Monday, January 16, 2017

The Winter in 2017 Part 3


 The City of Lagos, Nigeria

Lagos, Nigeria is one of the greatest cities in the world. It is found in Africa or the Motherland. It is the largest city in Nigeria in population. It is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. It is a major financial center. So, Lagos is mega city with the highest GDP in the nation and has some of the largest and busiest ports in the continent. Lagos initially emerged as a port city which originated on a collection of islands, which are contained in the present day Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Lagos Island, Eti-Osa, Amuwo-Odofin and Apapa. The islands are separated by creeks. It has over 8 million people at least. Its metropolitan area has about 21 million people. Lagos is found in 2 major geographical areas of the island and the mainland. The island region is made up of many islands while the mainland has most industries there. That region is known for its music and night life. The major areas of the mainland include areas like Ebute Metta, Yaba, Ajah and Ejigbo. Some rivers, like Badagry Creek, flow parallel to the coast for some distance before exiting through the sand bars to the sea. The city is near the equator, so its temperature remains constant with no major change year round. There is no single municipality in Lagos, so there is no overall city administration. There is the existence of 16 to 20 governmental local areas which together make up the Lagos State. The mainland beyond the Municipality of Lagos, on the other hand, comprised several separate towns and settlements such as Mushin, Ikeja and Agege.

Lagos’ economy is very powerful. The Central business district is found in the island and its economy generates a major part of Nigeria’s GDP. Lagos’ economy is a 24 hour economy. Some residents have the highest standards of living in Nigeria and in Africa. There is still poverty in Lagos too. The Port of Lagos is Nigeria's leading port and one of the largest and busiest in Africa. It is administered by the Nigerian Ports Authority and it is split into three main sections: Lagos port, in the main channel next to Lagos Island, Apapa Port (site of the container terminal) and Tin Can Port, both located in Badagry Creek, which flows into Lagos Harbour from the west. The port features a railhead. The port has seen growing amounts of crude oil exported, with export figures rising between 1997 and 2000. Oil and petroleum products provide 14% of GDP and 90% of foreign exchange earnings in Nigeria as a whole. Massive tourism is found in Lagos too.

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The Beginning

There is an oral history of the Lagos that says that during the period around 1300 to 1400, the Oba (King) of the Benin Empire heard from one of his traders complaints about being mistreated by the Awori who lived in the area of current day Lagos. The Oba of Benin then sent a trade expedition by sea to engage with the Awori people, who nonetheless declined to engage and attacked the mission sent by Benin. Upon hearing this as the mission returned to Benin City, the Oba of Benin commanded the assembling of a war expedition, led by Ado, a prince of Benin, which headed to the settlement of the Awori in current-day Lagos, then called Eko by the Benin people, and demanded an explanation. On getting there, Ado and his army were more than well received. The Awori from Lagos asked Benin Prince Ado to stay there and become their leader. Ado agreed, on the condition that they surrendered their sovereignty to the Oba of Benin, to which the Awori people of Lagos agreed.  Upon hearing this, the Oba of Benin gave his permission for Prince Ado and the expedition to remain in Eko with the Awori. The Oba of Benin later sent some of his chiefs, including the Eletu Odibo, Obanikoro and others, to assist Ado in the running of Eko. Lagos was inhabited at first by the Awori subgroup of the Yoruba people in the 15th century. They called it Oko. The leadership of Oloye Olofin existed back then and he caused the Awori to move into an island which is now called Iddo and then to the larger Lagos Island.

In the 16th century, the Awori settlement was conquered by the Benin Empire  and the island became a Benin war-camp called "Eko" under Oba Orhogba, the Oba of Benin at the time. Eko is still the native name for Lagos. Lagos means “lakes.” It was a name given to the settlement by the Portuguese. Today, the Lagos state has a high percentage of Awori, who migrated to the area from Isheri along the Ogun river. Throughout history, it was home to a number of warring ethnic groups who had settled in the area. Following its early settlement by the Awori nobility, and its conquest by the Bini warlords of Benin, the state first came to the attention of the Portuguese in the 15th century. Portuguese explorer Rui de Sequeira visited the area in 1472, naming the area around the city Lago de Curamo. Another explanation of the name of Lagos is that Lagos was named for Lagos, Portugal—a maritime town which, at the time, was the main center of Portuguese expeditions down the African coast.

From the time of the crowing of Ado (as its first Oba of Lagos which was then called Eko), Lagos was a major center of the slave trade. Unfortunately, Oba of Benin Ado and his successors for over 4 centuries supported the slave trade. This ended in 1841 when Oba Akitoye ascended the throne of Lagos and attempted to ban slave trading. Local merchants strongly opposed this action. They deposed and exiled the king and installed Akitoye’s brother Kosoko as Oba or leader of Lagos. At exile in Europe, Akitoye met with British authorities, who had banned slave-trading in 1807, and who therefore decided to support the deposed Oba to regain his throne. With the success of the British intervention in 1851, Akitoye was reinstalled as Oba of Lagos. In practical terms, however, British influence over the kingdom had become absolute, and ten years later, in 1861, Lagos was formally annexed as a British colony. The British Empire colonized many areas of the world. Colonialism and imperialism are evil since it denies human democratic rights, it leads into unjust economic exploitation, and it restricts the independence of the peoples of the world. The British annexed Lagos as a colony in 1861. The remainder of the Benin Empire (or modern day Nigeria) was seized by the British in 1887. Lagos was annexed by Britain via the Lagos Treaty of Cession in 1861 ending the consular period and starting the British colonial period. The remainder of modern-day Nigeria was seized in 1886. When the British created the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria in 1914, Lagos was declared its capital.

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Nigeria's Independence

Lagos maintained its status as capital when Nigeria obtained its independence from Britain in 1960.
Nigeria’s independence movement has a long history. Nigeria stretches from the dry grasslands of the north to the moist ran forests of the south. It was three groups that dominate its political, economic, and social structures. The mainly Christian Ibo and Yoruba peoples are in the south. The mostly Muslim Hausa people dominate the north. There are hundreds of ethnic groups in Nigeria too. After World War II, the British gradually gave in to the growing demands of independence from the Nigerian people. Once, Nigeria was a British colony. Colonialism allowed resource exploitation by imperial powers in order to benefit the interests of Empire instead of the interests of the masses of the people in various nations. Before 1960, the economy of Nigeria grew more rapidly in the south than the north. Back then, Nigeria was divided into Northern and Southern Provinces including the Lagos Colony. Education was spread in the Nigerian area. After World War II, changes in the world happened. Independence movements in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and South America grew into the next level.

Nigerian nationalism spread and Nigerians demanded independence from the United Kingdom. There were gradual constitutions which were legalized by the British government, which moved Nigeria to self-government on a representative and more federal basis.  On October 1, 1954, the colony became the autonomous Federation of Nigeria. By the middle of the 20th century, the great wave for independence was sweeping across Africa. On October 27, 1958, Britain agreed that Nigeria would become an independent state on October 1, 1960. Therefore, on October 1, 1960, Nigeria had its independence. It had a Constitution and it was a parliamentary government. The Nigerian People's Congress (NPC) represented conservative, Muslim, largely Hausa and Fulani interests that dominated the Northern Region. The northern region of the country, consisting of three-quarters of the land area and more than half the population of Nigeria. Thus the North dominated the federation government from the beginning of independence. In the 1959 elections held in preparation for independence, the NPC captured 134 seats in the 312-seat parliament. Capturing 89 seats in the federal parliament was the second largest party in the newly independent country the National Council of Nigerian Citizens (NCNC). The NCNC represented the interests of the Igbo- and Christian-dominated people of the Eastern Region of Nigeria.

The Action Group (AG) was a left-leaning party that represented the interests of the Yoruba people in the West. In the 1959 elections the AG obtained 73 seats. The Federal Republic of Nigeria was formed by Nnamdi Azikiwe. He was the country’s first President. There were economic and educational development disparities in the north and south. There were ethnic and religious tensions too. Azikiwe was an Igbo. He was a well-known Nigerian nationalist. The Hausa and Fulani mostly lived in the northern region of Nigeria and they were mostly Muslims. In the southern region of Nigeria, there were the Yoruba and Igbo who were mostly Christians, Muslims, and animists. Animists are people who believed that spirits are present in animals, plants, and natural objects. The Yoruba lived to the west and they were a farming people while the Igbo lived in the east. The Yoruba had a tradition of kings while the Igbo had a tradition of democratic traditions. Nigeria had a federal system where the power is shared between state government and a central authority. The Nigerians set up 3 states, one for each region and ethnic group (with a political party in each). After the brutal Biafra civil war in Nigeria, Nigeria united.

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The Modern Age

Lagos was therefore the capital city of Nigeria from 1914 until 1991, when it was replaced as Federal Capital Territory by planned city of Abuja, built specifically for such purpose. Lagos experienced rapid growth throughout the 1960s and 1970s as a result of Nigeria's economic boom prior to the Biafran War. During that time period, regional, ethnic, and religious differences led into conflict in Nigeria. In 1966, Nigeria experienced many military coups. A second coup came later by year by the northern Muslim officers. They led to a rebellion in the oil rich southeast by the Ibo people, who declared independence as the Republic of Biafra. A 3 year civil war existed that left thousands of people to die. In the end, Nigeria’s military defeated the Biafran rebels and end Biafra’s independence. Civilian rule in Nigeria came about in 1999 with free elections.

Brother Hakeem Olajuwon is now 54 years old.  He is one of the greatest players in NBA. From 1984 to 2002, he played in the NBA. Hakeem Olajuwon was very creative in his ability, he shot the ball well, and he always is a people person. Houston loved him and he loved the Houston Rockets and its fans. He was born in Lagos, Nigeria and his family is part of the Yoruba ethnic group. Nigeria has dozens of ethnic groups. He is the third of eight children. He played soccer and played basketball by the age of 17 years old. He came into the University of Houston to play in college. Houston is home to many immigrants and it is a very diverse city. In the NBA, he played with Ralph Sampson, Clyde Drexler, and other legends in the Houston Rockets. He won 2 NBA Championships in 1994 and 1995. He ended his career in the Toronto Raptors. He has trained young basketball players for years. He has worked in charities and he's a man who is a legend.

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Many conflicts continued through the 1980's and 1990's up to the present date. In 1991, Ibrahim Babangida, the Military President and other government functions moved to the newly built capital. This was as a result of intelligence reports on the safety of his life and what was later to be termed his hidden agenda, which was the plan to turn himself into a civilian president. He finished what was started by the Murtala/Obasanjo regime. The change resulted in Lagos losing some prestige and economic leverage. However, it has retained its importance as the country's largest city and as an economic center. Religious conflict among Christians and Muslims continue in Nigeria. We want any Nigeria, regardless of his or her creed, to live in peace and harmony. Nigeria is very oil rich country too. In 2002, Lagos was divided into 57 local council areas. The Pan African University was created in Lagos in 2002 too. Spring Bank was created in 2004. Moments with Mo, which is talk show started to broadcast in 2006. Lagos had its Teslim Balogun Stadium to be built by 2007. The Centre for Contemporary Art was founded in 2007. The Lekki-Ikoyi Link Bridge was completed by 2013. Lagos has a long history, great people, and they represent one great city of the Motherland of Africa.

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Anthropology is the study of humanity and culture. It deals with the branches of physical, social, linguistic, archaeological, and cultural anthropology. In essence, anthropology is the study of the human family and human culture in all of its diverse manifestations. We live in a world where humanity has diverse cultures and there is the commonality among the peoples of the world too. We all need water and food to survive. We all either speak or deal with language in many ways. We have complex ideological viewpoints and we use technology constantly in the world society.  In our lives, we fight on this audacious journey for liberty, justice, and equality. We realize the sacrifice of our fore-bearers, who heroically and without denial of their principles, stood up for the pristine, focused agendas of human excellence, of compassion, of strength, of love, of sacrifice, and of even handedness. To understand anthropology, people should understand the concepts of culture, human behavior, language, agriculture, human migration, economics, family structure, race, ethnicity, human gender, medicine, epidemiology, acculturation, human biology, and other characteristics of human society. Therefore, anthropology is a complex subject matter. It deals with the origins of humankind and it focus on the research on how human culture evolves over the ages of time.

Evolution of the Term

The term of anthropology has a long evolution in human history. It current use was first found in Renaissance Germany in the works of Magnus Hundt and Otto Casmann. It is a combination of two Greek words of  ánthrōpos (ἄνθρωπος, "human") and lógos (λόγος, "study"). (Its adjectival form appeared in the works of Aristotle.)  It began to be used in English, possibly via French anthropologie, by the early 18th century. In 1647, the Bartholins, founders of the University of Copenhagen, defined l'anthropologie as follows: “Anthropology, that is to say the science that treats of man, is divided ordinarily and with reason into Anatomy, which considers the body and the parts, and Psychology, which speaks of the soul.” There were later uses of the term like by  Étienne Serres in 1839 to describe the natural history, or paleontology, of man, based on comparative anatomy, and the creation of a chair in anthropology and ethnography in 1850 at the National Museum of Natural History (France) by Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefages de Bréau. Various short-lived organizations of anthropologists had already been formed. The Société Ethnologique de Paris, the first to use Ethnology, was formed in 1839. Its members were primarily anti-slavery activists. When slavery was abolished in France in 1848 the Société was abandoned. Meanwhile, the Ethnological Society of New York, currently the American Ethnological Society, was founded on its model in 1842, as well as the Ethnological Society of London in 1843, a break-away group of the Aborigines' Protection Society.

These anthropologists of the times were liberal, anti-slavery, and pro-human-rights activists. They maintained international connections. Today, anthropology deals with diverse subjects like anatomy, linguistics, and ethnology. In essence, anthropology is the study of the actions of human kind in the world. Many modern anthropologists today study gender, multiculturalism, ethnography, race, and other issues. Cultural anthropology is more related to philosophy, literature and the arts (how one's culture affects experience for self and group, contributing to more complete understanding of the people's knowledge, customs, and institutions), while social anthropology is more related to sociology and history. To understand anthropology is to understand social structures of peoples in the world too. Ethnomusicology is an academic field encompassing various approaches to the study of music (broadly defined), that emphasize its cultural, social, material, cognitive, biological, and other dimensions or contexts instead of or in addition to its isolated sound component or any particular repertoire. Therefore, anthropology is a very multifaceted field of study.

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The Human Race

To learn about the human race, we will learn more about ourselves. As human beings, we have manual dexterity, use of tools, and complex development of creativity and other cognitive expressions. We have very complex brains too. Human beings existed first in the Motherland of Africa. Human beings migrated out of Africa to the rest of the world from about 200,000 years ago. Human beings are very unique since we have a large brain with a well-developed neocortex, prefrontal cortex, and temporal lobes. We can express a high level of abstract reasoning, language, problem solving, sociability, and culture via social learning. We can use tool in a much higher degree than any animal on Earth. We can build fires, cook food, and use a diversity of technologies and arts. Sedentary agriculture developed into a higher level by 10,000 years ago. The Paleolithic era is known as the Early Stone Age. The Neolithic Era came later, which is the New Stone Age. Modern humans spread rapidly from Africa into the frost-free zones of Europe and Asia around 60,000 years ago. The rapid expansion of humankind to North America and Oceania took place at the climax of the most recent ice age, when temperate regions of today were extremely inhospitable. Yet, humans had colonized nearly all the ice-free parts of the globe by the end of the Ice Age, some 12,000 years ago. The Agricultural Revolution (in the Neolithic Age) spread from 8,000 B.C. to 5,000 B.C. especially in the Mesopotamia region. The Neolithic Age saw human beings inventing the wheel, the first planting of cereal crops, and the development of cursive script like cuneiform (which is the earliest known writing system). Later, human beings transited from a nomadic life to a more settled lifestyle as farmers in permanent settlements. There was nomadism, but the transition continued. Communication improved and transportation grew. The development of cities existed by the end of the Neolithic age too.

Ancient civilizations were in Lower Mesopotamia, ancient Egypt, ancient Kush, other areas of Africa, the Harappan civilian in the Indus Valley, the Chinese civilization in the Yellow plus Yangtze River, and other civilizations. These societies developed a number of unifying characteristics, including a central government, a complex economy and social structure, sophisticated language and writing systems, and distinct cultures and religions. Writing was another pivotal development in human history, as it made the administration of cities and expression of ideas far easier. Modern religion developed with anthropomorphic deities, other forms of polytheism, and monotheism. Also, another point is to be made too. A team of scientists comparing the full genomes of the two species concluded that most Europeans and Asians have between 1 to 2 percent Neanderthal DNA.  The original, Indigenous sub-Saharan Africans have no Neanderthal DNA because their ancestors did not migrate through Eurasia. The genomes of all non-Africans include portions that are of Neanderthal origin, due to interbreeding between Neanderthals and the ancestors of Eurasians in Northern Africa or the Middle East prior to their spread. Recent findings suggest there may be even more Neanderthal genes in non-African humans than previously expected: approximately 20% of the Neanderthal gene pool was present in a broad sampling of non-African individuals, though each individual's genome was on average only 2% Neanderthal. Therefore, Neanderthals are not modern human beings.

Also, many scientists research about the halpogroup. A haplotype is a group of genes in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent. A halpogroup is a made up of similar haplotypes. A haplogroup is a combination of alleles at different chromosomes regions that are closed linked and that tend to be inherited together. Haplogroups pertain to a single line of descent, usually dating back thousands of years. As such, membership of a haplogroup, by any individual, relies on a relatively small proportion of the genetic material possessed by that individual. In human genetics, the haplogroups most commonly studied are Y-chromosome (Y-DNA) haplogroups and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, both of which can be used to define genetic populations. Y-DNA is passed solely along the patrilineal line, from father to son, while mtDNA is passed down the matrilineal line, from mother to offspring of both sexes. Neither recombines, and thus Y-DNA and mtDNA change only by chance mutation at each generation with no intermixture between parents' genetic material.

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Archaeology is the study of human activity via the recovery and analysis of material culture. In archaeology, culture, history, and artifacts are discovered. It is a social science and a branch of the humanities. In North America, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology. Archaeology is a field that is constantly changing as more discoveries of tombs, buildings, and sculptures exist in our time too. From stone tools found in East Africa to the modern finds, archaeology is here to stay. Many anthropologists know about history, art, ethnology, paleontology, statistics, and other fields. For centuries, people have evacuated ruins and buildings from the city of Pompeii to the megalithic monuments of England. William Cunnington of England modernized the research of archaeological excavation. He found Neolithic and Bronze Age barrows. Many researchers discovered the tomb of the 14th century B.C. pharaoh Tutankhamun.  The next major figure in the development of archaeology was Sir Mortimer Wheeler, whose highly disciplined approach to excavation and systematic coverage in the 1920's and 1930's brought the science on swiftly. Wheeler developed the grid system of excavation, which was further improved upon by his student Kathleen Kenyon. Archaeology is used to find out more about the cultural manifestations of the past. It also used to find the behaviors of humanity too. Surveys, DNA testing, computer 3D technology, and other methods are used to find objects and to make known much of our history. Therefore, archaeology is exciting and a crucial part of human civilization.

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Cultural Diversity

Human culture is diverse. They are found worldwide among people of many colors and nationalities. It deals with the intersection of knowledge, beliefs, art, law, custom, morals, and other parts of any human society. A culture is a way of life. Anthropology does deal with studying cultures too. For years, many people have research the many celebrations, rituals, and patterns of human culture. In human societies universally, there is language, social practices, ritual, dance, music, art, spirituality, technologies (like cooking, shelter, and clothing), etc. Today, we have a complex array of technology being involved in human culture. There is multiculturalism in the world. Multiculturalism is the concept that values a society of peaceful co-existence and mutual respect among different cultures inhabiting the same planet. With wars and other conflicts going on now, we have a very long way to go in establishing real, total peaceful coexistence among all cultures. Within cultural anthropology, the ideology and analytical stance of cultural relativism holds that cultures cannot easily be objectively ranked or evaluated because any evaluation is necessarily situated within the value system of a given culture. The civil rights movement, the U.S. feminist movement, the environmental movement, the counterculture, and other movements dealt not only with political including social issues. They dealt with culture too. Cultural diffusion is when culture is spread in many places or globally. One example is how English is spread globally and how other cultures adopt ideas and practices form other cultures. Scholars like Matthew Arnold and Edward Tylor contributed their thoughts on their evaluations of culture.

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Sociology is one of the greatest studies involved in our lives. Sociology is the study of the development, structure, and functioning of human society. It relates to studying social problems. It deals with human social relationships and institutions. It’s a diverse field. Sociology is a beautiful subject. It can relate to studying religion, family, the state, divisions in race and class, culture, crime, etc. It studies how human beings exist in a complex world. Sociologists gather evidence in research and other methods to form theories and plans on how things operate. Many sociologists analyze census data, historical documents, surveys, and have laboratory experiments too. One of the greatest sociologists in history was WEB DuBois who studied African American life in America during the 19th and 20th centuries. Sociology always requires people to think critically and ask questions since questions motivate research and the discovery of answers. Some of the greatest research on gender, gender identity, multiculturalism, education, urban ecology, socialization, race, and other important issues have been done by sociologists. There is always discussions about conflict theory. Conflict theory is a theory propounded by Karl Marx that claims society is in a state of perpetual conflict due to competition for limited resources. It holds that social order is maintained by domination and power, rather than consensus and conformity. Karl Marx is a well known sociologist too.

Socialization is how people interact with each other in order for human beings to adjust to norms, customs, values and ideologies, providing an individual with the skills and habits necessary for participating within their own society. Socialization is thus "the means by which social and cultural continuity are attained." In sociology, there are terms called primary and secondary groups. Primary groups include people with very close ties in the community. They exist in small settings and they have similar cultures and activities. Examples of primary groups are family, friends, and close social groups. Primary groups are crucial in the development of one's personal identity. Secondary groups are more indirect, they don't share extensive social links as primary groups include. Secondary groups work with the functioning of society. Secondary groups can be large or small. They include many organizations, working environments, various committees, etc. In order to make the world better, we have to study human behavior. We have to address socialization, class stratification, norms, religion, science, deviance, marriage, world population, and other issues.

Sociology doesn’t just deal with concrete analysis or research. In the final analysis, sociology advocates the improvement of society and the building of better relationships among human beings. Careers with sociology backgrounds are huge. Research institutes, the criminal justice system, public health plus welfare organizations, advertising firms, survey groups, medical centers, etc. hire people with great understanding of sociology constantly. Sociology studies the social order and how people interact with each other. Confucius and Plato deal with research in social roles of society thousands of years ago. Early sociology has been found in medieval Islamic people according to some researchers. Ibn Khaldun is said to be the father of the modern field of sociology. His Muqaddimah was perhaps the first work to advance social-scientific reasoning on social cohesion and social conflict. The word sociology (or "sociologie") is derived from both Latin and Greek origins. The Latin word: socius, "companion"; the suffix -logy, "the study of" from Greek -λογία from λόγος, lógos, "word", "knowledge". It was first coined in 1780 by the French essayist Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès (1748–1836) in an unpublished manuscript. Sociology was later defined independently by the French philosopher of science, Auguste Comte (1798–1857), in 1838. Auguste Comte and Karl Marx researched in sociological terms. In sociology, positivism dealt with people wanting to research human interactions by using the scientific method or by natural scientific means. Anti-positivism dealt with researching sociology in using critical analysis and rejecting empiricism. There are many schools of sociology today.

There are many terms and words that relate to sociology. Here are some of these important sociological terms.

The term of patrilineal deals with lineage from the father via the male line. The term matrilineal deals with lineage from the mother via the female line. Matriachy is a society headed by women, especially mothers. Patriarchy is a society headed up by men, especially by fathers. There are other terms that outline relationships too. Monogamy is when one person is either dating or marrying one person. Polygamy is someone married to more than one person. Polygyny means a man specifically having multiple women as wives. Polyandry is when a woman has more than one husband. Exogamy is marriage outside of one's community. Endogamy is marriage within one's community. Homogamy is when when people of similar cultures marry each other. Heterogamy is when marriages happen where people differ in a certain criterion. Cohabitation is when people live together romantically and sexually, but they aren't married. Matrilocal is when a married couple lives near or in the wife parents' home. Patriolocal is when a married couple lives near or in the husband parents' home. Neolocal is when a married couple lives in their own home. Sociology is a beautiful discipline in the world.

By Timothy

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