Monday, March 28, 2016

News in late March 2016

The construction of the World Trade Center has a long history. The Twin Towers was created as a product of a urban renewal project and it was spearheaded by David Rockefeller. David Rockefeller and other wanted to “revitalize” Lower Manhattan. The project was planned explicitly by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. They hired architect Minoru Yamasaki, who was an American architect, to create plans for building the structure. On September 20, 1962, the Port Authority announced the selection of Minoru Yamasaki as lead architect and Emery Roth & Sonsas associate architects. Yamasaki's original plan called for the towers to be 80 stories tall,  but to meet the Port Authority's requirement for 10,000,000 square feet (930,000 m2) of office space, the buildings would each have to be 110 stories tall.  Yamasaki came up with the idea of building twin towers. There was many extensive negotiations. The New Jersey and New York State government, which supervised the Port Authority, agreed to the construction of the World Trade Center at the Radio Row site. That site was located in the lower west area of Manhattan. To satisfy the New Jersey government, the Port Authority agreed to buy the bankrupt Hudson & Manhattan Railroad (renamed to Port Authority Trans-Hudson), which transported commuters from New Jersey to Lower Manhtattan.  The towers were designed as framed tube structures, giving tenants open floor plans, unobstructed by columns or walls. This design was accomplished by using many closely spaced perimeter columns, providing much of structure's strength, with the gravity load shared with the core columns. The elevator system, which made use of sky lobbies and a system of express and local elevators, allowed substantial floor space to be used for office purposes by making the structural core smaller. The design and construction of the towers involved many other innovative techniques, such as wind tunnel experiments and the slurry wall for digging the foundation. The construction of the North Tower began in 1966. World Trade Center One was completed by December 23, 1970. When completed in 1973, the South Tower, Two World Trade Center (the South Tower) became the second tallest building in the world at 1,362 feet (415 m); the South Tower's rooftop observation deck was 1,362 ft (415 m) high and its indoor observation deck was 1,310 ft (400 m) high. Each tower stood over 1,350 feet (410 m) high, and occupied about 1 acre (4,000 m2) of the total 16 acres (65,000 m2) of the site's land. World Trade Center 2 was completed in July 19, 1971. The complex of WTC 4, 5, and 6 was completed in 1975. WTC 3 was finished in July 1981. World Trade Center Number Seven was completed in 1987. The opening of the original World Trade Center came about in April 4, 1973.

The Seven Years’ War was a war that was prelude to the Revolutionary War. It was one of the first world wars in world history. It was fought between 1755 and 1764 and the main conflict lasted from 1756 to 1763 (which was about seven years). The war was fought in the Americas, West Africa, Europe, India, and in the Philippines. The war dealt with the competition between Great Britain and France (among other European nations) for the imperial control of many nations in the world. During the course of the War, Great Britain allied with Prussia, Portugal, Hanover, Brunswick,-Wolfenbuttel, the Iroquois Confederacy, and other nations. France allied with the Holy Roman Empire, Austria, Saxony, Russia (until 1762), Spain (from 1762), many Native American tribes, and the Mughal Empire (from 1757). In America, France controlled the Mississippi river valley heavily with the construction of their own forts and trading positions. English colonists wanted to travel in the region, especially in the Ohio Valley. By 1753, then 21 year old Major George Washington left Williamsburg, Virginia to the Ohio Valley. Virginia’s governor Robert Dinwiddie has sent Washington to order the French to abandon the string of forts they are building between Lake Erie and the Forks of the Ohio River (the confluence of the Ohio, Monongahela, and Allegheny Rivers). Robert wanted Washington to stop the French from preventing English settlements. Lt. Colonel Washington defeated a French force near the Great Meadows in May 28, 1754. British attempts to halt this fort construction were unsuccessful, and the French proceeded to build the fort they named Fort Duquesne. British colonial militia from Virginia was then sent to drive them out. Led by George Washington, they ambushed a small French force at Jumonville Glen on 28 May 1754 killing ten, including commander Jumonville. Washington worked with his ally or Seneca chief Tanaghrisson to attack the French people captured. The French commandeer was killed and the victims were scalped too. Later, a French force of 700 attack George Washington and his 400 troops at Fort Necessity in retaliation for the massacre of the French at the Great Meadows. Washington surrenders and leaves the Ohio Valley. The Mohawks left the alliance with Britain and proclaimed neutrality.

The first British action was the assault on Acadia on 16 June 1755 in the Battle of Fort BeausĂ©jour,[8] which was immediately followed by their expulsion of the Acadians. The major conflict started in 1756 when both France and Britain declare war officially against each other. King Frederick II of Prussia was a great ally of Britain and he gained many early victories in Germany and then as years came about, he suffered defeats. The French captured Fort Oswego in the Great Lakes in August 14, 1756.  William Pitt was the secretary of State. He promotes sending resources to defeat the French in America and in Europe. He will authorize the raising of 23,000 provincial troops in North America in 1758, and will end squabbling over taxation by guaranteeing the colonial assemblies that Parliament will cover all expenses. The huge defeat of the British in 1758 caused 2,000 casualties for the British. In the same year, the British captured the French port on Nova Scotia called Louisbourg. This caused the British to restrict heavily the French supply lines flowing down the Saint Lawrence River. General James Wolfe in 1759 attacks Quebec and the French retreat to Montreal. Wolfe was killed in battle. The French (with Governor General Vauderueil of New France) surrendered Montreal or the last French stronghold in North America without firing a shot when a British army of 17,500 British regulars, American provincial troops, and Indians converge on the city from three directions. While the Iroquois allied with the British. In Africa, Britain captured Gambia from the French. The Treaty of Paris of 1763 was the beginning of the end of the War. Complex land exchanges were the end result of the War. The Treaty allows Great Britain to get territories east of the Mississippi River, Canada (except Saint Pierre and Miquelon), and the island of Grenada. The Northern Circars go to Great Britain. Louisiana west of the Mississippi River goes to Spain. Great Britain receives Florida from Spain. The war caused a huge financial burden on France and Great Britain. Great Britain became the most powerful European nation in that time and France decreased in power. Prussia also increased its power after the Treaty of Paris. The British forced American colonists to pay the bills for the war via taxes and other policies. This was part of the anger from the colonists (from the Thirteen Colonies) which would expand into the Revolutionary War. So, the Seven Years War was one crucial factor in causing the Revolutionary War.

There is no question about what Donald Trump's nefarious agenda is all about. Donald Trump supports torture and considers using nuclear weapons in the Middle East, which will kill civilians and is a violation of international law. He supports AIPAC, which refutes the lie that he is some how some populist leader. AIPAC is a corporate sponsored establishment organization. AIPAC supports neo-conservativism, slanders the BDS movement as anti-Semitic, and promotes other evils. He has not condemned the Western terrorism committed against the people of Yemen, Somalia, other places in Iraq, and other places of the world. We know that, for centuries, the West has executed real terrorism in the four corners of the Earth. The CIA and the FBI are known for using terrorism. It is the Sykes-Picot Agreement (created by Western Powers) from the early 20th century that contributed the problems that we face in the Middle East. As we realize that America is not God, but Trump wants to "make America great again." The question is that where does he want America revert back into? The people of the View told the truth to Ben Carson. Trump called Carson many disrespectful names. He or Trump has disrespected women, Muslims, immigrants, and other human beings. Trump has called women perverted, evil names without an apology. Anyone that disrespects women is lower than low. Trump's extremists proves that harsh far right rhetoric unfortunately hasn't ended in American society. Yet, Carson wants to support Trump still. Ben Carson is just plain wrong. Trump has incited violence by wanting to encourage his supporters to punch a protester in the face. He refuses to increase the national federal minimum wage by any amount.

So, Trump is a fascist. We know that both major parties (including the Democrats as we know about the DLC and Hillary's ties to corporate power) in their leadership are funded by Wall Street/corporate interests. We have a long history in combating fascism and we will continue to fight fascism in our generation. Donald Trump is part of the capitalist Republican Party, which is party filled with racists, xenophobes, religious theocratic extremists, warmongers, and Wall Street financial oligarchs. The Reagan and Bush administrations alone expanded the deficit, violated civil liberties, and caused other economic problems in America. People know the truth. Trumps's support of mass killings of the families of terrorists, mass deportations (without the due process of law even), banning all Muslims from coming into America (which is against international law and national law as many Muslims who travel into America from other countries are American citizens. Most Muslims in the world aren't rapists, murderers, and thieves. Real Muslims include people like Muhammad Ali, Kareem Abdul Jabbar, and Chuck D from Public Enemy. It is the policies of the West via imperialism that contributed to the migrant crisis in Europe in the first place), policies that strife the First Amendment (by expanding the use of libel laws with exorbitant fines to muzzle the political opposition), etc. shows why I don't support the agenda of Donald Trump at all.

By Timothy

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