power Sister Esther Rolle. Minnie Riperton was one of the greatest singers in history with a crystal clear and powerful voice. Her music was inspirational and she was very honest to express what she was going through. Always the humanitarian, she stood out in the world. She was hopeful and she loved her family with an unconditional love. She was born in Chicago in the historic Bronzeville neighborhood. She not only shown classic records. She also brought awareness about breast cancer and cancer in general. Back in the day during the 1970's, it was taboo for a person in America to talk about cancer like we talk about it today. Yet, Minnie Riperton talked about breast cancer and she was a member of the American Cancer Society. She was young and on 1979, that was the year of her transition. We certainly honor her talent and her compassionate soul.
Rest in Power Sister Minnie Riperton.

Yesterday was the Birthday of the late Dorothy Dandridge. She was a legendary actress spanning decades. Her life was a life that was filled with love, acting, and being ahead of her time. She was born in Cleveland, Ohio and she was a legendary African American actress. Her movies included grit, talent, the complexities of life, and the insights relevant to the human soul. Always the professional, she wanted her audience to witness her work with progressive insights. Her beauty wasn't just in her very beautiful appearance. It was found in her great personality, in her positive energy, and her advocacy for civil rights. It is always beautiful for a human being to stand up for a legitimate cause of the equality of fellow human beings. She could act, sing, and dance. No one can deny her talent. No one can deny her elegance. I do feel star struck when I witness her in her movies. Carmen Jones, Porgy and Bess, and other films presented the world the artistic greatness of African American culture. When I was child during the 1990's, I always loved to watch Carmen Jones. 1965 was the year of her passing. Now, we witness her legacy involving the growth of talented black actresses throughout theater and film. We see the further expression of actors and actresses in having a diversity of roles. So, her passing was sad and now, she is in Paradise. Her life was short, but her passion and her legacy were enormous.
Sweet Dreams Sister Dorothy Dandridge.

Yes, I live in Virginia and it’s getting colder now. The elections shown many things. First, I think that Virginia is a much more progressive state than even 10 years ago. There are more Latinos and Filipinos living in VA. When I was a kid, I saw more Filipinos in my middle school (during the 1990’s) than Latinos. Also, the urban areas of Northern VA, Roanoke, Hampton Roads, and Richmond caused Northam to be elected. A lot of black people live in VA, so many black elected officials were voted in like Fairfax, Daun Hester, etc. The 2017 election blatantly was a total backlash against the agenda of Donald Trump. Trump has shown the face of white racism from his statements to his militarist posture against various nations. We can’t be naive either. We know that we have a very long way to go. Solutions include activism, helping our communities, and forming infrastructure in the black community too. Gillespie lost since he faked who he was. He is a lobbyist from New Jersey trying to act like he is reincarnation of Stonewall Jackson. He placed lying ads and tried to advance fear and xenophobia. It didn’t work. People saw through that facade. For him or Gillespie to overtly condone public funding of Confederate statues (when Confederates are traitors and white supremacist terrorists) brought many black people to the polls. Also, Northam also made the mistake of minimizing the importance of the black Lt. Governor candidate of Fairfax for fear of offending white reactionaries. So, we know about the games from the 2 party system. Virginia certainly is more progressive and this election result showed it. Other elections in Virginia had a historic significance too. Nationwide, there were many firsts for black men and black women being mayors in many cities. Black people (our people) are resourceful. Our eyes are on the prize, which is total black liberation.

By Timothy

The Balfour Declaration

More News

Wednesday, November 08, 2017

Early November 2017 News

Today, the people have spoken. Ralph Northam has been elected as the new governor of my State of Virginia. I voted and I knew that he would win. Once again, my state of Virginia rejected bigotry, rejected xenophobia, and rejected unwarranted fear mongering. We are the future of America and we proved it today. We are the New South and we are the quintessential representation of the essence of a real, progressive America. Gillespie lost and now we can celebrate. Also, this celebration is just the beginning. We have a long way to go and this is not the end of this journey for human justice. This is a renewal of a new era in our history and the continuation of the same battle for social justice. Also, Justin Fairfax won in Virginia as Lt. Governor. He is the second Lt. Governor of Virginia who is African American. The first was Douglas Wilder, who was the first black Governor in American history since Reconstruction. Congratulations to Sister Vi Lyes as the first African American woman mayor of Charlotte, North Carolina. Congratulations to Sister Shelia Oliver as the new Lt. Governor of New Jersey.

Last night, Donald Trump gave his speech about North Korea. He spoke at the South Korean Assembly. He gave an ultimatum to North Korea to follow his way or face military attack potentially. For over 25 years, there is a long history of many people in the States (after the Cold War) advocating war under controversial, faulty pretexts. The regime of North Korea is headed by Kim Jong-un. Trump wants North Korea to go into the path of unilateral nuclear disarmament while North Korea refuses to go into that direction. Kim Jong-un's Stalinist authoritarian regime have harmed civil liberties, but Trump's claim that North Korea is a worldwide threat is not true. Also, America also must realize that civil liberty violations, racial discrimination, and economic oppression are found in America too. Trump is meeting with China too in order for hoping that China can constrain North Korea. Trump has used massive militarist rhetoric and bluster, which is typical of him.

Sister Frederica Wilson has spoke her mind a lot. She is 75 years old and she was born in Miami, Florida. She is a woman who has stood up for justice and truth. She has confronted the lies from Trump and Kelly. Also, she is a committed role model who has helped so many human beings in her community too. Her maternal grandparents were Bahamian. Wilson earned her bachelor of arts degree from Fisk University in 1963, and her master of arts degree from the University of Miami in 1972. Fisk is in Nashville, TN. She was a Miami school principal and she created her own mentorship program called 5000 Role Models of Excellence. She was in the Florida state Legislature for a number of years before she was in the U.S. House of Representatives. She has opposed hazing and bullying. Representative Frederica Wilson has advanced education, and she opposes the political agenda of the Tea Party. She recently defended the family of the late Sgt. La David Johnson. She is also a woman who loves her hats as she has an extensive collection of a diversity of hats. She has defended us for decades and we will defend her.

Today, this comes a day after the tragedy in a Texas Church. Many people once again believe in the myth that guns must be deified no matter what and that no solution can come about to prevent the acts of mass shootings with guns. This problem was caused by a deranged, evil human being and the problem of mass shootings can be solved by human beings. The problem is that some people refuse to believe in any limits to the Second Amendment. There are limits to the First Amendment, but some believe that any new gun limit is equivalent to a total gun ban, which is a lie. 26 people were murdered and at least 20 people have been injured as a result of this massacre. People from age 18 months to 77 years old were murdered. Today, the CDC is even prevented from conducting extensive research on gun violence. Many Americans are disgusting to accept mass shootings at the expense of worshiping an innate object like a gun. Most polls show how most Americans want more reasonable regulations involving guns, but the gun lobby is one of the most powerful lobbies in America. The gunman used an assault weapon. He was discharged from the Air Force, because he assaulted a woman and a child. So, the murderer was a coward. This is beyond politics and this is more than a mental health issue. It is a gun issue too. People have always talked about solutions like banning bump stocks, expanding background checks, spread gun information across state lines, and gun education. Yet, people ignore that since they believe in the lie that nothing can be done to cause positive change. That's like saying that the Civil Rights Act can never be passed because of the existence of racism. That is a lie too. When an Uzbek national killed people, that person in the White House calls for more immigration regulation, but when a murderer in Texas kills over 20 people, he always talk about mental illness alone. So, the double standard is real.

Yesterday was the Birthday of Sister Melyssa Ford. She is now 41 years old and she was born in Toronto, Canada. She is a well known Canadian model and actress. When I was a teen and young adult, she was seen in many magazines, music videos, and interviews. As of 2014, Ford participates in the Bravo Network television series Blood, Sweat & Heels, documenting her social life against the background of her struggles of becoming a realtor in New York. As time goes on, she certainly is very outspoken on the corruption in the industry and she desires real change in our society. I wish Sister Melyssa Ford more blessings in her life. The slander of the FBI of black activists of being labeled "Black Identity Extremism" is an old tactic of the FBI to monitor and demonize any black person who is opposed to racial injustice, police brutality, and any form of discrimination in general. This slander omits white supremacist extremism and the increase of hate crimes in America since Trump was selected as President. Right wing extremism has been in epidemic levels in America. Over 400 groups of white supremacist groups exist in America alone. The FBI tactic of monitoring black activism is truly disgraceful.
Black Lives Matter.

By Timothy

Black Women Radicals of the Past Offer the Best Hope for Our Future

Black Bolsheviks and White Lies: Reflections on the Black Radical Tradition

Race, Repression and Russiagate: Defending Radical Black Self-Determination

Monday, November 06, 2017

From breaking the silence to building resistance

Remembering Fats Domino

Democratic Party crisis explodes in wake of Brazile revelations

Twisting the case for free speech on campus

Texas Church Shooting Leaves at Least 26 Dead, Officials Say

Early Baltimore History

The revolutionary spirit of social change is always found in Baltimore. It is an independent city which is the most populous city in the great state of Maryland. Many of my relatives live in Baltimore, so this is very personal with me. Recently, back in 2016, I visited Baltimore. I have seen its streets, its buildings, and its gorgeous architecture. So, I decided to research Baltimore in a more intimate, powerful level. I love to research and I love to learn. For centuries, Baltimore has existed as a city. Now, it’s an independent city and it’s the largest independent city in America in terms of population. It has over 610,000 people. The Constitution of Maryland established Baltimore. Its metropolitan area has near 2.8 million human beings. Southwest of Baltimore is Washington, D.C. Northeast of Baltimore is Philadelphia. Southeast of Baltimore is the Eastern Shore region (found in both Maryland and Virginia). Baltimore is also found on the Piedmont region geographically, which means that it has many hills. From 1729 to the present, Baltimore has tons of historical and cultural significance. It is a city home to a lot of civil rights events and its past included its powerful industrial base. It is a city where thousands of people work at Johns Hopkins Hospital (which was created in 1889). Edgar Allan Poe, Edith Hamilton, Frederick Douglass, Billie Holiday, actor and filmmaker John Waters, Babe Ruth, and others have lived in Baltimore before. Also, this great city is home to more public statues and monuments per capita than any other city in the United States of America. This is the perfect occasion for the long history and culture of Baltimore to be shown to the world.

In the beginning, Native Americans were the original inhabitants of Baltimore. Native Americans lived in the Baltimore since at least the 10th millennium B.C. This was when Paleo-Native Americans first settled in the region. One Paleo-Native American site and several Archaic period and Woodland period archaeological sites have been identified in Baltimore. There have been four found from the late Woodland period too. By the time of the Late Woodland period, there was an archaeological culture called “Potomac Creek complex.” It resided in an area from Baltimore to the Rappahannock River in Virginia (this is the river where Fredericksburg, Virginia is found), primarily along the Potomac River downstream from the Fall Line. East of the Fall line is where the Coastal Plain region is found geographically.  During the early 1600’s, the immediate Baltimore vicinity was populated by Native Americans. The Baltimore County area northward was used by the Susquehannocks. They used the area as hunting grounds. The Susquehannocks lived in the lower Susquehanna River valley. They controlled all of the upper tributaries of the Chesapeake and refrained from much contact with the Powhatan in the Potomac region. The Powhatan were a powerful Native American tribe who also lived in Virginia. The Piscataway tribe of the Algonquians (who are found in Eastern Virginia too) were pressured by the Susquehannokcs to live well south of the Baltimore area. They lived mostly on the north bank of the Potomac River in what is now Charles and southern Prince George’s south of the Fall line. John Smith has his 1608 map that shown many settlements and it showed the Baltimore area. There were settlements of Native Americans on the Patuxent River. In 1608, John Smith traveled 210 miles from Jamestown to the uppermost Chesapeake Bay. He led the first European expedition to the Patapsco River, which is found in Baltimore. Patapsco was a word used by the Algonquin language natives who fished shellfish and hunted. The name "Patapsco" is derived from pota-psk-ut, which translates to "backwater" or "tide covered with froth" in Algonquian dialect. A quarter century after John Smith's voyage, English colonists began to settle in Maryland. The English were initially frightened by the Piscataway in southern Maryland because of their body paint and war regalia, even though they were a peaceful tribe. The chief of the Piscataway tribe was quick to grant the English permission to settle within Piscataway territory and cordial relations were established between the English and the Piscataway.

European settlement continued. The County of Baltimore was created around 1659 according to the records of the General Assembly of Maryland. This event was the earliest divisions of the Maryland Colony into counties. There was a warrant that was issued to be served by the “Sheriff of Baltimore County.” The area made up of the modern city of Baltimore and its metropolitan area was settled by David Jones in 1661. His claim was found in the areas today known as Harbor East on the east bank of the Jones Falls River. This river flows south into Baltimore’s Inner Harbor. During the next year, the shipwright Charles Gorsuch settled Whetstone Point. That was in the present location of Fort McHenry. In 1665, the west side of the Jones Falls on the Inner Harbor was settled when 550 acres of land, thereafter named Cole’s Harbor, was granted to Thomas Cole. It was later sold to David Jones in 1679. Old Saint Paul’s Parish of Baltimore County was one of the “Original Theirty” parishes designated for the Colony. It included the county of Baltimore and future Baltimore Town was part of the “established” or “state” Church of England. That church was also called the Anglican Church. It was the first church built in the metro area. It was erected in 1692 on the Patapsco Neck peninsula in southeastern Baltimore County. It is along Colgate Creek which flowed into Patapsco River (or the present site of today’s Dundalk Marine Terminal of the Port of Baltimore). Jones’s stepson James Todd resurveyed Cole’s Harbor in 1696. The tract was renamed Todd’s Range, which was then sold off in progressively smaller parcels, thereby forming the land that would become the Town of Baltimore thirty years later. There was another “Baltimore” on the Bush River as early as 1674. The first county seat of Baltimore County is called “Old Baltimore.” It was located on the Bush River on land that in 1773 became part of Harford County. In 1674, the General Assembly passed "An Act for erecting a Court-house and Prison in each County within this Province." The site of the court house and jail for Baltimore County was evidently "Old Baltimore" near the Bush River.

In 1683, the General Assembly passed "An Act for Advancement of Trade" to "establish towns, ports, and places of trade, within the province." One of the towns established by the act in Baltimore County was "on Bush River, on Town Land, near the Court-House." The court house on the Bush River referenced in the 1683 Act was in all likelihood the one created by the 1674 Act. "Old Baltimore" was in existence as early as 1674, but we don't know with certainty what if anything happened on the site prior to that year. The exact location of Old Baltimore was lost for years. Some believe that it’s found on the site of modern day Aberdeen Proving Ground or APG (which is an U.S. Army testing facility). Back during the 1990’s, the APG’s Cultural resource Management Program wanted to find Old Baltimore. The firm of R. Christopher Goodwin & Associates was contracted for the project. After Goodwin first performed historical and archival work, they coordinated their work with existing landscape features to locate the site of Old Baltimore. APG's Explosive Ordnance Disposal personnel went in with Goodwin to defuse any unexploded ordnance. Working in 1997 and 1998, the field team uncovered building foundations, trash pits, faunal remains, and 17,000 artifacts, largely from the 17th century. The Bush River proved to be an unfortunate location because the port became silted and impassable to ships, forcing the port facilities to relocate. By the time Baltimore on the Patapsco River was established in 1729, Old Baltimore Town had faded away.

Maryland’s colonial General Assembly created and authorized the Port of Baltimore in 1706. It is found at the Head of the Northwest Branch of the Patapsco River in what is known as “the Basin” or today’s Inner Harbor. It expanded east later and southeast down river to the settlement (now known as Fells Point) to the east. That is found near the mouth of Jones Falls and further in the nineteenth century, it is known as Canton. Baltimore is named after Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore (1605-1675) of the Irish House of Lords. He was the founding proprietor of the Province of Maryland. Cecilius Calvert was the oldest son of Sir George Calvert (1579-1632), who became the First Lord Baltimore of County Longford, Ireland in 1625. Previously, he was a loyal agent of King Charles I of England (1600–1649) as his Secretary of State until declaring himself a follower of Roman Catholicism. Regardless, the King still gave his heir Cecil the 1632 grant for the Maryland colony, named after Charles's wife, Queen Henrietta Marie. The colony was a follow-up to his earlier settlement in Newfoundland, known as "Acadia" or "Avalon", (future Canada), which he found too cold and difficult for habitation. At the Basin to the southeast along the southern peninsula, which ended at Whetstone Point or today’s South Baltimore, Federal Hill, and Locust Point, there were the funding of new wharves (and slips came about form individual wealthy ship owners plus brokers. Funding came from public authorities via the town commissioners by means of lotteries). In the Maryland region, there was tobacco trade and shipping of other raw materials overseas to England, for receiving manufactured goods from England and for trade with other ports being formed up and down the Chesapeake Bay (and in other burgeoning colonies along the Atlantic coast). In 1729, the Maryland General Assembly established the Town of Baltimore. Baltimore has grown. German immigrants began to settle along the Chesapeake Bay by 1723 and they lived in the Baltimore area. The General Assembly enlarged Baltimore Town in 1745 and it incorporated David Jones’ original settlement known as Jones Town. Baltimore sent representatives to the Assembly. Over the next two decades, it acquired nine parcels of land. It annexed neighboring villages including Fells Point to become an important community on the head of the Patapsco River. As Baltimore grew, more German Lutheran immigrants formed Zion Church in 1755. Later, a German Reformed congregation was organized as the first among Protestants to be represented. This caused more “Pennsylvania Dutch” settlers to come into the region. Early German settlers also formed the German Society of Maryland in 1783 in order for them to foster the German language and German culture in Baltimore. Slavery was in Baltimore and throughout early America too. Throughout the 1700’s, Baltimore drained and filled in marshes. These places include Thomas Harrison’s Marsh along the Jones Falls west bank. Canals were built in Baltimore around the falls and through the center of town. Bridges existed across the Falls. Baltimore annexed neighboring Jones’s Town to the northeast in 1745 and expanded southeastward towards the neighboring, bustling, shipbuilding port at Fells Point. Baltimore back then was the largest city in the Middle Atlantic colonies between Philadelphia and Charleston, South Carolina. The population grew rapidly. Powerful financial interests in the growing town increased its power. The courthouse for all Baltimore County was moved from Old Joppa over its citizens enraged protests. Baltimoreans paid some 300 pounds sterling the next year to erect a fine brick courthouse with a bell tower and steeple on a Courthouse Square (at future Calvert Street, between East Lexington and Fayette Streets) along with the "whipping post", stocks (for confining heads and arms), podium for making public announcements and news, and a nearby jail  (on the northern hills overlooking the harbor basin and with its back sitting over a rugged cliff and bluffs to the northeast with "Steiger's Meadow." The jail bordered the twisting loop of the Jones Falls which bended southwestward before running north again).

During the American Revolution, the Second Continental Congress temporarily fled from Philadelphia and held sessions in Baltimore between December 1776 and February 1777. When the Continental Congress authorized the privateering of British vessels, eager Baltimore merchants accepted the challenge. As the Revolutionary War progressed, the shipbuilding industry expanded and boomed. There was no major military action near Baltimore, except for the passing nearby and a feint towards the town by the British Royal Navy fleet as they headed north up the Chesapeake Bay to land an army at Head of Elk. This was located in the northeast corner to march on the American capital Philadelphia. There were battles at Brandywine and Germantown. The American Revolution ironically grew the domestic market for wheat and iron ore. In Baltimore, flour milling increased along with the Jones and Gwynns Falls. Iron ore transport greatly boosted the local economy. The British naval blockade hurt Baltimore’s shipping, but also freed merchants and traders from British debts. This along with the capture of British merchant vessels furthered Baltimore’s economic growth. By 1800, Baltimore had become one of the major cities of the new American country. The economic foundation in Baltimore from 1763 to 1776 along with the Revolutionary War caused Baltimore to see more economic expansion. Baltimore’s merchants and entrepreneurs produced an expanding commercial community with family businesses and partnerships. These businesses involved shipping, the flour milling, the grain business, the indentured servant situation, the evil slave trade, etc.  International trade focused on four areas: Britain, Southern Europe, the West Indies, and the North American coastal towns. Credit was the essence of the system and a virtual chain of indebtedness meant that bills remained long unpaid and little cash was used among overseas correspondents, merchant wholesalers, and retail customers. Bills of exchange were used extensively, often circulating as currency. Frequent crises of credit, and the wars with France kept prices and markets in constant flux, but men such as William Lux and the Christie brothers produced a maturing economy and a thriving metropolis by the 1770’s. Philadelphia had a more powerful economy than Baltimore back then. The population of Baltimore reached 14,000 in 1790, but the decade was a rough one for the city. The Bank of England's suspension of specie payments caused the network of Atlantic credit to unravel, leading to a mild recession. The Quasi-War with France in 1798-1800 caused major disruptions to Baltimore's trade in the Caribbean. Finally, a yellow fever epidemic diverted ships from the port, while much of the urban population fled into the countryside. The downturn widened to include every social class and area of economic activity. In response the business community diversified away from an economy based heavily on foreign trade.

By Timothy

Sunday, November 05, 2017

Is the FBI Setting the Stage for Increased Surveillance of Black Activists? The answer is of course Yes. The FBI is known for its criminality.

“Black Tudors: The Untold Story” by Historian Miranda Kaufmann Debunks Idea That Slavery Was Start of Africans’ Presence in England

Tonya Boyd to Become FDNY’s 1st Black Woman Deputy Chief

Morehouse Student Julien Turner Goes Viral With “XY Cell Life,” Extra Credit Rap Video for Biology Class (VIDEO)

Extra Information

Friday, November 03, 2017

More News

Robert Reich: Hello Trump Tax Cuts, Goodbye Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security. . .

We Get It. It’s Harvey Weinstein’s News Cycle. But What About Our Black Girls?

Early November 2017 News

My core convictions are the same. I'm still opposed to police brutality, I oppose the Confederacy, I believe in racial justice, I believe in economic justice, and I do believe in social justice too. I honor the sacrifice of those who stand on truth and I honor anyone who use their principles to support human justice (especially in our time when heroes are knelling and helping their communities in diverse ways).The Republican tax plan has been revealed. The House Republican plan is a 429 page document. It is pro-Wall Street, because it wants to cut the corporate tax rate from 35 to 20 percent. It also effectively reduces the tax rate on corporate income generated by overseas operations from 35 percent to 10 percent, allowing giant companies such as Apple and Amazon to repatriate the hundreds of billions of dollars they have stashed away overseas to avoid US taxes, by charging a one-time rate of 12 percent. The top personal income tax is maintained at 39.6 percent (which is down from 70 percent from 1980). That applies to households making more than $1 million a year, up from the current threshold of $500,000. It doubles the exemption for estate taxes to $11 million and eliminates the tax entirely in six years, providing a huge windfall for the wealthiest 0.2 percent of the population. Eliminating the estate tax benefits the financial oligarchy in a dynastic fashion. The bill ends the Alternative Minimum Tax and that policy benefits the wealthy. It reduces to 25 percent the tax on so-called “pass through” income reported by business owners. The proposal roughly doubles the standard tax deduction for middle-income families.

However, to keep the loss of federal revenue from handouts to corporations and the wealthy to $1.5 trillion over ten years, as required by the budget resolution passed last month, the measure repeals or reduces current tax deductions that chiefly benefit workers and middle-class people. These include deductions for mortgage interest payments, state and local taxes, student loans, medical expenses, moving costs, adoptions and tax credits for retired and disabled people. This will cause more poor, working class, and middle class people to pay more taxes to subsidize the tax cuts for the wealthy. For decades, we have seen the rise of income inequality and financial exploitation. Even in 2017, it is taboo for some to address poverty for real. The Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, using Tax Policy Center data, concluded that even if the top tax rate remains at 39.6 percent, the top 1 percent, who make more than $733,000 a year, would see average tax cuts of $90,000 in 2018 and receive 45 percent of the total net tax cut. The top one-tenth of 1 percent of households, those with incomes above $3.4 million, would receive average tax cuts of $507,000 in 2018, a boost in their after-tax income of 7.2 percent. Those making less than $75,000 would see their after-tax income increase by only 0.9 percent. So, we are not naive at how trickled down economics doesn't work.

Also, it is important to reiterate the truth about the CIA. The CIA was created in 1947. Today, some people want to promote the myth that the CIA is a total arbitrator of truth and morality. The truth is the opposite of that fallacious assumption. Since 1947, the CIA has been complicit in voting fraud, false flag operations, coups, assassinations, imperialism, and other evil actions against people globally (especially against poorer nations or nations of color). Today, we see the CIA having massive influential in the government of America. One example proving the CIA's terrorism is the recent release of JFK documents proving how the CIA planned false flag operations in order to justify an invasion of Cuba. Another example is how the CIA is complicit in the coup of Iran back in 1953 called Operation Ajax. During the Vietnam War era, the CIA executed Operation Phoenix, which was about "neutralizing" North Vietnamese forces via attacks and assassination including torture. Operation Cyclone was when the CIA worked with Saudi intelligence in aiding Osama Bin Laden and others in fighting the Soviets in Afghanistan during the late 1970's and the 1980's. So, we have to realize the truth no matter how uncomfortable it is.

Yes, I will go there. We shouldn't be surprised at Trump. When a white American person killed dozens of people in Las Vegas, Trump doesn't call for the death penalty against that murderer. Yet, when a murderer (who claims to be a Muslim, but he isn't. He's an extremist and an Uzbek national) murders 8 innocent people, then Trump wants the death penalty for that person. Trump is who he is. Involving the Las Vegas tragedy, Trump desires no gun regulation discussion, but after the attack in NYC, he wants discussions about immigration regulations (in wanting to end the VISA Diversity program. Now, Trump backs away from desiring the suspect to go into Gitmo). So, he is politicizing the NYC tragedy, which is evil. Trump has no shame in his extremism. Trump claims that he doesn't want to get politically correct, but he was politically correct when a murderer in Las Vegas killed many people. When another person in NYC killed people, then he wants to violate democratic rights. The reason for his contradiction is obvious. Also, while I believe that those responsible for the hacking should be made accountable, I don't believe in authoritarian censorship of the Internet. Today in my state of Virginia, there will be a very important election for the Governorship and other offices. In my view, this is the most important Governor's race in my lifetime. It's that important. One man named Gillespie, who I remember was an ally of George W. Bush, has publicly came out to advocate the support of Confederate statues. Gillespie is wrong on so many levels. Trump has attacked the bipartisan lottery system in dealing with immigration, which shows Trump's xenophobia. The other man, Northam, is a more progressive candidate. I do appreciate the good people in Virginia, because this is my land too. My ancestors lived in this land as well, therefore I have the right to have a legitimate stake in Virginia's future just like anyone else. I will vote in Virginia on November 7 and I will vote for the best candidate.

Malcolm X appealed to a lot of people because of his directness. Also, in many of his speeches, he used parables, similes, and lessons in order to gather his audience to understand what he was talking about. His contributions to the freedom struggle are lengthy. He taught us about the value of self defense. He taught us about international pan-African unity being sacrosanct. He talked about equality among the sexes and opposition to the Vietnam War long before the late 1960's. He represented living Black Excellence. Everyone knew that Trump was an extremist and has disrespected women for years. Trump is the antithesis of democratic principles and people ought to have the discernment to outright oppose his extremism, his vulgarity, and his bigotry. That is why anyone supporting Trump now is someone that I can't ally with politically. Many people have sold their souls just to try to ally with Trump (who supports neo-Confederate protesters and agrees with torture). We want that bigot Trump to be out of office either by impeachment or by being voted out by 2020.

By Timothy